The Environs of London: Volume 2, County of Middlesex. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1795.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
This parish is not to be found in Doomsday book (fn. 1); it is mentioned in various records of the reign of Henry III. by the name of Chesewicke.
The village of Chiswick is situated by the river-side, at the distance of about five miles from Hyde-park-corner; the parish lies within the hundred of Ossulston, and is bounded on the east by Hammersmith, on the north by Acton, on the west by Ealing, and on the South by the Thames. It contains about twelve hundred acres, of which about three hundred are corn-land; about two hundred and eighty occupied by market-gardeners; and about two hundred under-grass, exclusive of parks and paddocks; which, with private gardens, pleasure grounds, wastes, &c. make up the remaining number of acres. The soil varies from a light sand and gravel to a very rich loam; but even in the best land gravel is to be found near the surface. Chiswick pays the sum of 6661. 19s. to the land-tax, which in the year 1793 was at the rate of 1s. 6d. upon land, and 1s. 1d. upon houses.
An urn filled with Roman silver coins was dug up at Turnhamgreen in the year 1731 (fn. 2). Stukeley says, that the Roman road from Regnum, or Ringwood, went from Staines, through Brentford, (which was a manse between it and London,) to Turnham-green; thence over Stanford-bridge (fn. 3) and into the Acton road, crossing the Watlingstreet at Tyburn.
After the battle of Brentford, the Earl of Essex assembled his forces at Turnham-green, where he was joined by the city trained-bands (fn. 4). Sir William Waller mustered his forces there Sept. 10, 1643, when he was ordered to go to the relief of the Lord General's army after the action at Newbury (fn. 5).
There are two manors in the parish of Chiswick, both belonging to the church of St. Paul's; one of which is called the Dean's, (being his peculiar,) or the manor of Sutton; the other the Prebendal manor.
It does not appear when or by whom the manor of Sutton was given to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's. Though it is not mentioned among the manors belonging to the canons of that church in Doomsday-book (fn. 6), yet it is upon record that they were in possession of it in the reign of William the Conqueror. Among the archives in the chapter-house at St. Paul's, is a very curious and minute survey of all the manors belonging to the church, made, as it appears, in or about the time of Alardus de Burnham, who succeeded Ralph de Diceto in the deanery very early in the thirteenth century (fn. 7). As this is one of the most ancient surveys extant, and very explicit and satisfactory in describing the services of the tenants, I shall translate at large the account of the demesne-lands, and some of the principal estates held under the lord by various rents and services.
"The jury return, that this manor is taxed or rated to the king at three hides, besides the farm (fn. 8) of Chesewich, which by itself is two hides, rated with the hides of Sutton. The manor is free and quit from all suit either of county or hundred, and all other dues which belong either to the king himself, or to his bailiffs. In demesne are two hundred and ten acres of arable land, sixteen of meadow, and about forty of wood of a good growth (fn. 9). The quantity of pasture is not known, but it suffices for twelve oxen, four horses (fn. 10), ten cows, and one hundred and thirty sheep: wainage (fn. 11) may be made with twelve oxen and four horses, according to the custom of the township.
"Gilbert, son of Nicholas, holds three virgates of land, to which his grandfather Gilbert was admitted by Theodoric, a former lessee, and for which he now pays thirty shillings per annum; and is subject to the following services, viz. He must plough two acres of the demesne lands in winter, and two in lent; and sow the lord's feed, which he is to receive at the manor-house, and to carry into the field; he must harrow also the land above-mentioned; he must find two mowers (fn. 12), who are to have their provisions from the lord of the manor (fn. 13); and two men to carry hay, who must be fed at his own cost. Two men one day, and two other men a second day, to weed the corn—(these men to be provided with one meal a day by the lord) (fn. 14). He must find also two carts, or one waggon, to carry hay; and three men for each of the reapdays (fn. 15). He must find two men for one day, to thresh the rentcorn (fn. 16), to be carried to London—(these men to have one meal a day at the lord's cost); and provide two sacks for each rent. He must carry dung from the manor-house two days, each day with two carts—(the workmen to be allowed provisions by the lord). He must bring four cart-loads of fuel from the wood, finding provisions for the men at his own cost. He must render moreover, annually, two hens and twenty eggs.
"William, son of Turstan, holds one virgate at the rent of 6s. 2d. He is to mow also one day for the lord of the manor, being allowed his provisions; and to send all his labourers to the reapdays; the lord allowing them victuals and ale (fn. 17)."
Another tenant was to shear the lord's sheep and lambs, and to cut his pease. Some were to pay a certain rent called malt-silver (fn. 18), being five-pence, three-pence, or some small sum; others a rent called "wardpeni" (fn. 19), generally two-pence; and others a small sum, e.g. 10d. called the gift (fn. 20).
Another survey of the manors belonging to the church of St. Paul's, made about the year 1245 (fn. 21), says, that the manor of Suthton in the time of King Henry, and William the Dean, (which must have been about the year 1111,) was rated at three hides, and paid three shillings to the sheriff; which it still did at the taking of the inquisition. The canons received from it two full corn-rents (fn. 22), and five hundred and forty shillings in money. The quantity of land is the same as in the survey above quoted, except that the wood is computed at only thirty acres, and the pasture said to be sufficient only for five cows and sixty sheep. There were sixteen virgates of land which paid quit-rent. Aluric held of the lord unam garram (fn. 23), by the annual render of two plough-shares (fn. 24). The rents of assize amounted to 71. 3s. 7d., besides five shillings, or every tenth sish from the fishery, and four-pence from the cultivated waste (fn. 25).
In the year 1235, an agreement was made relating to the fish within the manor of Sutton, between the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, and the prior of Merton, who enjoyed a grant from the king of the fisheries of the river Thames, for a certain district, which included the shores of Chiswick. By this agreement, the men of Sutton and Chiswick were permitted to place forty wears (fn. 26) for catching of barbels and lamprons only; for which permission they were to pay twenty-three shillings per annum to the prior of Merton; and if the payment was neglected five days beyond the time appointed, the sum was to be doubled (fn. 26).
In the ninth year of Edward IV. Baldwin Bray, whose ancestors appear to have been settled there for several generations (fn. 27), conveyed the manor of Sutton, near Cheswyke, (that is, I suppose, assigned the lease of the manerial estate,) to Thomas Coveton and others (fn. 28). During the civil war, the manor was sequestered to the lord mayor and aldermen of London (fn. 29). In the year 1676, the lease came into the hands of Thomas Earl of Fauconberg (fn. 30), whose great-nephew, Thomas Fowler, Viscount Fauconberg, assigned it, about the year 1727, to Richard Earl of Burlington (fn. 31). After Lord Burlington's death, the lease was renewed to the late Duke of Devonshire, who married his sole heir; and it is now held by the present Duke. The manor-house was lately in the occupation of Thomas King, Esq. deceased, by whom it was in a great measure rebuilt. The dean and chapter of St. Paul's had a grant of free-warren in their manor of Sutton, 9 Edw. II (fn. 32).
The prebendal manor is so called, as being the corps of one of the prebends of St. Paul's cathedral. The ancient survey before-mentioned, describes it as containing two hides of land. The reserved rent received by the prebendary is 391. 2s. 6d. In the year 1570, (12 Eliz.) Gabriel Goodman, being then prebendary of Chiswick, granted a lease of this manor (with the demesne lands, consisting of about an hundred and forty acres) for ninety-nine years, to William Walter and George Burden, in trust, that they should within two years convey the same to the church of Westminster, of which the said Goodman was dean. The dean and chapter still hold it of the prebendary of Chiswick, under a lease for three lives. In 1649 this manor, then valued at 1771. 8d. exclusive of the reserved rent, was in the occupation of Arthur Duck, LL. D. as sub-lessee, and was sold soon afterwards, (as church property,) being discharged of the reserved rent, for the sum of 1551l. 5s. 3d. to William Angier and Edward Radden, on behalf of Richard Duck of the county of Devon (fn. 33). In 1691, Sir Stephen Fox was lessee of the manor under the church of Westminster (fn. 34). The lease was assigned by his son Stephen, about the year 1727 (fn. 35), to Dr. Michael Hutchinson; and by some mesne assignments came to James Fry, Esq. (fn. 36) who sold it in 1770 to Mr. Alexander Weatherstone (fn. 37). Mr. Weatherstone's widow is the present sub-lessee, and as such is called lady of the manor, and holds an annual court-baron. Lands within this manor descend to the youngest son.
In Gabriel Goodman's lease above-mentioned, it is stipulated that the lessee should erect additional buildings adjoining to the manorhouse, sufficient for the accommodation of one of the prebendaries of Westminster, the master of the school, the usher, forty boys, and proper attendants, who should retire thither in time of sickness, or at other seasons when the dean and chapter should think proper (fn. 38). To this day a piece of ground is reserved (in the lease to the sublessee) as a play-place for the scholars, though it is not known that the school was ever removed to Chiswick since Busby's time. It is on record, that he resided there, with some of his scholars, in the year 1657 (fn. 39). A few years ago, when this house was in the tenure of Robert Berry, Esq. the names of the celebrated Earl of Halifax, John Dryden, and many others of Busby's pupils, were to be seen on the walls. Bowack, who wrote an account of Chiswick in 1706, says, that the house was then so decayed that it was wholly unsit for its intended use, and was patched up into small tenements for the labouring people of the town (fn. 40). If his representation be accurate, it must have been rebuilt, or at least have undergone very considerable repairs, before the year 1725, when the college-house was inhabited by Dr. John Friend, master of Westminster-school; and the prebendary's apartments, by Dr. Broadrick (fn. 41). Dr. Nicholls was the last master, who occasionally resided at the college-house. Dr. Markham, (the present Archbishop of York,) when master of Westminster-school, rented the prebendary's lodgings of the dean and chapter. The whole being in a ruinous state, was let on a repairing lease in the year 1788, for which purpose a special licence was obtained from the dean and chapter of St. Paul's and the prebendary of Chiswick, pursuant to Dean Goodman's injunctions, whereby the church of Westminster is restrained from letting the mansion or manor-house for more than one year, without such licence.
In Newcourt's Repertorium (fn. 42), may be seen a list of the prebendaries of Chiswick, among whom are Nigellus, Bishop of Ely; Richard Clifford, Bishop of London; Cardinal Moreton; Christopher Urswick; Bishop Bonner; Bishop Barlow; and Bishop Beveridge. The present prebendary is the Rev. G. Gregory, D.D. the translator of Bishop Lowth's Lectures, and author of the Life of Chatterton, "Essays," and other works.
The beautiful villa where the Duke of Devonshire occasionally resides, stands near the site of an ancient house, which Bowack says was built by Sir Edward Warden (fn. 43); for this I find no other authority. It was pulled down in the year 1788, and by Kip's print seems to have been of the age of James I. Towards the latter end of his reign, it was certainly the property and residence of Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset (fn. 44), whose abandoned Countess ended her days there in misery and disgrace (fn. 45). The Earl, who was a partaker in her crimes, survived her many years, being never able to recover a broken fortune (fn. 46) or a tarnished name. Upon the marriage of his daughter Lady Anne with Lord Russel, he was obliged to mortgage his house at Chiswick, and to sell all his plate, jewels, and furniture, to make up the sum of 12,000l. which the Earl of Bedford demanded as a portion (fn. 47). The mortgage having never been paid off, the premises became the property of the celebrated Philip Earl of Pembroke (fn. 48) (who was the mortgagee); from him they passed to John Lord Pawlet (fn. 49), an active royalist, and a commander of some eminence in the king's army. On the 27th of May 1647, he was permitted to compound for his estate, through the interest of the General Fairfax (fn. 50), who, in the months of August and September following, appears to have been more than once a visitor at his house at Chiswick (fn. 51). In 1669, this house being then the property of William Lord Crofts, and in the occupation of James Duke of Monmouth, was sold to Charles Lord Gerrard of Brandon (fn. 52), who aliened it to Richard Viscount Ranelagh. In 1682, it was the property of Edward Seymour, Esq. of Maiden-Bradley, who then sold it to Richard Earl of Burlington, from whom it descended to Richard the last Earl; after his death it came to the late Duke of Devonshire, who married Lady Charlotte Boyle, his daughter and sole heir. The last Earl of Burlington, whose skill and taste as an architect have been frequently recorded, built near this old mansion, a small but beautiful villa, the idea of which was partly borrowed from a design of Palladio (fn. 53). The gardens at the same time were laid out by his lordship in the Italian style, and were far preferable to any that had then been seen in this kingdom; they are adorned with various temples, obelisks, statues, &c. which have furnished many subjects for the engravers (fn. 54). Some of the statues are antiques (fn. 55); the lions and other beasts are the works of Scheemaker: among other ornaments of these gardens, should be noticed a gate erected by Inigo Jones, at Chelsea in the year 1625, for the Lord Treasurer Middlesex, and removed to Chiswick in 1738 by Lord Burlington, to whom it was given by Sir Hans Sloane at the time that Beauforthouse was pulled down. Lord Hervey, speaking of Lord Burlington's villa at Chiswick, said, that it was too small to live in, and too large to hang to a watch. The present noble owner has made it more habitable, without taking away from its beauty, by the addition of two wings, designed by Wyatt, which admirably correspond with the architecture of the original. The rooms are scarcely finished, and Lord Burlington's fine collection of pictures not yet replaced; a catalogue of these pictures is printed in Dodsley's account of London, and its environs (fn. 56) : among those most worthy of note, are portraits of Lord Clifford and his family, by Van-Eyk, 1444; Mary Queen of Scots, which has been engraved by Vertue; Clement IX. by Carlo Maratti; Alexander Pope, by Kent; the celebrated picture of Belisarius; a landscape, with a man hawking, by Inigo Jones; a very fine Salvator Rosa; and a Madonna, by Dominichino, which Lord Burlington procured out of a convent at Rome, giving them in exchange for it a complete set of marble columns for their church.
The Russel family had an ancient seat in this parish, which belonged, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, to Sir William Russel, afterwards Lord Russel of Thornhagh, a distinguished military character. Stow, speaking of his heroic achievements at the battle of Zutphen, says, "he charged so terribly, that after he had broke his lance, he with his curtleax so plaid his part, that the enemy reported him to be a devil and not a man; for where he saw six or seven of the enemies together, thither would he, and so behaved himself with his curtleax, that he would separate their friendship (fn. 57). "On the 2d of Oct. 1602, the Queen honoured him with a visit at Chiswick (fn. 58). Sir William Russel's mansion descended to his only son Francis, the first Earl of Bedford, who died on the eve of the civil war. From the interest he took in the concerns of this parish (fn. 59), it is probable that he frequently resided here. After the death of his widow, Catherine Countess of Bedford, which happened in 1654, the premises at Chiswick were inherited, according to the custom of the manor, by her youngest son Edward, who, in the year 1659, aliened a freehold messuage, &c. to William Gomeldon (fn. 60). Since that time it has passed through various hands; and was in 1747, the property of the Hon. Peregrine Widdrington; who, by his will of that date, left it to his wife the Duchess of Norfolk, for life, with remainder in succession to his nephew the Hon. W. Tempest Widdrington, and John Townley, Esq. and their heirs. Of the latter it was purchased by Sir C. W. Boughton Rouse, Bart. of Rouse-Lench, in the county of Worcester, the present proprietor. It is now called Corney-house. Mr. Widdrington, in 1745, purchased certain tenements, and a piece of land, called Corney-houses and Corneyclose, adjoining to his own premises. I suppose these to be the same houses and land which James Russel, youngest son of Edward, held in 1670, some time after the alienation of the mansion above-mentioned. The premises were much improved and enlarged by Mr. Townley, who surrounded the whole with a brick wall, and built a handsome lodge.
Grove-house, near Sutton-court, belonged, in the reign of Henry IV. to Robert Warner, who sold it to Thomas Holgill, Esq. (fn. 61) It was afterwards, for several generations, the property of the Barker family. After the death of Henry Barker, Esq. which happened in 1745, it was purchased by the Earl of Grantham, and descended to his daughter Lady Frances Elliot. Soon after her death it was purchased by the Right Hon. Humphry Morrice, who made considerable additions to the house, and built a large riding-house, with excellent stables for thirty horses. The fine collection of pictures which he had at this place, was sold after his death to the Earl of Ashburnham. This beautiful villa, which is situated in a very desirable and retired spot upon the banks of the Thames, is now the property of Mrs. Luther, relict of John Luther, Esq. M.P. for the county of Essex. The premises, containing about fourscore acres, are inclosed within a brick wall; the pleasure-grounds were laid out by the Earl of Grantham. The paddock abounds with a great number of old walnut-trees and Spanish chesnuts, the fruit of which has been known to produce 80l. per annum.
In the year 1747, Lord Viscount Dunkerron became poslessed of a capital messuage at Turnham-green (fn. 62), which having passed through various hands, viz. the Earl of Kerry (1752), Matthew Hutton, Esq. (1762), the Earl of Egmont (1765), Sir Brownlow Cust (1771), the Duchess of Devonshire (1772), Lord John Cavendish (1777), was purchased in 1789 by Lord Heathfield, the celebrated defender of Gibraltar, who made it his principal residence till his death, which happened not long afterwards. It now belongs to Dr. Alexander Meyersbach. The gardens were laid out with much taste for Lord Heathsield, by Mr. Aiton, now his Majesty's gardener at Kew.
Sir Henry Sidney, Lord President of Ireland in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, appears to have had a seat at Chiswick; his wife, Lady Mary, (daughter of John Duke of Northumberland,) dates her letters thence in 1574 and 1578 (fn. 63).
Leonard Maw, Bishop of Bath and Wells, who had been chaplain to Prince Charles, and attended him when he went to pay his addresses to the Infanta, had a house at Chiswick, where he died Sept. 2, 1629, and was buried in the church there (fn. 64).
It appears by the parish books, that Sir Lewis Lewkner, Knt. (fn. 65) resided at Chiswick in 1621; Sir William Jones, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas (1632); and the Duke of Leinster (1695) (fn. 66). Joseph Miller, of facetious memory, who was a comic actor of considerable merit, was many years an inhabitant of Strand on the Green (fn. 67), and died at his house there in the month of August 1738.
The church of this place, which is dedicated to St. Nicholas, stands near the water-side. The present structure appears to have consisted originally only of a nave and chancel, and was built probably about the beginning of the fifteenth century, at which time the tower was erected, at the charge of William Bordall, vicar of Chiswick, who died in 1435 (fn. 68). It is built of stone and slint, as is the north wall of the church and the chancel; the latter has been much repaired with brick: a transverse aisle, at the east end of the nave, was added on the south side in the middle of the last, and a corresponding aisle on the north side, towards the beginning of the present, century; the former was enlarged in the year 1772, by subscription, and carried on to the west end of the nave: both the aisles are of brick.
On the south wall of the chancel is the monument of Sir Thomas Chaloner, whose essgies, and that of his wife, are represented kneeling at a fald-stool under a pavilion, the curtains of which are supported by two armed soldiers. On a tablet beneath is the following inscription: "Here lieth the bodey of Sir Thomas Chaloner, who was knighted in the warres of France, by Kinge Henry the fourthe, a° 1591, and after Governor in the minority, and Chamberlayne to the late Prince of famous memorey, Henrey Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornewall, and Earle of Chester. He married to his firste wife Elizabeth, Daughter to William Fleetwood, Sergeant at lawe to Q. Eliz. and Recorder of London, by whom he had yssue, Thomas, deceased; Willm; Edward; Thomas; Henry, deceased; Arthure, deceased; James; Elizabeth, deceased; Mary, wife to Sr Edward Fisher, Knight; Elizabeth; and Dorothey; and died the 22d of June, ao 1603, aged 35 yeares: and to his second wife he married Jude, the daughter to Willm Blunt of London, Esquier, by whom he had also yssue Henrey; Charles; Fredericke, and Arthure; Anne; Katherine, and Frances; and she deceased the 30 day of June, ao 1615, aged 36 years: and the aforesayed Sir Thomas Chaloner died the 18th day of November 1615, being of the adge of 51 years—An. Dom. 1721. In grateful remembrance of his honourable ancestor, this monument was repaired at the charge of Edward Chaloner of Gisbrough, in com. Ebor. Esq." On the monument are the arms of Sir Thomas Chaloner and his two wives (fn. 69).
This Sir Thomas was son of Sir Thomas Chaloner the elder, a very eminent person in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, both as a soldier, a scholar, and a statesman (fn. 70); and he seems to have inherited a great portion of his father's accomplishments. He was particularly attached to the study of natural history, and was very active in researches relating to that science, which led him to the discovery of the first alum-mines which had been known in this kingdom, and which he found near Gisbrough in Yorkshire (fn. 71), where he had an estate. The method of preparing the alum he is said to have brought from Italy (fn. 72). These mines, with others that had been discovered upon some adjoining estates, were afterwards seized by the crown, and became so valuable, that Sir Paul Pindar rented them at 14,740l. per annum; and, as Fuller says, did not complain of his bargain. The mines lay neglected for many years during the present century (fn. 73), but are now worked, and the produce sent both to the London market and to foreign parts. Sir Thomas Chaloner wrote a treatise on the virtues of nitre, and "other matters (says "Wood) pertaining to virtuosity, and some things, as it seems, to "pastoral (fn. 74), but whether extant I cannot tell (fn. 75)." Puttenham compares "Maister Challoner for eglogue and pastorall poesie to Sir P. "Sydney, and the gentleman who wrote the Shepherds Calender, "all of whom, says he, deserve the highest price (fn. 76)." Several of Sir Thomas Chaloner's letters are printed in Birch's Memoirs of Queen Elizabeth, 1596–1597. William, his eldest son, was created a baronet by James I. anno 1620. Edward, who was born at Chiswick, entered into holy orders, and published some sermons and religious tracts (fn. 77). He died of the plague at Oxford. Thomas and James, disgusted by the seizure of the alummines, took a very active part against Charles I.: they both sat as his judges, and Thomas signed the warrant for his execution, which occasioned him to be excepted out of the act of oblivion. He retired to Holland before the return of Charles II. and died at Middleburgh (fn. 78).
To return to the account of the monuments:—On the east wall of the chancel is that of Thomas Barker, Esq. (fn. 79) Bencher of the Middle Temple, who died in 1630; and Anne, widow of William Barker, Esq. who died in 1607 (fn. 80). On the south wall are those of Mary, wife of William Walker (fn. 81), vicar of Chiswick, who died in 1619; and Thomas Bentley, who died in 1780. He was partner with Mr. Josiah Wedgwood in the celebrated Staffordshire manufacture, and being possessed of an elegant taste, furnished many of the beautiful designs for that ware (fn. 82).
On the north wall of the chancel is the monument of Charles Holland, the comedian (fn. 83); and that of Chidioke Wardour, Esq. who died in 1611. He was forty-two years lord treasurer's clerk; his daughter, Elizabeth, died in 1606. She married Sir Stephen Lesieur, Knt. who was employed in various embassies to the King of Denmark, the Emperor Matthias, &c. He resided at Chiswick, and married for his second wife, Catherine, daughter of Edward Lord Bergavenny (fn. 84). Within the rails of the communion-table are the tombs of Mary, daughter of John Litcott, Esq. and wife of Richard Barker, who died in 1599; and of Thomas Elborowe, vicar of Chiswick, who died in 1675. In the chancel are the tombs also of Mark Anthony La Bastide de Crosat (fn. 85), who died in 1704, and of Charlotte Duchess of Somerset, who died in 1773. On the north wall of the nave is the monument of Charles Barnevelt, Esq. (fn. 86) who died in 1739. On the floor are the tombs of George Barker, Esq. who died in 1750; Captain Andrew Reau (1750), and the Rev. John Griffiths (1775). In the north aisle are the monuments of Thomas Plukenett, Gent. (fn. 87) who died in 1721; Thomas Spateman, M. A. (fn. 88) vicar of Chiswick, who died in 1761; and Mrs. Rebecca Casamajor (fn. 89) (1788). At the east end of the south aisle are the monuments of John Tayler, Esq. (fn. 90) who died in 1729, and Tabitha, relict of Thomas Dickonson, Esq. of West Retford in the county of Nottingham, who died in 1786; at the east end, that of James Howard, Esq. (fn. 91) only son of the Hon. Thomas Howard, (brother of James Earl of Suffolk,) who died in 1669. On the south wall over the gallery, are the monuments of Robert Kennell, Esq. who died in 1690; Richard Tayler, Esq. (fn. 92) (1698); and Richard Tayler, jun. (fn. 93) (1716). At the east end of the gallery is that of Vere Warner, Esq. (fn. 94) who died in 1756. In the south aisle is the tomb of John Bezely, Gent. who died in 1744.
On the wall of the church-yard is the following singular inscription: "This wall was made at the charges of the Right honorable "and truelie pious Lorde Francis Russell, Duke of Bedford (fn. 95), oute "of true zeal and care for the keeping of this church-yard, and "the wardrobe of Goddes saintes, whose bodies lay therein buryed, "from violateing by swine and other prophanation; so witnesseth "William Walker, V. A. D. 1623."
In the church-yard are the tombs of John Gascoyne, Esq. of Cawthorne in the county of York, who died in 1682, and others of that family; Nicholas Crispe, Esq. (1706); Miles Corbett, Esq. (1728); Margaret, relict of Captain William Peryn (1745); John Sheen, Esq. (1749); James Gibson, Esq. (1750); Mr. Thomas Powell (1754); Mrs. Mary Austin (1754); John Montigny, Gent. (1757); John Hill, Gent. (1758); William Lewis, of Coventgarden, bookseller (1759); Christopher Perry, Esq. (1762); Robert Grosvenor, Esq. (1762); Mr. George Stoe (1762); he had fourteen children by his wife Mary; William Hogarth Esq. (1764) (fn. 96); Mary, wife of the Rev. John Lloyd of Rotherham in the county of York (1765); Henry Van Noort, merchant (1765); Elizabeth, wife of the Rev. Dr. Baddeley, rector of Markfield in the county of Leicester (1767); George Hammond of Bolton-hall in the county of York (1767); Mary, wife of Richard Troubridge (1768); Plukenett Woodroffe, Esq. (1769); the Rev. John Mapletost, chaplain to Bridewell-hospital (1773); Mr. Fenton Robinson (1774); Henry McCulloh, Esq. (1779); William Donaldson, Esq. (1780); John Townley, Esq. of Townley in the county of Lancaster (1782); Giles Hudson, Esq. M.P. (1783); Richard Filkin, lieutenant in the navy (1783); John Church, Esq. of Gray's-inn (1783); Wm. Reynolds, Esq. (1784); Thomas Walker, Esq. of Berkhamstead, St. Peter (1784); Wm. Rose, LL.D (fn. 97) (1786); George Townley, Esq. (1786); Richard Hozier, Esq. (1787); Elizabeth, wife of Simon Le Sage, Esq. (1791); Miss M. Mackenzie (1791); Caroline Walter (1791); and Miss Eliz. Benniworth (1792). On the outside of the south wall of the chancel is a monument to the memory of Richard Cary, Esq. who died in 1707, and his son Thomas, who died in 1710. In the east wall of the north aisle, the monument of Samuel Martin, who died in 1740; and on the north wall that of Edward Crispe, Esq. who died in 1739.
The following epitaph, in memory of John Ayton Thompson, a
youth of fifteen, was written by Arthur Murphy, Esq.
"If in the morn of life each winning grace,
"The converse sweet, the mind-illumin'd face,
"The lively wit that charm'd with early art,
"And mild affections streaming from the heart:
"If these, lov'd youth, could check the hand of fate,
"Thy matchless worth had claim'd a longer date.
"But thou art blest, while here we heave the sigh;
"Thy death is virtue wafted to the sky.
"Yet still thy image fond affection keeps,
"The fire remembers, and the mother weeps;
"Still the friend grieves, who saw thy vernal bloom,
"And here, sad task, inscribes it on thy tomb.
In 1349 John de Bray had a licence to give half an acre of land to enlarge the church-yard (fn. 98).
In the survey before mentioned (fn. 99), of the churches and manors belonging to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, (taken about the year 1245,) the inquisition relating to this parish says, that the church of Sutton (meaning, I suppose, Chiswick) was in the demesne of the canons, who received from it ten shillings per annum by the hands of the lessee. It paid also thirteen pence under the name of synodals. The lessee collected the Peter's-pence, which he received to his own use. The glebe land belonging to the church was 16½ acres of arable, and one of meadow; all free land (fn. 100). The church had also a third part of the tithes both great and small, of the demesnes, and of the treasurer's demesnes; and all the tithes of both townships, except those of hay (fn. 101). In the reign of Henry III. the dean and chapter, out of respect, it seems, to Gualo, the Pope's Legate, granted a lease of the rectory of Chiswick to Tholomeus Romanus, for three marks per annum (fn. 102). In 1327 it was rated at one hundred shillings (fn. 103); in Edward VIth's time at 40l. (fn. 104) It appears by the survey of 1649, that the parsonage of Chiswick was then on lease to John Edgar, at 4l. 10s. per annum; and that it was valued at 55l. 4s. per annum over and above the reserved rent (fn. 105). Another survey, taken in 1650, values the rectory at 100l.; it was then in the occupation of Mr. Chaloner Chute (fn. 106). The rectory is now leased, with the manor of Sutton-court, the reserved rent of both together being 43l. per annum.
At a visitation of the church of Chiswick, anno 1252, it appeared that the vicar received all the altarage (fn. 107), and had a glebe of twelve acres of arable, and one of meadow; besides which he was paid a mark of silver annually by the chamberlain (fn. 108). At the visitation, anno 1458 (fn. 109), the vicar's glebe was computed at twenty acres, which he enjoyed for the purpose of finding a boy (for the choir) to assist in the divine service. In the king's books this vicarage is valued at 9l. 18s. 4d. per annum; in the survey of 1649, at 53l. 18s.; in that of 1650, at 58l.; in the latter survey is mentioned a glebe of twenty acres and a half. Patrick Seamer was then vicar, having been presented by the parliament after the sequestration of Mr. Packington (fn. 110).
James Thompson, who was presented to the vicarage of Chiswick, Nov. 4, 1658, by William Steele and others (fn. 111), procured an allowance of sixty pounds per ann. out of the impropriated tithes, April 27, 1660 (fn. 112).
Thomas Elborowe, who was collated to this vicarage in 1662 (fn. 113), published an exposition of the common-prayer, in two books (fn. 114). He was an intimate friend of John Barwick, who was made dean of St. Paul's by Charles II. for his active loyalty and sufferings during the civil war. Dr. Barwick, in the latter part of his life, frequently retired to his friend's house at Chiswick (fn. 115).
|Average of baptisms.||Average of burials.|
|1680–1689||53 4/10||62 3/10|
|1730–1739||76 8/5||108 8/10|
The population of this place appears to have increased in a proportion of almost two to one within the last century. The principal increase of buildings has been at Turnham-green; the present number of houses is 426; of which 163 are in Chiswick; 168 at Turnham-green; four at Stanford-brook; eleven at Little Sutton; and eighty at Strand on the Green. The number of strangers here interred, as in most of the villages near London, swells the list of burials.
"The Rt Honble William Earl of Portland, widower, and Jane Lady Dowager Berkley, Baroness of Stratton, were married by special licence from the Archbishop, May 12, 1700." This Earl of Portland was father to the first, and great-grandfather to the present Duke. Lady Berkley was daughter of Sir John Temple, Bart. and relict of John Lord Berkley of Stratton.
"The Honourable William Henry Benting, of the parish of St. Martin in the Fields, in the liberty of Westminster, single man, and the Honourable the Lady Elizabeth Noell, of the parish of Twittenham in the county of Middlesex, single woman, were married by licence June 9, 1704." This was the first Duke of Portland, so created by George I. anno 1716. Collins calls him Henry only. Lady Elizabeth Noel was daughter and co-heir of Wriothesly Baptist, Earl of Gainsborough.
"James, son of Charles Lord Cornwallis, and Charlotte his wife, "was born Sept. 16, and baptised Sept. 22, 1701. He was M. P. for Eye in Suffolk, and commander of the Griffin fire-ship. He died May 28, 1727 (fn. 116).
"Sir Stephen Fox, Knt. and Christian Hope, were married by licence July 11, 1703." Sir Stephen Fox laid the foundation of his future eminence by his loyal and active services to Charles II. during his exile (fn. 117). He was elected a member of the first parliament which was called after the restoration, and continued to sit in the house of commons with very little intermission till the day of his death, having been twice one of the representatives for the city of Westminster (fn. 118). He was paymaster-general of the forces to Charles II. and sat as one of the lords of the treasury during the greater part of his reign, and that of King William III. He was also one of the commissioners appointed by James II. but became so obnoxious to that monarch by his opposition to his measures, that he was one of those excepted by name, when, at the time of a threatened invasion, a general pardon was promised to those who had acted against him (fn. 119). In the year 1685 Sir Stephen Fox purchased a copyhold estate at Chiswick (fn. 120), on which he built a villa, which he made his principal residence-after he had retired from public business. King William was so pleased with it, that he is said to have exclaimed to the Earl of Portland, upon his first visit, "This place is perfectly fine; I could live here five days." This, it seems, was his usual expression when he was much pleased with a situation; and he is said never to have paid the same compliment to any other place in England except Lord Exeter's at Burleigh (fn. 121). Sir Stephen Fox's house at Chiswick was inherited, according to the custom of the manor, by his youngest son Henry, who aliened it to Spencer Lord Wilmington in 1728 (fn. 122); from him it descended to James Earl of Northampton anno 1744. Charlotte Lady Ferrers, the Earl's youngest daughter, was admitted to it in 1755. It was sold by her husband, the present Marquis Townshend, to the late Earl Morton, and is now the property and residence of Robert Stevenson, Esq.
Christian Hope, whose marriage with Sir Stephen Fox is recorded in the entry here quoted, was his second wise, and daughter of the Rev. Charles Hope of Nasely, in the county of Lincoln. There was a considerable disproportion in their ages, Sir Stephen being in his seventy-sixth year. He had issue by her Stephen, (afterwards Earl of Ilchester,) baptized at Chiswick Sept. 17, 1704; Henry, (afterwards Lord Holland, a distinguished political character in the last reign, and father of the Right Hon. Charles James Fox,) baptized at Chiswick Oct. 15, 1705; Christian, his twin sister, (who died in her infancy by an accidental fall,) baptized the fame day; and Charlotte, (afterwards married to the Hon. Edward Digby,) baptized at the same place, May 9, 1707.
"Sir Stephen Fox carried away to Farley in Wiltshire, Nov. 5, 1716." His father was of Farley, which was the family burialplace. Sir Stephen rebuilt the church there, and founded an hospital and a school.
"Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleaveland, buried Oct. 13, 1709." She was daughter of William Viscount Grandison, and wise of Roger Palmer, Earl of Castlemain, a well known beauty in the court of Charles II. and one of his most distinguished favourites. In the year 1670 he created her Duchess of Cleveland, with limitation to her son Charles Fitzroy and his heirs male. The title became extinct in 1773. The Duke of Cleveland's name appears among the inhabitants of Chiswick in 1723.
"Sir John Chardin, buried Dec. 29, 1712." The celebrated traveller. He was born at Paris in 1643, being the son of a jeweller. On the revocation of the edict of Nantz he left France, and with many other refugees fought an asylum in this kingdom in the year 1685 (fn. 123). His travels, which have been translated into English, Flemish, and German, are much esteemed, as abounding with credible narratives, and exhibiting a just picture of the manners and customs of Persia, and other oriental countries. The only inscription on his monument in Westminster-abbey is—Sir John Chardin—Nomen sibi fecit eundo. There is no memorial to him at Chiswick. He lived in a house at Turnham-green which belonged to James Howard, Esq. nephew of James Earl of Suffolk. It was fold after Sir John Chardin's death to Thomas Lutwyche, Esq. and was in 1762 the property of George Tuffnell, Esq. (fn. 124)
"Mary Countess of Fauconberg, buried Mar. 24, 1713." This celebrated lady was third daughter of Oliver Cromwell. She was married at Hampton-court Nov. 19, 1657 (fn. 125). In person she is said to have been handsome, yet at the same time to have resembled her father: in the decline of life she grew pale and sickly. After seeing all hopes of the sovereignty continuing in her own family cut off by the death of her father, she is said to have exerted all her endeavours for the restoration of monarchy. Lady Fauconberg bore the character of a pious, worthy woman, and constantly attended divine service at the parish church at Chiswick (fn. 126). She resided at Suttoncourt (fn. 127).
"Aug. 31, 1716, Mrs. Anne Bathurst, an infant daughter of the Rt Honble Lord Bathurst, buried." It appears by this and other entries, that the celebrated Allen Lord Bathurst, and his father Sir Benjamin, resided occasionally at Chiswick.
"Henry, son of Sir Henry Bedingfield, of Oxborough-hall in the county of Norfolk, Bart. and the Rt Hon. Lady Elizabeth his wife, born Oct. 27, baptized Nov. 3, 1723." Lady Elizabeth was daughter of Charles Earl of Burlington. Sir Henry Bedingfield was engaged in an epistolary dispute with the celebrated Archibald Bower (fn. 128), which discovered Bower's connection with the Jesuits, and led to a detection of his impostures, by Dr. Douglas, the present Bishop of Salisbury.
"The Rt Hon. Charlotte Elizabeth, daughter of the Rt Hon. Richd and Dorothy Boyle, Earl and Countess of Burlington, baptized Nov. 24, 1731." She was married in 1748 to William Marquis of Hartington, afterwards Duke of Devonshire, and father of the present Duke.
"Charles, son of John and Sarah Holland, baptized April 3, "1733." John Holland was a baker of Chiswick; his son Charles was bound apprentice to a turpentine-merchant; but having a strong inclination to the stage, and having met with much approbation for the display of his theatrical talents in some private circles, he applied to Garrick, who gave him good encouragement and good advice. By his persuasion he punctually fulfilled his engagement with his master, at the expiration of which, finding his passion for the theatre not abated, he made his first appearance at Drury-lane (anno 1754) in the character of Oroonoko, under the auspices of the manager, to whom he was much attached, and who continued his friendship towards him till his death. Holland met with much applause, and continued to rise in reputation as an actor till his death. He was cut off by the small-pox in the 36th year of his age, Dec. 7, 1769. About three years before his death he became joint manager of the theatre at Bristol with Powell. He distinguished himself principally in the characters of Richard III. Hamlet, Pierre, Timur in Zingis, and Manley in the Plain Dealer. He was buried in the church-yard at Chiswick on the 15th of December, his funeral being attended by most of the performers belonging to the theatre (fn. 129). The following inscription is placed on his tomb.
"In a vault under this tomb lieth the body of Mr. Charles Holland, late of Drury-lane theatre, of whose character and abilities David Garrick, Esq. has given testimony on a monument erected to his memory in the chancel of this church, by permission of his Grace the Duke of Devonshire."
"If talents to make entertainment instruction, to support the
credit of the stage by just and manly action, if to adorn society
by virtues which would honour any rank and profession, deserve
remembrance, let him with whom these talents were long exerted,
to whom these virtues were well known, and by whom the loss
of them will be long lamented, bear testimony to the worth and
abilities of his departed friend Charles Holland, who was
born March 12, 1733; died December 7, 1769, and was buried
near this place.
"William Kent, Esq. from London, buried in a vault in the chancel Ap. 17, 1748." Kent was both a painter and an architect; in the former capacity he acquired but little credit; as an architect he was very eminent, and still more so as inventor of the modern improvements in gardening. He died at the age of 64, in the house of his patron Lord Burlington, in Piccadilly (fn. 130).
"James Ralph, Esq. buried Jan. 31, 1762." Mr. Ralph, who
is well known as a political and historical writer, was first settled in
America; he came over to England, in the beginning of George II.'s
reign, in company with Doctor Franklin, with whom he lived in
habits of great intimacy. His first attempt to establish a literary
reputation was by writing for the stage, in which he seems to
have mistaken the bent of his genius, for he produced a tragedy,
comedy, opera, and farce, with very little success. He published
some poems also, which were much ridiculed in the Dunciad, particularly one entitled Night, which is alluded to in the following
"Silence, ye wolves, while Ralph to Cynthia howls,
"Making Night hideous; answer him, ye owls."
However destitute of merit Ralph's poetry might be, Pope seems to have been unjustly severe when he treats him as an illiterate scribbler. His political tracts were in their day in very great request; and his History of England, commencing at the restoration, is still held in considerable esteem. He was much in the confidence of Frederick Prince of Wales, by whose death he lost all his expectations of preferment. Mr. Ralph resided in the prebendal part of the College-house at Chiswick, which he rented of the dean and chapter of Westminster. He died of the gout on the 24th of January 1762, and his only daughter soon afterwards fell a victim to the same disorder (fn. 131).
"William Hogarth, Esq. buried Novr 2, 1764." This celebrated painter, whose works and life are too well known to be enlarged on here, about the year 1750 purchased a house at Chiswick, where, during the remainder of his life, he generally spent the greater part of the summer. He was buried in the church-yard; on his monument is the following inscription:
"Here lies the body of William Hogarth, Esq. who died
Oct. 26, 1764, aged 67 years.
"Farewell, great painter of mankind !
Who reach'd the noblest point of art;
Whose pictur'd morals charm the mind,
And through the eye correct the heart.
"If genius fire thee, reader, stay;
"If nature touch thee, drop a tear;
"If neither move thee, turn away,
"For Hogarth's honour'd dust lies here.
The following epitaph, written upon Hogarth by Dr. Johnson, is
printed in Mrs. Piozzi's Anecdotes.
"The hand of him here torpid lies,
"That drew th' essential form of grace;
"Here clos'd in death th' attentive eyes,
"That saw the manners in the face."
On the monument are memorials also of his sister, Anne Hogarth, who died in 1771; Jane his widow, who died in 1789, aged 80; and her mother Judith (relict of Sir James Thornhill, Knt.) who died in 1757.
"Sir Thomas Robinson, Lord Grantham, buried, in a vault in the chancel, Oct. 6, 1770." Sir. Thomas Robinson was ambassador to Vienna, and in the year 1754, was appointed secretary of state. He was created Lord Grantham by his present Majesty in 1761.
"Charlotte Duchess Dowager of Somerset, buried in a vault in the chancel, Jan. 30, 1773." Daughter of Daniel Earl of Winchelsea and Nottingham, and second wife of Charles Duke of Somerset, who died in 1748. She lived at Sutton-court.
"The Revd Thomas Morel, D. D. buried Feb. 27, 1784." Dr. Morell was educated at Eaton, and at King's-college, Cambridge. He was Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, and is known as the editor of several Greek plays, and of the later editions of Ainsworth's Dictionary, and Hederic's Lexicon. He published also some translations from Greek plays, composed the words of several Oratorios, and was one of the earliest writers in the Gentleman's Magazine (fn. 132). Dr. Morell lived at Turnham-green; and was in habits of great intimacy with Hogarth, whom he is said to have assisted in writing his Analysis of Beauty. There is a portrait of him by his friend, which is engraved. The manner of accenting Morell's name being undecided, it was pronounced sometimes Mórell, and sometimes Morèll, which caused one of his friends to address him with the following extempore jeu d'esprit.
"William Rose, buried July 11, 1786." Dr. Rose, a man of
amiable manners, and much esteemed in the literary world, had
been for about 30 years an inhabitant of this parish, where he kept
an academy. He was author of a well-known translation of Sallust,
and editor of several useful compilations in Latin, French, and English. His able criticisms greatly contributed towards establishing the
credit of the Monthly Review, in which he was one of the earliest
writers. Dr. Rose was born in the county of Aberdeen; he died
the 4th of July 1786, aged 67. The following lines to his memory, written by Arthur Murphy, Esq. are inscribed upon his
" Whoe'er thou art, with silent footsteps tread
"The hallow'd mould where Rose reclines his head.
"Ah ! let not folly one kind tear deny,
"But pensive pause where truth and honour lie:
"His, the gay wit that fond affection drew;
"Oft heard, and oft admir'd, yet ever new;
"The heart that melted at another's grief;
"The hand in secret that bestow'd relief;
"Science untinctur'd with the pride of schools,
"And native goodness free from formal rules:
"With zeal through life he toil'd in learning's cause,
"But more, fair Virtue, to promote thy laws:
"His every action fought the noblest end;
"The tender husband, father, brother, friend.
"Perhaps e'en now, from yonder realms of day,
"To his lov'd relatives he sends a ray;
"Pleas'd to behold affections like his own,
"With filial duty raise this votive stone."
"The Rt HonbleThomas Robinson, Lord Grantham, buried July 27, 1786." The late Lord Grantham was born at Vienna while his father was ambassador there; he himself was appointed ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to the court of Spain in 1771, where he continued till the breaking out of the war in 1779. In 1781 he was appointed first lord of the board of trade and plantations; and in 1782, secretary of state for the foreign department. He died at his seat on Putney-common, in the 48th year of his age.
The following instances of longevity occur in the parish register:
"Eliz. West, buried in her 100th year, Jan. I, 1758."
"Richd Gordon, poor, aged 100 years, buried May 19, 1780."
"Dorothy Linton, who was buried Aug. 19, 1728, was said to
"have been 105 years of age (fn. 133)."
Christopher Stricland, Esq. is said to have died at Chiswick April 10th, 1782, aged 102; and E. Jackson, Esq. Nov. 13th, 1782, aged 93 (fn. 134).
Dr. Arthur Duck, buried at Chiswick in May 1649 (which was before the parish register commences,) was a native of Devonshire, and a fellow of All-Souls-college. He sat in the parliament of 1640, and adhered to the royal party; was esteemed an excellent civilian, and was sent for by Charles I. to Newport in the Isle of Wight, to assist him in the treaty with the parliamentary commissioners. Dr. Duck wrote the Life of Archbishop Chichele, and a Treatise on the Civil Law (fn. 135).
"A good and sufficient missal sent from the treasury at St. Paul's. It. two sufficient gradales (fn. 136);—a tropery (fn. 137) in good condition except cept that it wants binding; an old legend (fn. 138), with masses inserted in various places, for the use of the monks; an antiphoner (fn. 139) in good condition, with the notes properly marked; a good and sufficient psalter. Item, there is no manual. It. a silver chalice, small, and of little value; a chesible (fn. 140) of red velvet (fn. 141) with a handsome orfray (fn. 142); a cope (fn. 143) entire and well ornamented; another cope with a white chesible, thin and torn; two maniples (fn. 144), and a stole (fn. 145); three corporasses (fn. 146); five consecrated altar-cloths (fn. 147) in good condition, one of them ornamented with silk; a silk cloth of arest (fn. 148), in good condition, given to the church by one of the parishioners; an old chrismatory (fn. 149); a good and sufficient banner. Item, there is no pix wherein to place the consecrated host. It. two brafs candlesticks, and two of tin, and four tin vials. The font much out of repair, and without a lock (fn. 150). The chancel out of repair, and the roof decaying. It. there is no collection for lights except a halfpenny from each house for the paschall-taper; it is ordered that a like collection be made for the rood-light (fn. 151). It. John Belemeis (then Prebend of Chiswick) has half a mark towards the repairs of the chancel, left by Alexander the late treafurer. It. the church has not been dedicated (fn. 152)."
In the other inquisition of the state of Chiswick church, dated anno 1458, there is mentioned amongst the ornaments, a tablet of alabaster (fn. 153) over the great altar, representing the death of our Saviour; in the nave, two paintings representing the Last Judgment, and the Five Joys of the Virgin Mary; a vest of green silk with flowers of gold, and white birds; another vest of red silk with golden lions; a third vest of red bawdekyn, (fn. 154), with flowers of gold, being the gift of William Dolman; a vest of black sattin, having orfrays of green silk with white lilies; a green vest of "brod alysaunder (fn. 155)," with white roses; and two frontals (fn. 156). The chancel was represented as in very bad condition, and the charges of repairing it estimated at twenty marks. Complaint was made of "22 elmys loppid and pollyd" near the road of the procession.
A charity-school was established in this parish by subscription in the year 1707. Lady Capel, by her will, bearing date 1719, endowed it with a share of an estate, which share then produced 81. per ann. and is now increased to 11 1. Various benefactions (fn. 157) have formed a stock, which now amounts to 7501. in the 3 per cents.; with the interest of this, aided by an annual subscription and a charity sermon, twenty-five boys, and the same number of girls, are educated, and the greater part of them clothed. The boys are taught in a vestry-room in the church-yard; and the girls in a school-room erected for that purpose by a subscription set on foot by the present vicar in 1792.
Henry Fryer, by his will, bearing date 7 Car. II. left certain estates to charitable uses, charged with a specisic sum of 100l. per annum, to be divided between the poor of the parishes of St. Botolph Aldersgate, Harleston in the county of Cambridge, and Chiswick.—By a decree of Chancery, 28 Car. II. the estates were conveyed to the Lord Mayor and Common Council of the city of London, the Governor of St. Thomas, Christ's, and Bridewell hospitals, in trust, charged with the sum of 40l. per annum to St. Botolph, 351. to Harleston, and 251. to Chiswick. Thomas Barker, Esq. in 1642, left the sum of 51. per annum to the poor. Mrs. Mary Quois, the sum of 4001.; and Miss Elizabeth Lutwyche, the sum of 2001.; the latter was laid out in the purchase of 2441. 5s. 6d. 3 per cent. consolidated bank annuities, and the interest is distributed at the discretion of the vicar.