City of London Livery Companies Commission. Report; Volume 4. Originally published by Eyre and Spottiswoode, London, 1884.
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HABERDASHERS' COMPANY. APPENDIX.
Equitable Adaptation, or Improvement without Spoliation.
Shall we the Founder's competence disown? For his will shall we substitute our own?
The points mainly at issue with respect to the charitable benefactions of Mr. Adams are, in the first place, What was his original intention? Secondly, How far that intention ought to be departed from or adhered to in the circumstances of the present period? We have to look at once to the equity and to the expediency of the case, that we may ascertain whether these are necessarily conflicting, or are capable of reasonable, comprehensive, and beneficial adjustment. It is now very reasonably and rightly desired and proposed that French, German, and Drawing should be added to the branches of education already existing in the school. The application for this addition has my sincere and cordial concurrence. My persuasion is that it is both desirable and requisite, and that it may be afforded in a manner highly conducive to the prosperity of the school, and without any unfair infringement of the claims of the other parts of the charitable foundation or of the just rights of any class of the community. Long acquaintance with the working of the school, long experience also of it, and much consideration of all the circumstances connected with it, have led me to the no less deliberate than confident conclusion that the only principle on which the school can attain to respectability, prosperity, and efficiency, is that of everything the founder made free of charge being continued free of charge; but that for the additions of writing and arithmetic, French, German, and drawing, there should be such a moderate charge to those who wish for them that the children of the less wealthy of the middle classes should not, as now, be driven from the school by the very large proportion of the boys who come to it from no other motive than its cheapness, without any desire of their parents that they should learn either Greek or Latin, and who, going to servile labour soon after they come to their teens, will make no useful progress in French or German.
We are not to suppose that Mr. Adams had never heard of writing and arithmetic, or that it was a mere casual omission on his part that it was not included in his very considerately worded Will. The so probable as to be an almost certain conclusion is that it was from deliberate forethought that he stopped short of making writing and arithmetic free of charge, being aware that to make this free of charge would be to impair the character of the school as a classical establishment, and frustrate the chief ends of its endowment by filling it with a class of boys to whom the ancient languages would be of little comparative benefit. Reference to the Foundation Deed plainly shows that the intention of Mr. Adams was not to found a pauper infant school, which is in a very considerable degree its present character, but an establishment to prepare scholars for the Universities. If his principal object had been to provide for the education of the labouring classes, he would not have assigned an express preference to the Justices, of Hinstock, one of the oldest and most respectable families in the county; nor would he have augmented the endowment of the English school of this town to the extent of one half of its income. What also is the advantage of this English school with a teacher of such very superior abilities and attainments as its present excellent ill-remunerated master, Mr. Lees, is known to possess, if it is to be nearly emptied, as it now is, by the mass of the boys being drawn from it to the Latin school by the inducement held out to them in the opportunity of being there taught writing and arithmetic free of charge?
I am aware that the argument, that since the fine end of the wedge has been introduced the broad end has a right to follow, and that, a precedent having been once set, and the principle of transferring the funds of the charity to other objects than those contemplated by the founder established, this precedent and principle may be carried out to its utmost length, will be appreciated according to its worth. But while it is open on the one side to consider how much further this principle is to be carried, it is open on the other side to consider whether this principle has been rightly established; whether its practical working has been beneficial or hurtful; and whether, therefore, it would not be wiser and better to restore the original character of the charity, as indicated by the letter and spirit of the foundation deed.
The truth is that the teaching of writing and arithmetic without charge was added for the greater advantage of the boys who came for the sake of the Latin and Greek. The practical result has been that the large proportion of the boys, who come to the school for the sake of having their writing and arithmetic free of cost, has driven away the boys who would have come for the sake of the Latin and Greek.
The first and most necessary step towards raising the school from its present resemblance to a pauper infant school is to have such a charge for writing and arithmetic as will not, from its cheapness in this particular, draw to it a large proportion of those who will care no more for French and German than for Latin and Greek.
By a scale of charges, not at all onerous to parents whose sons would be likely to receive real benefit from learning French and German, there might probably be obtained a sufficient sum to pay 100l. a year to a new master, to teach French, German, and drawing. The school would thus have again a fair chance of flourishing, by attracting to it such scholars as those for whom it was originally intended,—to whom it could impart substantial benefits, and who, it might be hoped, would reflect credit upon it by their attainments in literature and science.
Gentlemen of superior scholastic qualifications would have much greater inducement to accept and retain the masterships if the constitution of the school were now to afford them the same favourable prospect and opening for combining the profit of boarders with their present very moderate salaries, as was afforded them by the scheme settled by the founder.
That youths of superior talent and promise may be better enabled to become competitors for the many valuable appointments now thrown open to the candidates who pass the best public examinations, the augmentation of the exhibitions, founded towards their maintenance at the University, is of material importance; but the amount of such augmentation cannot but be lessened by that impoverishment of the funds of the foundation which would be the inevitable result of the diversion of those funds to the teaching of writing and arithmetic, French, German, and drawing without charge.
The apparent surplus in the funds of the charity is not necessarily a real equitable surplus. Common reason and common justice plainly require such a scheme of distribution as shall make the payments to parties entitled to a definite share in the benefaction of Mr. Adams not inferior in substantial value to what they were at the time of their allotment by the founder. It is but frugal honesty to take advantage of the change in the value of money to give a merely nominal instead of a really virtual equivalent. Were I much more indifferent to my own personal interests than I profess to be, I should not consider myself justified in being either an assisting or a consenting party to such transference of the funds of the charity to new objects as should tend to prejudice the fair claims and just rights of my successors in the living of Newport, and to debar them from obtaining redress of the great injustice which the living has sustained from the unfair arrangements which have been made in schemes obtained without notice to parties interested, or opportunity afforded them of setting forth their several claims. That which Mr. Adams allotted to the Minister, the first-named in the order of his benefactions, was more than a ninth of the income of the charitable foundation; that which is now paid to the minister is about a twentieth,—less than one half of the original proportion.
The principle of keeping free of charge all that the founder made free of charge, but of a moderate payment being required for the additions necessary to afford a complete system of education, has been adopted, and is acted upon in most if not all similar foundations in Shropshire. It would not be a novel experiment, but one that has been tried with success. Consistent with honesty and with policy, equitable, expedient, and benevolent, it is further recommended by the satisfactory character of its results. It is that which is at once the most probably attainable and the most really desirable.
If a guinea a year each were charged for writing and arithmetic, French, German, and drawing, and if each boy under fifteen years of age were every day to read in class to one of the masters selections from English standard writers, the school could hardly fail to become what the benevolent founder intended it to be, a real benefit and blessing to the town and its vicinity, and to still more distant parts.
In the hope that these few pages may in some degree contribute to "a consummation so devoutly to be wished," I venture to submit them to the consideration of the governors, visitors, and masters of the school, and of such other persons as feel interested in the restoration of its respectability, and the increase of its usefulness, by its adaptation to the requirements of the present state of society.
November 8th, 1862.
Being in my seventieth year and in precarious health, I avail myself of the notice issued by you concerning the Newport School Charity to address to you a communication on that head, not being able to attend personally, having not left the house this last five weeks, and not knowing when, if ever, my medical adviser will allow me to do so. My statement will, I hope, be considered entitled to attention, both from my position as the incumbent of the living of Newport and from my having been the second master of Newport School, and from my having had a thorough insight into the working of a public school from having been three years in the head class, and second boy in it under Dr. Butler, one of the most successful and eminent, if not the most illustrious, of ancient or modern instructors.
I have long held and still firmly hold the persuasion that a very important step toward the greater efficiency and usefulness of Newport School and of many similar schools is to further the doing away of the requirement that the second master should have taken an university degree. It is very seldom that a very superior scholar will accept a second mastership, but a second master, if he, as such, has conducted himself well for a few years, will on a vacancy of the headmastership have established a claim to the succession, whether he be or be not a superior classical scholar. This leads to a much less satisfactory election of headmasters.
That which would most conduce to the beneficial and satisfactory working of Newport School would be this, viz., for the headmaster to be of superior attainments and qualifications as a classical instructor; that the second master should be well qualified to be a commercial master, and as teacher of the sciences pertaining to school tuition; and lastly, that the third master should be a good French and drawing master.
Nearly the whole of the classical department should be the province of the headmaster. It is in no degree probable that this town and its vicinity will furnish pupils sufficient to make it desirable that there should be two classical masters; for the greater part of the last hundred years the headmastership, so far as the day scholars or free boys are concerned, has been very nearly a sinecure; and of all the boys now in the head school not more than one boy, I believe, if so much as one, was removed into it because he had reached the standard for such promotion, but because it was desirable that the lower schools should be relieved from their undue proportion of numbers, and that the headmastership should be no longer so much of a sinecure.
The truth is that about nine out of ten of the boys, or perhaps a larger proportion, come to the school not at all for the sake of the classics, but simply and solely for English, writing, and arithmetic. Not one out of 20 goes to the university: nine out of ten leave the school to go to some trade or mechanical employment just before or just after they are 14. The second master should take them just so far in Latin as for it to be a foundation for their better progress in French and other modern languages. Their promotion into the head school is so far from being a benefit that it is an injury. The boys intended for the university or for the learned professions the headmaster should take himself nearly from the first, and then he would be very far indeed from being distressed by excessive numbers, especially as the boys in the head school might be instructed by the second master in writing, arithmetic, and mathematics.
It is scarcely possible for the second master, whatever may be his diligence and whatever his qualifications as to teacher, to gain credit in the classical department, for the cream is continually skimmed off from him and he is expected to do in one year the work for which three years, and often more, is required.
The second master has also to teach so many parts of literature and science that he cannot have time for such parsing as to make the boys perfect in critical niceties and in the application of the more difficult rules of the Latin syntax.
That which would give lively and abundant satisfaction in this town and in its vicinity would be one classical master eminent for his attainments as a scholar; one well qualified commercial master; and a third master to teach French and drawing.
This communication is not at all confidential. My wish is that you should make the contents known to the Haberdashers' Company.
Hoping that I have not trespassed more upon your attention than I may be deemed entitled to do from my long experience of the school and acquaintance with its working,
I am, Sir, Very faithfully yours, W. Sandford, Incumbent of Newport, Salop.
December 5th, 1862.
I thank you for your courteous, though very brief, reply to my written and printed communications.
My letter having been penned on the very day that I saw your notice issued to the Newport churchwardens, I find on maturer consideration that I set forth the state of Newport School much less clearly and fully than I might have done. From the best information afforded me I learn that in the head school there is now only one boy intended for the University. Nearly the sole reason why boys go from Newport School to college is that, besides the smaller exhibitions founded by Mr. Adams, there are four much more valuable exhibitions founded by a Mr. Cardwell. These are 60l. a year for the first four years, and at a smaller rate of payment are tenable for ten years, becoming on an average vacant, that is, one of them at each 2½ years.
The Cardwell and Adams exhibitions taken together will defray the college expenses of a servitor at Christ Church without any cost to the parents: therefore, poor boys when they see a prospect of getting them when about 17 wait for them and take them, first pass their admission examination to the college, and then just pass for some degree and to they are put into one of the priest's offices that they may eat a piece of bread, the working of which is alike bad for themselves, for the church, and the congregations to which they are to minister. It is of extreme importance that the standard of examination for an exhibition, which is now ridiculously and mischievously low, should be made very much higher; for though superior scholarship is no decisive proof of moral and spiritual worth, it is for the most part the fact as evidence of that diligence which generally goes together with good conduct, as idleness generally goes together with bad conduct and habits.
For the last 50 years only one boy from Newport School has done so much as to take a second class.
The suggestion which I venture to make to you on an occasion when the vital interests of the school are at issue is that, if you can make it convenient to come down to us, you should be present at the examination of the whole school by Mr. Sealy on the 16th of this month. This will disclose to you the true state of the school, and by consultation with Mr. Sealy, the present examiner, and with his brother, the late examiner, you will more clearly see your way as to what new arrangements you may deem most desirable.
I have myself little prospect of being present at the examination, as I am suffering with a most debilitating illness, which has confined me to the house for more than two months, and during great part of the time to my bed.
Requesting and hoping that you make indulgent allowance for a communication from me in a state of sickness and great debility,
My dear Sir,
With my sincere respect,
Your obliged Correspondent,
Newport Grammar School (Salop), 10th November 1862.
In reply to your communication, I beg first to remark that you do not seem to have been furnished with the Reports of the Paid Examiner, which give full accounts of "the condition of the school," you only mention being furnished with reports of the visitors. The Paid Examiner has now performed his functions in three half-yearly examinations. There is kept here a visitors' book recording all meetings from 28th November 1827. My own opinion of the school is that it is satisfactory, and that the appointment of an able paid examiner will prove very beneficial. With regard to popular appreciation of the school, I may state that in February 1862 I admitted 21 boys to the school, of whom nine were rejected by the visitors after examination. I will attach a list of the exhibitioners, which will answer all your enquiries on that subject, and I will add a few proposals.
I have the honour to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
C. W. Saxton, D.D.,
To Thos. Hare, Esq., Inspector of Charities.
List of Cardwell Exhibitioners elected from Newport School since 1821. On the average four vacancies occur in 10 years, but this average may be increased by deaths.
The following scholars from Newport School have been elected to open exhibitions in default of candidates from the schools to which the exhibitions are attached since 1821:—
|1823 William Davis Vickers||Age 19 years||Rev. E. Meredith, Head Master.|
|1826 William Cureton||" 18 "|
|1837 William Cobb||" 18 "|
|1856 John Harper||" 18 "||Dr. Saxton, Head Master.|
|1856 Alfred Bright||" 16 "|
|1857 John Ashford Hartshorne||" 17 "|
N.B.—The Rev. E. Meredith had a large school of boarders. Dr. Saxton does not take any.
Item.—A new scheme has lately come into operation by which a boy not Shropshire-born can take a Careswell exhibition in default of a privileged candidate.
Item.—Dr. Saxton has sent up three Newport scholars to Oxford who were not privileged to hold Careswell exhibitions:—
Basil Jones, now at Jesus College.
Herbert Jones, now at St. Mary Hall.
Proposals of Dr. Saxton, Head Master of Newport (Salop) Grammar School.
No. 1. That, as Staffordshire comes close up to the town of Newport, the privileges of a Shropshire-born boy be extended to a radius of five miles from Newport Church.
No. 2. That the entrance money of one half-crown, as originally appointed in Cromwell's time, should be raised to an adequate sum in proportion to the advance of other payments, particularly as the boys pay no head money.
No. 3. That a practice abolished by the Governors in the time of the Rev. E. Meredith be revived, viz., that whenever the parents of a boy choose to pay 10 guineas to the headmaster their son may have the privilege of immediately coming under his care.
No. 4. That if a boy wish to learn Greek the headmaster may at the option of the latter take him up into the upper school.
To Thos. Hare, Esq., Inspector of Charities.
Haberdashers' Estate, Hoxton.
A free public-house, adjoining the high road, and 66 dwelling-houses.
To be let, by tender, by the worshipful Company of Haberdashers, Governors of Aske's Charity Estate, Hoxton, on repairing leases, for 21 years, from Midsummer, 1863:—
The free public-house, known as the "George and Vulture," situate in Haberdashers' Street, which might be enlarged so as to form a corner house to the main street.
Also 12 houses, Nos. 1 to 12, Haberdashers' Place, which may be converted into shops, at the option of the lessee.
Also 19 houses, Nos. 1 to 19, on the south side of Aske's Terrace; and 35 houses, Nos. 1 to 35, on the north and south sides of Haberdashers' Street, in the parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, in the county of Middlesex.
Plans of the property, and specifications of the repairs to be performed, may be seen at the offices of Mr. William Snooke, the surveyor to the governors, No. 6, Duke Street, London Bridge, between the hours of 10 and 4 o'clock.
Tenders, in writing only, are to be sent in to Haberdashers' Hall, Gresham Street West, on or before Thursday, the 27th day of November 1862.
Particulars and Conditions.
First.—The premises to be let are particulary shown by the map; the divisions and boundaries of the several houses are to be the same as at present.
Second.—Tenders, in writing, according to the accompanying form only, are to be made for one or more of the houses, singly or together, at the option of the parties tendering.
Third.—The several houses and premises are to be effectually and completely repaired by and at the cost of the lessee, and agreeably to the specifications, within six months from the commencement of the terms respectively. Upon the completion thereof, the leases will be granted. The works are to be performed under the directions and to the satisfaction of the governors' surveyor, to whom due notice in writing is to be given one week at least before the commencement of the repairs. The amount (if any) which may be received of the present tenants for dilapidations will be paid to the new tenants upon the satisfactory completion of the repairs.
Fourth.—With respect to the houses in Haberdashers' Place, the party tendering is to state whether it is his intention to convert them into shops. If so converted, they must be done to the satisfaction of the governors' surveyor, and according to plans to be previously approved by him.
Fifth.—The parties tendering must give references to two or three respectable persons.
Sixth.—The existing leases will expire at Midsummerday next. The new rent will commence from the time of possession being given.
Seventh.—The new leases will contain the provisions after mentioned.
Eighth.—The governors will not be bound to accept the highest or any tender or tenders.
Ninth.—The fixtures and plant at the "George and Vulture" tavern must be taken at a valuation in the usual way, if required by the outgoing tenant.
Provisions of Leases to be granted.
Affidavit to verify marriage extract.
Terms, 21 years, to commence at Midsummer, 1863.
Yearly rent, £, payable on the usual quarterly days, clear of the sewers', main drainage, and all other rates, taxes, and charges whatsoever (property tax excepted). The land tax is redeemed. The premiums on fire insurance, which will be paid by the landlords, to be repaid by the tenant and secured as rent.
The tenant is to keep the premises in substantial repair; and to rebuild, if necessary, the party and other walls, arches, and drains.
To paint in every three years the external wood, iron, and other work, and colour the cemented parts; and paint, paper, and colour the internal work usually done, in every seven years of the term.
To give up the premises so repaired, painted, &c., at the expiration of the term, with all additions and improvements and landlords' fixtures.
Power to the landlords to enter and see the condition of the premises. The tenant to make good all dilapidations within three months after notice.
Affidavit to verify baptismal extract.
The tenant is not to cut or injure the walls, or main timbers, or make openings, or alter the construction or elevation of the premises, without the landlords' previous consent. He is to keep open the doors and windows, and if the same or the light be obstructed by other persons, he is to give notice to the landlords.
No shop or manufactory to be opened (except in Haberdashers' Place West), but the premises to be occupied as private dwelling-houses only. No nuisance or offensive occupation to be carried on, nor to be used as brothels. No materials to be kept, nor any act done, which may vitiate or increase the rate of insurance.
The lease not to be assigned, or the premises underlet, without the previous licence of the landlords; and all assignments and underleases are to be prepared by the clerk of the Company.
In case of non-payment of the rent, or non-performance of the covenants, the lease will be forfeited.
The landlords will restore the premises in case of injury by fire, unless by the act or default of the tenant the policy of insurance shall have been forfeited.
N.B.—Permission will be given for opening shops in Haberdashers' Place West, the plans to be previously approved by and the work to be done to the satisfaction of the Company's surveyor.
Public-houses, or ale or beer shops, will not be allowed to be opened without previous express licence by the Company.
Form of Tender to be filled up and signed.
Insert name, place of abode, age, and description.; State the relationship.
I agree to take upon lease or leases from the Haberdashers' Company the houses Nos. in Hoxton, for the term of 21 years, from Midsummer, 1863, at the net yearly rent of £ and to execute a counterpart thereof; such leases to contain covenants and provisions to the effect above mentioned, and to be prepared by the Company's solicitor at my cost. And I further agree to comply with all the particulars and conditions also herein-before mentioned.
State the grounds of application.
In the Matter of Mr. Banks's Legacy to his Relations.
The person applying must procure documents to prove their parents' marriage, and also their own baptism; a person of known respectability must make affidavit that they are true extracts, and that he saw them signed by those whose signatures they bear.
Affidavit must also be made of the identity of the person applying, as being the person described in the baptismal extract, and that the signature to the memorial is the proper handwriting of the applicant.
The affidavits are to be sworn before a master extraordinary in Chancery or other competent person. maketh oath and saith that he this deponent hath carefully compared and examined the paper writing hereto annexed, marked (No. 1), with the original entry thereof in the book of the register of marriages kept at in and for the parish of and that the same is a true and correct extract therefrom, in the words and figures as the same doth appear in the said register book, and that he this deponent was present, and did see the Reverend , minister of the said parish, compare such extract with the original entry of the said registry, and did afterwards see him sign the same with his own proper hand; and that the name thereunto set and subscribed is of the proper handwriting of the said. Sworn at maketh oath and saith that he this deponent hath carefully compared and examined the paper writing hereunto annexed, marked (No. 2), with the original entry thereof in the book of the registor of baptisms kept at in and for the parish of and that the same is a true and correct extract therefrom in the words and figures as the same doth appear in the said registry book; and that he this deponent was present, and did see the Reverend, minister of the said parish, compare such extract with the original entry of the said registry, and did afterwards see him sign the same with his own proper hand, and that the name thereunto set and subscribed is of the proper handwriting of the said And this deponent further saith that, the person whose name is set and subscribed to the following memorial, addressed "To the trustees under the will of Mr. John Banks, deceased," is the person mentioned and described in the foregoing baptismal extract, and that the name set and subscribed to such memorial is of the proper handwriting of him the said Sworn at
Form of Application.
To the Trustees under the Will of Mr. John Banks, deceased.
The memorial of
That your memorialist is the
That the testator, by his will, dated 21st March 1716, directed that after payment of certain incumbrances with which his estate stood charged the annual sum of 200l. should be appropriated by his trustees for the putting out apprentice, helping to set up in business, or towards the marriage of such and so many of the issue and descendants of his brothers and sisters, and in such proportions, as his trustees should think fit.
That by an Order of the Court of Chancery, dated the 22nd May 1792, it appeared that the incumbrances had been discharged, and it was therefore ordered that the 200l. should be applied as directed.
That your memorialist
He therefore humbly requests to be apportioned such part of the 200l. to be distributed for the present year (towards ) as your Worships shall think fit.
N.B.—Must be signed by the applicant himself, and such signature witnessed by some respectable resident having knowledge of him and the facts above stated.
Instructions to Applicants under Mr. Banks' Will for aid in Setting up in Business.
State clearly and definitely—
1st. The nature of the business which you propose to commence.
2nd. Whether by yourself, or in partnership.
3rd. If in partnership, give the name and address of the proposed partner, how long he has carried on the business in which you propose to join him, and where.
4th. If by yourself, have you taken, or conditionally engaged, any premises for the purposes of your intended business, and where, or why not. If you have engaged them, what is your arrangement with the landlord of them as regards your holding or occupation of them, and the rent to be paid.
5th. Send a letter from him, stating his willingness to let the premises upon those terms.
6th. Also state what you are to pay for fixtures and fittings on the premises.
7th. What will be the cost of the stock upon which you propose to commence business, and what means have you of paying for such fixtures, fittings, and stock.
8th. Let your father (if living) or your mother, or guardian, sign the following certificate:—
"I, hereby certify that the above statement of the arrangements made by my son or daughter, with a view to his, or her, setting up in business, is in all respects correct and true, and that I have made every prudent inquiry into the safety and eligibility of such proposed arrangements, and do fully approve thereof, and consider that it will be desirable and beneficial to him, or her, to be enabled to set up in business in manner and upon the arrangements above stated; and in case the trustees shall allot any portion of their Trust Fund to my said son, or daughter, for such purpose, I undertake to see it duly and faithfully applied to that object, and that it shall not be used or spent in any other way."
Write your answers on this page, placing each answer as nearly opposite to the question as possible, and sign your name at the end.
Instructions to Applicants under Mr. Banks' Will for aid in Apprenticeship.
Applicants for assistance from the late Mr. Banks' trust fund, on their being put out apprentice, must state accurately the following particulars, and procure declarations by the father, or, if he be deceased, by the mother, or guardian of the applicant and by the intended master or mistress, to the effect stated below; also a certificate from the minister of the parish, or a magistrate of the place in which the proposed master or mistress resides, in the form and to the effect set forth below.
The christian and surname, and age of the applicant.
The christian and surname, residence and business, of the proposed master or mistress.
How long such master or mistress has carried on such business at that place.
The sum to be paid as the consideration for such apprenticeship.
The term of years for which the applicant is to be bound.
Whether the master and mistress is to provide the applicant with board and lodging or not.
I, the father, mother, or guardian (as the case may be) of the above-named applicant, do hereby declare my full and free consent to being bound to the above named for the term and upon the conditions above stated.
* The master or mistress.
I, the above named*, declare that I am ready and willing to take the above named as my apprentice, for the term and upon the conditions above mentioned.
The master's name.; *The sum to be paid.; †The master.; ‡The father, mother. or guardian as the case may be
I, officiating minister of the parish, or acting magistrate for the town, county, or division of ( (fn. 1) ) in the county of hereby certify to the trustees of the will of the late Mr. John Banks, that ( (fn. 2) ) now carrying on the business of a at No. in Street, in the town of ( (fn. 3) ), has been known to me for a period of years, during the whole of which time has carried on said business at that place, and that appears to me to be still carrying on the same in a respectable and creditable manner, and I consider a fit and proper person to be entrusted as the master or mistress of an apprentice, paying a premium of £*, and I further certify that the said† and‡ have both appeared before me this day, and signed their respective declarations on the preceding page in my presence.
The minister or magistrate to sign his name and subscribe his address and proper ministerial or official addition.
The Grammar School, Monmouth, January 19th, 1863.
I only returned from town at the end of last week and now take the earliest opportunity of answering your letter.
The number of boys in the classical school is 19, the average age is 13, and the number in the commercial school is 81, and their average age 11.
The course of instruction in each department of the school is precisely the same as that laid down by the scheme of 1854.
With respect to the present condition of the school, I have great pleasure in being able to state that it seems to be considered satisfactory to all persons connected with the establishment, the examiner's last report (of which I enclose a copy) speaks in the highest terms of the discipline of the school and the sound education imparted to the scholars. The three other masters of the school are good and useful co-operators with me, and thus we have been enabled to send in pupils who have with success competed against others from schools at Cheltenham, Gloucester, and the neighbourhood.
I might state many means by which in my opinion the school might be made more useful, for at present, owing to the school being perfectly free, even with respect to books and stationery, we receive many whose parents object to paying the few pence for the National School, our standard of respectability is thus reduced, and boys, to whom the education we give would be more useful, are to a certain extent kept away; the existing restriction against boarders also has the same effect, for many parents living at a distance from the town are prevented sending their boys to the school, owing to the present necessity of boys lodging at houses where there is no direct supervision by the masters of the school; but, whatever I may here have said, I hope you will fully understand that I do not wish to urge anything in opposition to the Haberdashers' Company, who will, I have no doubt, use their best endeavours to increase the usefulness of the school.
I am, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
C. M. Roberts.
T. Hare, Esq.
Jones' Free Grammar School.
December 15th, 1862.
Having completed the Christmas examination of the Monmouth Grammar School, I proceed to record the conclusions at which I have arrived. They are the result of an inquiry which occupied two days, and which I spared no pains to make as searching as possible. I have also had the benefit of comparing my impressions with the experience of the late examiner, whose reports I have read with much interest. The highest class during the past six months has consisted of the same two boys, Pinn and Lewis; you will be glad to learn that they continue to merit the characters given to them on former occasions. They are pupils who would do credit to any public school in the Kingdom. They also continue to hold the relative positions assigned to them at the last examination. Pinn still retains the first place, rather by the advantage of seniority than by force of superior industry or greater natural ability. In mathematics Lewis has made much less progress than his class-mate, and accordingly I have no difficulty in adjudging the prize for this branch of study to Pinn. In other subjects the difference between the two boys is not considerable. It is therefore much less easy to award the other prize, which is given for classics, history, geography, and divinity taken together; for the most part Lewis' answers show a better command of style, while those of Pinn indicate the riper and fuller knowledge of an older boy. To this remark I must make one exception, Lewis' performance in history and geography was the better in matter as well as in language, and was in all respects excellent. But his gain in this one paper, though appreciable, did not compensate for his inferior success in the classical and divinity papers. These turned the scale in favour of Pinn, who therefore takes the prize. In the English part of their examination both these boys surpassed my expectations. In mathematics also they acquitted themselves respectably, each according to his attainments. The translations from Sophocles and Tacitus which I required of them were executed with an accuracy and vigour deserving of much commendation. It is in their composition, both Greek and Latin, that I discover most room for improvement. In the second Latin class the prize is well earned by Nelmes, who I am informed has won it twice before; by persevering industry this painstaking lad keeps his ground against the second boy, Ducker, whose evident ability is not so well seconded by application. In addition to the subjects for which the prize is given, viz., Greek, Latin, history, geography, and divinity, this form passed a very creditable examination in elementary algebra and geometry. The third Latin class translated fairly an easy passage of Cornelius Nepos and a fable of Phædrus, rendered simple English sentences into very tolerable Latin, and answered well questions in Latin accidence, Roman history, geography, and divinity. Here the prize is taken by James, Hiscocks being a good second. In the fourth class, which has not advanced beyond the first rudiments of Latin, Roberts may be mentioned with commendation.
Leaving the upper section of the school, I pass on to speak of those classes in which no other language than English is taught; no part of my task afforded me greater pleasure than my examination of the senior boys in this department. If a commercial education is not to range beyond the mother-tongue, then I will venture to say in few institutions of this kind can such a training be obtained in greater perfection than at Monmouth. The first English class especially profit by a mental discipline which is far more thorough and complete than might be inferred from its limited programme. The principles of grammar as imparted here by a highly competent teacher, when combined with the principle of arithmetical science, also well taught, afford full scope for the exercise of the intellectual faculties. The effects of this instruction are apparent in the general intelligence displayed by the pupils. Nor would I restrict this observation to the two or three boys at the top of the form, it applies throughout. The prize in the 1st English class is obtained by J. E. Wilson, but Hitchings and several other boys have also done remarkably well. That belonging to the 2nd class I award with some hesitation to Embry. His answers, correct in substance, are disfigured by so many faults of spelling, probably the result of carelessness, that I had nearly preferred to him Lock, who stands second, and who, if he does not show quite so much knowledge, has been guilty of fewer oversights. In the 3rd class the prizeman is McDougall. The English classes below the third consist of boys whose instruction is purely elementary. The 4th class alone could usefully be set to answer questions in writing. The result was such as to reflect great credit on their master. The two remaining divisions I examined orally, and had every reason to be satisfied with their condition. The prize in the 4th class is gained by Godwin, nearly equal to whom are Herbert and Pritchard. In the 5th there is a still closer approximation between Cullis and Woollett, and it was with great difficulty that I at length decided in favour of Cullis. In the 6th the best boys seemed to be Scoging, Dance, and Frost. To all classes which were examined in writing the same set of divinity questions was proposed. In most this paper was very well done, and I may notice that no boy in any class who failed in it has succeeded in gaining a prize. Another subject in which the whole school, with the exception of the head form, were examined is arithmetic, for proficiency in which two prizes have to be awarded. The higher of these I adjudge to Webb of the 2nd Latin class, who has left all competitors a good way behind. The lower I adjudge to G. Wickham of the 3rd English class, to whom H. Scudamore of the class below is second, at no very great interval. The writing prize must be assigned to Hiscocks of the 3rd Latin class, not without honourable mention of Webb, who adds the praise of a good penman to the distinction of the 1st arithmetic prize. On turning over the copy books of the half-year, I was pleased to find in most of them evidence of progressive improvement, while the best performances both in writing and arithmetic are extremely good, the average ones reach a standard of merit which is creditable not only to the scholars, but to their instructor. The neat labours of the 1st English class in book-keeping also bear witness to sensible and careful superintendence. Understanding that I have at my disposal an additional prize, with which to distinguish any merit that would otherwise go unrewarded, I adjudge it to Lewis for his very admirable answers in history and geography. In conclusion, Gentlemen, I beg leave to congratulate you on the flourishing state of the well organised and well administered institution of which you are invested with the government, and on the benefits which the Monmouth Grammar School is made the means of conveying to the district in the centre of which it is situated.
I have the honour to be, Gentlemen, Your most obedient servant (Signed) Leonard Benton Seeley, M.A., late Fellow and Assistant Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge.
To the Master and Wardens of the Worshipful Company of Haberdashers, Governors of Jones' Free Grammar School at Monmouth.
I certify that the above is a true copy of the report of the Monmouth Grammar School, made by L. B. Seeley, Esq., after his examination of the school held at the close of the half-year ending December 15th, 1862.
C. M. Roberts, M.A., Head Master.
The bearer (born 18 ) has been this day elected to Mr. Trotman's school by the Haberdashers' Company; you will accordingly receive him.
I am, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
Statutes for the Regulation of the Almshouse and Free Grammar School of William Jones, in Monmouth, in the County of Monmouth, made by the Worshipful Company of Haberdashers of the City of London, the Governors; and approved by the Order of the Court of Chancery, July 26th, 1854.
William Henry Wood, Esq., Master.
|Jeremiah Pilcher, Esq.||Wardens.|
|Edward C. Bracebridge, Esq.|
|George Keen, Esq.|
|John Phillips, Esq.|
|John Curtis, Clerk.|
In the 20 almhouses of this establishment there shall be placed from time to time 20 poor old decayed men and women, sole and unmarried, of honest life and conversation, of the town and borough of Monmouth, if so many there be found, or else of the county of Monmouth, each of whom shall have a house and garden for dwelling, and the weekly sum of 8s. for maintenance; also, every alternate year, at Christmas, a cloth cloak each, value 30s., upon which the escutcheons are to be worn as heretofore accustomed.
The almspeople shall attend Divine Service together at the parish church on the occasions when the same is performed there by the lecturer in pursuance of the 7th clause herein-after contained, and also the lecturer's service in the schoolroom, under that clause, unless prevented by infirmity, ill-health, or other good cause, to be approved by the lecturer.
In case of the death or removal of any of the almspeople, notice thereof shall immediately be given by the lecturer to the magistrates of the town of Monmouth, who shall thereupon forthwith nominate and return to the governors the names of three persons of the description above-mentioned, and who have not received parochial relief within the two preceding years; out of whom the governors shall, as soon as may be after receiving such return, appoint another person or persons in the place or places so becoming void. The lecturer shall also take charge of the cloak and escutcheon of each deceased or removed almsperson, and deliver them to his or her successor.
If any almsperson shall be given to drunkenness, or be a frequenter of alehouses, or shall take any inmate or lodger into his or her house without permission of the lecturer, in writing, to be reported by him to the visitors and governors, or shall live contentiously with the rest of the almspeople, or others, or shall fail to attend Divine Service as herein-before directed, or shall lodge out of his or her almshouse, the lecturer shall have power, of his own authority, to retain from such offending almsperson, as forfeited for the first offence, one week's pension; and for the second offence two weeks' pension, to be applied by him for the benefit of the rest of the almspeople in such comforts or necessaries of clothing or nourishment, but not in money, as he may think necessary; but every such offence and forfeiture shall be immediately entered under its proper date in the said report book; and for a third offence the almsperson so offending shall be liable to expulsion from his or her almshouse; and it shall be the duty of the lecturer to temporarily suspend such offender, and immediately report the fact and offence to the visitors as well as to the governors, and also to enter it in his report book; but the order for final expulsion shall vest with the governors only, whose decision shall be final.
Any almsperson who shall be found or justifiably suspected to live incontinently or disreputably, or shall marry, or shall become possessed of any property, sufficient in the governors' judgment for his or her maintenance, shall, under the order of the governors, be subject to the immediate loss of his or her pension or allowance, and to absolute displacement from the almshouse; and it shall be the duty of the lecturer, as soon as any such circumstance shall come to his knowledge or suspicion, forthwith to report the same to the visitors, and the visitors shall with all reasonable speed investigate the case and report their opinion thereupon to the governors; and in cases requiring immediate interference, the visitors or any three of them, after such investigation, are empowered forthwith to suspend such almsperson from the almshouse, and stop the payment of his or her pension or allowance, until the decision of the governors on the case, which shall be final, shall be known.
Every person to be appointed to the office of Lecturer shall be of approved good character, piety, and ability, and shall have taken the degree of Bachelor or Doctor of Divinity or Laws, or Bachelor or Master of Arts, in one of the Universities of Oxford or Cambridge, and shall be in Priest's Orders.
It shall be the duty of the Lecturer to read the Church Service and preach a sermon twice on every Sunday, Good Friday, and Christmas Day, and once on every Ash Wednesday and Ascension Day, to the almspeople in the church if permission for that purpose can be obtained, but if not, then in the schoolroom; and also administer the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper to them four times at least in the year, and at such other times as shall be reasonably required, and also upon all fitting occasions to afford them religious consolation and advice. To visit the almspeople weekly, and keep a report book, and therein regularly enter the date of his visits and his remarks upon their health, wants, conduct, and cleanliness, and all applications (whether granted or not) which may be made by the almspeople for relaxation of these Statutes or for permission to do anything for which such permission is hereby required; to lay such book before the Visitors at their quarterly and other meetings, which shall be regularly forwarded by them to the Governors after the quarterly meetings, with any remarks which they may deem it requisite to make thereon; and to personally attend the Visitors' meetings for the purpose of giving all requisite explanations.
It shall also be the duty of the Lecturer to examine the scholars in the school half-yearly at Lady Day and Michaelmas, and to exercise a general superintendence over the school, and to report thereon to the Visitors and Governors; and also to report to the Governors all irregularities in the conduct of any person belonging to the establishment at Monmouth.
The Lecturer shall have, in addition to his stipend, the occupation, rent free, of the Lecturer's house and garden, and he shall, at his own charges, repair, maintain, and keep the same in tenantable repair, in the following particulars; videlicet:—in glazing, tiling, and slating the same and the copings and upper courses of the wall; keep the premises wind and water tight, and do such repairs as a tenant from year to year who had agreed to keep premises in tenantable repair would be bound to do.
The Lecturer shall give such security as the Governors may require for doing such repairs, and also for giving up the house and premises to the Governors upon his ceasing to be Lecturer.
The Lecturer shall not absent himself from his duties, nor take any other charge, employment, or living which the Governors may consider likely to interfere with his duties. In case of the Lecturer not duly performing his duties, or of immoral conduct, of which the Governors shall be sole judges, the Governors may remove him; and thereupon, and also in case of his death or resignation, appoint another Lecturer in his place.
The school shall be free for one hundred boys, to be elected by the Visitors at their quarterly meetings, from applicants born of whose parents or guardians are resident in the town or borough of Monmouth, or in the county of Monmouth, or in one of the counties of Hereford and Gloucester; preference being given, between candidates in other respects equally eligible, to those born or whose parents or guardians shall reside in the said town or borough.
No boy shall be admitted into the school who has not had the small pox or been vaccinated, or who is not perfectly free from any contagious or infectious disorder, or who is unable to read and write, or who is under eight or above fourteen years of age; and no boy shall continue in the school after attaining the age of 18 years.
Applicants for admission shall obtain from the Head Master printed instructions for the purpose at least 10 days before the then next quarterly meeting of the Visitors. It shall be the Head Master's duty to point out and require the production of what he shall consider sufficient evidence of the date and place of the boy's birth, of his parents' or guardians' residence, and other information required, and also to make inquiries into the character of the parents or guardians and boys applying, and to report the result to the Visitors at their quarterly meetings; to prepare a list of the candidates, classed according to the above rule of preference, and specifying the date and place of the boy's birth and parents' or guardians' residence, and to certify at the foot of such list whether or not the candidates are, in his opinion, in all respects qualified for admission; and, in cases of doubt, to state the particulars to the Visitors, and to transmit a duplicate of such list and certificate to the Governors immediately after every election.
At the time of admission, one of the parents or the guardian of. the boy admitted shall sign, in a book to be kept for that purpose, an undertaking that the child shall conform himself. to all the school regulations; and a printed copy of the rules applicable to the boys and to the parents shall be given to each party at the time of the boy's admission.
The school hours shall be as follows, viz.:—from the 25th of March to the 25th of September, both days inclusive, from half-past seven o'clock in the morning to nine, from ten to twelve at noon, and from two to five in the afternoon; and, between the 25th of September and the 25th of March, from nine to twelve at noon, and from two until half-past four in the afternoon.
The boys shall come to the school cleanly washed and combed, and decently and properly clothed.
The boys shall have the free use and enjoyment of the school playground in the interval of school hours, and the same shall be open from eight o'clock in the morning till eight o'clock in the evening in the summer, and from eight in the morning till four in the afternoon in the winter.
A correct list or muster roll of the boys shall be kept and regularly called over at the commencement of every school sitting by one of the masters; the names of the boys then absent shall be distinctly shown or recorded thereon in such manner as the head master may direct, and the roll be regularly laid before him before the business of the school commences. It shall also be at all times open to the inspection of the Lecturer; and regularly laid before the Visitors, at their meetings, by the master.
Each morning, at the opening of the schools, prayers selected from the Liturgy of the Church of England, the collect for the day, and a chapter (or a portion of one) of the Bible, shall be read by one of the masters; and, before closing the schools in the afternoon, a chapter out of the Bible shall be read by one of the scholars, and a short prayer from the Liturgy by one of the masters.
The scholars shall be instructed in the Liturgy and the religious principles of the Church of England; and they shall attend church, accompanied by one of the masters, twice every Sabbath Day, and on Christmas Day, Good Friday, Ash Wednesday, Ascension Day, and all general fast or thanksgiving days appointed by proclamation, the master always sitting with them; but no scholar shall be compelled to receive such religious instruction, or to attend church, if his parents or guardians shall object thereto in writing.
Monday and Tuesday in Easter Week, and Whit Monday, are to be holidays, and the afternoons of Wednesday and Saturday in every week half holidays; but no other holiday or half holiday shall be allowed. The vacations are to commence three days before and terminate four weeks after Christmas and Midsummer Days respectively, unless such four weeks shall end on a Saturday or Sunday, and then on the Monday following.
If any scholar shall be, in the judgment of the head master, insubordinate, or grossly misconduct himself, or shall absent himself from school without leave or cause satisfactory to the master, or shall remove to any other school, or shall in the opinion of the head master be found, after diligent pains and sufficient trial, not to profit in learning, or shall prove so corrupt in principles or manner that his example is or may become pernicious, the head master shall have power to suspend such boy until the next meeting of the Visitors, who shall then have power to expel him, and whose judgment as to his having incurred the penalty of expulsion shall be final.
Public examinations of the scholars shall be held halfyearly at or about Midsummer and Christmas, before the Visitors, by an examiner (who shall be a Master of Arts of one of the Universities of Oxford or Cambridge) appointed for the purpose, and who shall report to the Governors and to the Visitors as to such examinations and as to the state of the school generally. At each of these examinations honorary rewards may be conferred by the Visitors on such boys as they may think most deserving thereof. The scholars are also to be examined half-yearly, at or about Lady Day and Michaelmas, by the Lecturer, who shall make to the Governors and the Visitors reports of such examinations.
Such boys as are approved by the head master shall have the free use of the library, which shall be opened at such hours daily as he shall appoint. He is to take care that all the library books are kept clean and carefully preserved, and that no book be lent out or removed from the library on any pretence whatsoever: he shall also once a quarter examine the catalogue of the books, and report to the Visitors any books that may be missing from the library. Donations of books to the school library may be received, subject to the approbation of the Visitors.
A register shall be kept by the head master of the names and ages of the boys, the date of their admission and discharge or departure from the school, and the cause of such discharge or departure, with the name, residence, profession, or trade, of the parents or guardians, with a column for remarks by the Visitors or masters; and a copy of each quarter's entries (to be made by the writing master, under the head master's direction) shall be regularly sent by the head master to the Governors.
The school shall be divided into the upper or classical school, and the lower or commercial school.
In the classical school the subjects to be taught, in addition to the religious instruction to be given under the 21st clause, shall comprise the Greek and Latin classics and composition, history, English composition, natural philosophy, geography, common and physical, writing, arithmetic, book-keeping and drawing, and such other subjects, including the French and German languages, as may be thought advantageous by the head master, the Visitors, and the Governors. The instruction in this school shall be given by the head master, assisted by the third master.
In the lower or commercial school, in addition to the religious instruction to be given under the 21st clause, instruction shall be given in English grammar and composition, history, geography, common and physical, the elements of physical science, mathematics, arithmetic, book-keeping, writing, drawing, and the rudiments of Latin to those scholars whose parents may require it, with such other subjects as may be approved by the head master, the Visitors, and the Governors, subject to the general superintendence of the head master. The instruction in this school will be given by the second and third masters. Writing, arithmetic, and book-keeping are to be taught by the writing master to the whole of the scholars in both schools.
The present and future scholars shall be admitted into either school as their parents may desire.
The exhibitions shall be open only to scholars at the time of election actually in the school, and who shall have been admitted according to the preceding regulations, and shall have been bonâ fide in the school for at least three consecutive years immediately preceding the election (occasions of temporary absence, which the Visitors shall have allowed, excepted).
Upon a vacancy occurring and being duly notified to the Visitors by the head master, they shall with all reasonable speed make such arrangements as they may consider advisable for making it known in the school, and for fixing and conducting the examination. The election shall take place at one of the regular halfyearly meetings in the month of June or December, after the public examination. The Visitors shall choose such candidate or (if there shall be more than one vacancy, such) candidates as they, with the assistance of the examiner, may deem most deserving, and forthwith report the name, age, and period of education in the school of such candidate or candidates to the Governors, for their confirmation, and at the same time transmit them an accurate list of the candidates admitted to the examination, with the like particulars as to their respective ages and periods of education in the school. The elections are in all cases to be subject to confirmation by the Governors.
The payment of the exhibitions will commence from the date of the scholar's actual residence at college. The period of holding them is in no case to exceed four years from the time of the scholar entering college. They will cease upon his taking his degree of Bachelor of Arts, and may at any time be suspended or entirely withdrawn, in case of the misbehaviour of the holder at college, or for any other cause which the Governors in their absolute discretion shall deem sufficient.
The examiner shall be a Master of Arts of one of the Universities of Oxford or Cambridge, appointed for that purpose from time to time by the Governors. It shall be the duty of the examiner to examine the scholars half-yearly at Midsummer and Christmas, and to make a detailed written report thereof, and of their proficiency, to the Visitors and the Governors.
There shall be a head master, second and third masters, and a writing master, all of whom shall be elected to their offices by the Governors whenever vacancies occur.
All the masters shall be elected on probation only, and shall remain upon trial in the school for six calendar months, at the expiration of which period the Visitors or the major part of them, for the time being, shall report to the Governors their opinion of the character and abilities of the master so elected, and the Governors shall thereupon either confirm or annul such election at their discretion.
None of the masters shall on any pretence be allowed to take boarders or pay boys, or any fee or gratuity, either annually or otherwise, from the parents or the scholars.
The head and second masters shall, in addition to their stipends, be entitled to the occupation, rent free, of the dwelling-houses and buildings now appropriated to the present head and second masters respectively; and shall, at their own charges, repair the dwellinghouses and buildings appropriated to them respectively, as specified in the section relating to the Lecturer, and shall give such security as the Governors may require for so doing and for delivering up the premises on ceasing to hold office.
The head and second masters shall at all times be resident, and they, as well as all other masters, shall be constantly attendant upon their duties; and if either of them shall be absent, except during the holidays, or unless the cause of absence shall be sanctioned by the Visitors or Governors of the school, then the Governors may, at their pleasure, remove and displace him, and appoint another master in his place; and on no occasion shall two masters be absent at the same time; and if either of the masters shall in the opinion of the Governors be incompetent, insufficient, or otherwise unfit for his duties, or of immoral life or conversation, or negligent in the exercises of religion, or shall, without the Governors' permission, take any other charge or be preferred to any other employment or living, or shall break or infringe any of these statutes—of all which matters the Governors shall be the sole judges—then the Governors may remove and displace the master so offending, and appoint another in his stead.
The Governors shall appoint 12 gentlemen, residing within 25 miles of the school-house, to be Visitors of the school, and shall appoint one of such Visitors to be chairman, and shall, from time to time, fill up any vacancies in the number which shall arise from death or resignation, or from ceasing to reside within the specified distance. It shall be the duty of the Visitors to visit the school four times a year for general business; but the chairman or any three Visitors may call a special meeting when occasion may require.
The Visitors shall report to the Governors quarterly, or oftener if they shall think proper, the state of the school, the proficiency of the scholars, and the efficient discharge of their duties by the masters and Lecturer. The Visitors shall be at liberty, if any doubt arise on these Regulations, to explain the same.
The absence of any Visitor from the meetings for 12 months shall be considered a resignation of his appointment, and the Governors may proceed to appoint another. Nevertheless the same gentleman may be reappointed' on the recommendation of the Visitors, who shall notify each case of vacancy to the Governors.
To the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Haberdashers.
I have the honour most respectfully of informing you that this school was closed on the 22nd December 1862, and was re-opened January 5th, 1863, and that I have admitted one boy in obedience to your order.
The present number of scholars is 49.
I am, Gentlemen,
Your obedient Servant,