The Environs of London: Volume 2, County of Middlesex. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1795.
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Name, and etymology.
THIS place, which gives name to the hundred wherein it lies, is in Doomsday-book called Adelmeton, and in later records Edelmeton. Camden says it takes its name from nobility, by which it is supposed he meant to derive it from Edeling, noble (fn. 1). As I have not seen one, among very numerous ancient deeds which I have examined, relating to this place, in which its name is written Edelington, I would rather derive it from Adelm, or Eadhelm, names common to several eminent persons among the Saxons (fn. 2). This place appears to have been first called Edmonton, a word very wide of the original orthography about the beginning of the sixteenth century.
Situation and boundaries.
Edmonton is situated on the road to Hertford and Ware, at the distance of about seven miles from Shoreditch-church. The parish is bounded on the east by the river Lea, on the north by Enfield, on the south by Tottenham, and on the west and north-west by East Barnet in Hertfordshire, and Fryarn Barnet, Hadley, and South Mims in Middlesex. The two last were formerly (as appears by ancient records) hamlets belonging to this parish.
Extent, soil, &c.
The parish is divided into four wards, distinguished by the names of Church-street, Bury-street, Fore-street, and South-street. It is computed that it contains (exclusive of the allotment in Enfield chase) about 3660 acres of land, of which about 1090 are arable in common fields, and about 570 inclosed arable; about 1540 in meadows; and 430 marsh-land. Twenty-seven acres are occupied by market-gardeners. The soil in general is a good loam, in some parts gravel, in others clay and moor-earth.
Allotment of Enfield-chafe.
It having been determined, by a decree dated 23 Hen. VIII. (a copy of which is among the parochial records,) that this parish had a right of common upon Enfield-chase (fn. 3), when the division of the chase was made by act of parliament in 1777, a tract of land, containing 1231 A. 2R. 6P. was allotted to Edmonton, and is now, by virtue of that act, a part of the parish. None of this allotment has yet been cultivated.
The parish of Edmonton pays the sum of 1401l. 19s. 9d. to the land-tax, which, in the year 1793, was at the rate of about two shillings in the pound.
When King James. I. laid a part of Enfield-chase into Theobald'spark, he inclosed a spot of ground, on which an ancient fair (known by the name of Bush-fair) had been held from time immemorial. As a compensation for having so done, he granted letters patent, anno 1614, to Robert Kidderminster, his heirs and assigns, empowering them to hold an annual fair on the festival of St. Giles, and the ensuing day, at a place near Cathol-gate, (leading to Northaw-common,) with liberty to build two houses for the accommodation of persons resorting to the fair (fn. 4). Petitions having been presented from the neighbouring inhabitants, and persons claiming right of common, against holding the fair on this spot, King James granted the said Robert Kidderminster a new patent the next year, for holding two fairs annually, on a certain part of the chase near South-gate (within the parish of Edmonton (fn. 5) ). These fairs, by the name of Beggar's-bush fairs, are both still held, pursuant to the last patent, on St. Giles's and Ascension-day. The patent was purchased at a public auction, anno 1771, by Mrs. Shuttleworth, who kept a fruit-shop opposite the Mansion-house. It is now the property of Mr. Pike.
A customary fair is held also in the town of Edmonton, called a Statute-fair, for hiring servants; that practice, however, has been for some time discontinued, and it is now merely a holiday-fair.
The manor of Edmonton belonged, in the reign of Edward the Confessor, to Asgar, master of the horse (fn. 6). William the Conqueror gave it to Geoffrey de Magnaville, or Mandeville, ancestor of Geoffrey de Mandeville who was created Earl of Essex by King Stephen (fn. 7). After the death of William Earl of Essex, anno 1190 (fn. 8), this manor was inherited by his aunt Beatrice, (daughter of William de Mandeville, and sister of Geoffrey Earl of Essex above-mentioned,) who married William de Say (fn. 9), ancestor of the Lords Say of Berling. It continued in that family (fn. 10) till the year 1370, when it was sold by William, the fourth Lord Say, to Adam Francis, citizen of London, who had been Lord Mayor in 1352 and 1356, and who had made other large purchases in this parish (fn. 11). Adam (fn. 12), his only son, dying in his infancy, his daughter Matilda became his sole heir. She was thrice married; first, to John Aubrey; secondly, to Sir Alan Buxhull; and lastly, to John Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, by whom she was mother of Thomas, the last Earl of that family. Dugdale says, that a great part of the large inheritance of Maud Countess of Salisbury, was sold by her husband (fn. 13). It seems probable, therefore, that he aliened the manor of Edmonton to Sir Adam Francis, who, it is most likely, was his wife's cousin, and who died seised of it, anno 1418, leaving issue two daughters; Agnes, married to Sir William Porter, and Elizabeth, the wife of Sir Thomas Charlton (fn. 14). Agnes Porter dying without issue (fn. 15), the manor was inherited by Sir Thomas Charlton the younger, who died seised of it anno 1466 (fn. 16). His son Sir Richard was attainted in the first year of Henry VII. and this manor being, by virtue of his attainder, vested in the crown, was immediately granted (by the name of the manor of Edelmeton als. Sayesburye) to Sir Thomas Bourchier in tail male (fn. 17). Henry VIII. in the third year of his reign, granted the reversion (on the like terms) to Sir John Petche and John Sharpe (fn. 18); and in the year 1523, (Sir Thomas Bourchier and John Sharpe being then both deceased without male issue,) to Sir Henry Courtenay, afterwards Marquis of Exeter (fn. 19), who, in 1532, obtained a grant of the manor in fee (fn. 20), and the next year had the King's licence to alien it to William Sulyard (fn. 21). The latter, in 1534, sold one moiety to Balthazer de Guerseye (fn. 22). Soon after this, the manor was purchased by the King; and in 1537 Thomas Lord Cromwell was appointed the steward (fn. 23). It continued in the crown, and was part of Queen Henrietta Maria's settlement. In 1650, having been seized as her property, it was sold to John Clayton and William Barwik (fn. 24). At the Restoration, it reverted to the Queen Dowager, who died anno 1669; it was afterwards part of Queen Katherine's jointure. King Charles II. in the year 1676, granted a reversionary lease of this manor, for the term of forty-one years after the Queen's death, to John Earl of Rochester (fn. 25). Queen Katherine died in 1705. The unexpired term of the lease was purchased about the year 1720 (fn. 26) by William Gould, Esq. from whom (the lease having been renewed) it descended to the late Thomas Teshmaker, Esq. whose widow, Mrs. Sarah Teshmaker, is the present lessee under the crown, and, as such, lady of the manor. She resides at Forde's-grove.
Surveys of the manor.
The manor of Edmonton, as described in Doomsday-book, contained twenty-six carucates of arable land, of which sixteen hides were in demesne. The lord employed four ploughs; the villeins twenty two. One villein held a hide of land; three others half a hide each. Twenty villeins held a virgate each; and twenty-four half a virgate; Nine bordars held three virgates each; four others held five acres each; four others four acres each. There were four cottars who held four acres jointly; and ten cottars and four villeins, who held jointly one hide and a virgate. There were four slaves, and a mill valued at ten shillings. There was meadow sufficient for twenty-six ploughlands; and moreover twenty-five shillings rents; pasture for the cattle; pannage for two thousand hogs; and twelve shillings issuing from the profits of the woods and pasture; in the whole valued at 40l. both in the time of Edward the Confessor and when the survey was taken, but was worth only 20l. when first granted to Geoffrey de Mandeville. In 1271 the manor was valued at 50l. 13s. 6½d. viz. the manor-house (fn. 27) at twenty shillings per annum, (a remarkably high valuation at that time,) five hundred and ninety-three acres of arable, at four-pence an acre; fifty-eight of meadow, at 2s. 6d.; and sixty of several pasture, at one shilling. The lord of the manor had bedge-bote and bey-bote, and right to turn into Enfield-park; this right was valued at twenty shillings (fn. 28). In a valuation of the manor, 33 Edw. III. only four hundred acres of arable are mentioned (fn. 29). In the year 1650 the clear yearly value of the manor was reported to be 1061. 4s. 4d. (fn. 30).
Sir Robert Aguillon's manor.
Sir Robert Aguillon had a small manor in this parish in the reign of Edward I. (fn. 31) It consisted of ten acres of meadow, and twenty shillings rents of assize. From Sir Robert Aguillon it descended to Hugh Bardolf, who married his daughter Isabel (fn. 32), and was, anno 1347, the property of his grandson, Sir John Bardolf (fn. 33).
Manor of Wylloughby.
Philip Wylgheby died anno 1306, seised of an estate in the parishes of Edmonton and Tottenham, consisting of eighty-four acres of araable, twenty-five of meadow, and eighty of wood, for which he owed suit of court to Geoffrey de Say, and certain services to the priors of the Holy Trinity and of St. John of Jerusalem (fn. 34). This estate, which was inherited by his brother William (fn. 35), was afterwards, under the name of the manor of Wylby, or Willoughby, the property of the Beaumont family. Henry de Beaumont succeeded to it on the death of his father Sir John, anno 1398 (fn. 36). By the inquisition taken of Lord Beaumont's property after his attainder in 1461, it appears, that certain persons were enfeoffed of this manor for the use of Lord Beaumont and his heirs; and that William Lord Hastings had till then received the profits (fn. 37). Lord Hastings, by his will, bearing date 1482, directed that his feoffees should make an estate of the manor of Edmonton, (meaning, I suppose, this of Willoughby, which was sometimes so called,) immediately after his decease, to Katherine his wife, for the term of her life (fn. 38). William Lord Beaumont, who was restored to his honours by Henry VII. and in whom the title became extinct, died in the year 1505, seised of the manor of Wylbies, or Beaumont's lands (fn. 39), the inheritance of which would have belonged to Francis Lord Lovell, but in consequence of his attainder became vested in the crown. Henry VIII. anno 1510, granted it for life to Elizabeth Countess of Oxford (fn. 40) (whose first husband was William Lord Beaumont above mentioned). In the year 1523 he granted the reversion to Sir Wiscan Browne in tail male (fn. 41); and again, in the last year of his reign, to Sir Philip Hoby, gentleman of his privy-chamber (fn. 42). The last grant was in exchange for other lands. The manor was then valued at 12l. per annum, and the reversionary interest at five years purchase. It was soon afterwards the property of Jasper Phesaunt, Esq. who, in the year 1550, sold it to John Manchell, Esq. (fn. 43) whose son, John Manchell, aliened it, anno 1597, to Peter Collet, Esq. (fn. 44) Mr. Collet left two daughters, Hester, wife of Sir Anthony Ancher; and Sarah, wife of Sir Peter Hayman (fn. 45). The manor having been divided between the two co-heirs, Sir Peter Hayman and his son Henry aliened one moiety, anno 1630, to John, afterwards Sir John Melton, Knt. who sold it again, anno 1638, to George Pryor, Esq. Mr. Pryor the same year purchased the other moiety, which had been aliened to Sir Ferdinando Heybourne, and was then the property of Ferdinando Pulford and his mother Anne. The manor being again united, descended to Charles Pryor, son of George, who was in possession, anno 1697. About this time the estate having been divided, certain lands, parcel of the manor, comprehending the greater part, if not the whole, of what lay within the parish of Edmonton, and among the rest a meadow in which is a moat, called Willoughbymoat, (the site, no doubt, of the ancient manor-house (fn. 46),) came by several mesne conveyances, to the present proprietor, Charles Snell Chauncy, Esq.
The manor of Willoughby was valued at twenty-two marks per annum in 1398; at 10l. in 1464; and at 121. in 1547.
Manor of Deephams.
The manor of Deephams, or Diphams, now called Deepham'sfarm, took its name from Roger de Depeham, who made various purchases in this parish in the reign of Edward III. (fn. 47) These lands were included in Adam Francis's purchases before mentioned, and, by the name of the manor of Dipham's, were granted and aliened, with that of Edmonton or Saysbury, till the Marquis of Exeter separated them, and granted the former to Richard Hankys (fn. 48), who aliened it, anno 1541, to William Staunford (fn. 49). The latter sold it again, the same year, to John Grimston (fn. 50), in whose family it continued till 1583, when it was aliened by Gabriel Grimston to Thomas Wroth (fn. 51); and by the latter, anno 1588, to William Lord Burleigh (fn. 52). William Earl of Salisbury, in the year 1628, sold it to Thomas Style, Esq. (fn. 53) from whom it descended, by intermarriage, to the Ravenscrofts, and was aliened, in the year 1789, by Thomas Highlord Ravenscroft, Esq. to Thomas Cock, Esq. of Tottenham, whose widow, Mrs. Anne Cock, is the present proprietor.
Manors of Bowes and Dernford, Paul's house and Fordes.
Origin of their names.
Lessees of the manors.
The dean and chapter of St. Paul's possess certain manors in this parish, called Bowes and Dernford, Paul's-house and Fordes, for which, jointly, they hold a court-baron and view of frank-pledge. The family of Forde was settled at Edmonton in the reign of Henry III. (fn. 54) I find the name of Roger Dernford in a record relating to the neighbouring parish of Enfield, temp. Edw. III. (fn. 55) Paul'shouse should be Pole-house, by which name it is described in most ancient deeds, as having been the property of John atte Pole, or de la Pole, who purchased a house in Edmonton, called Gysors-place, of William Gysors, and some lands and tenements of Robert de Munden, temp. Edw, III. (fn. 56) The first mention I have found of the manor of Bowes is in a deed, (dated 1397, 19 Ric. II.) by which John Northampton, citizen of London, grants the manors of Bowes and Derneford, with Pole-house and Fordes, to William Horsecroft and others (fn. 57). These manors passed all together, by several mesne conveyances (fn. 58), to Sir John Daubriggecourt and others, who granted them, anno 1411, (11 Hen. IV.) to Thomas Langley, Bishop of Durham, Ralph Earl of Westmoreland, and others. The last grantees, two years afterwards, surrendered them to the King, who appears to have granted them immediately to the church of St. Paul's (fn. 59). The dean and chapter, in the year 1428, leased all these manors to William Bothe for his life. Robert Frampton, Esq. was lessee of the manor of Bowes and Derneford in 1694; and at an earlier period, Sir Edward Barkham (fn. 60); previously to 1755, John Dashwood King, Esq.; about that time, Sir James Pennyman; anno 1777, Mr. Hare; in 1780, the late Mr. Berdmore the dentist; the present lessee is Mr. Charles Hutchins. The reserved rent of this manor is 20l. and five shillings, or two fat capons, besides ten shillings and a penny, formerly paid to the lord paramount, but granted to the dean and chapter by Queen Elizabeth. Dorothy Burrough was lessee of the manor of Paul's-house and Fordes in 1694; before that time Adam Fulwood; in 1701, Mr. Skinner. The present lessee is Thomas Smith, Esq. who lately purchased the lease of James Vere, Esq. and Mrs. Judith Teshmaker. The reserved rent of these manors is 10l.
Manor of Ludgrave's.
The manor of Ludgrave's extends into this parish; but the greater part of it is in Hadley (fn. 61).
Pymmes, which Norden calls " a proper little house of the Right "Honble Lord Burghley, lord high treasurer of England (fn. 62)," took its name from the family of Pymme, who were settled at Edmonton in the reign of Edward II. (fn. 63) It is mentioned among the property of which Robert Earl of Salisbuay died seised in 1612 (fn. 64). The Cecils had another farm called Pleasantines (fn. 65), which still goes by that name, and some lands, (parcel of the manor,) formerly the property of William Lord Paget, and granted to Lord Salisbury by King James, anno 1608 (fn. 66). Pleasantines has been held with the manor of Deephams ever since Lord Burleigh's death, and is now the property of Mrs. Cock.
Ralph Green, anno 1417, granted to John Wakeringe, keeper of the privy-feal, and others, all the lands in Edmonton which had been given him by Cardinal Beaufort (fn. 67).
Ralph de Hieron and others, in or about the time of Hen. III. gave forty-two acres of land, &c. to the priory of the Holy Trinity in London (fn. 68).
Wier, or Wyer-hall, an ancient mansion in this parish, took its name, perhaps, from the family of Wyrehalle, who had property in Edmonton in the reign of Edward III. (fn. 69) About the year 1581 it belonged to Jasper Leeke, Esq. who inherited it from his father. From that family it passed to the Huxleys, to whom it still belongs, being the property of Mrs. Sarah Huxley, under whom it is held on lease by Lewis Leitch, Esq. The house was rebuilt in the year 1611 by George Huxley, Esq. as appears both by the date and initials on the pipes, and the arms of Huxley over a chimney-piece in one of the principal rooms. An ancient door-way remains belonging to a former house, of which it is probable that the hall also was a part. It is sitted up with scrolled pannels, among which the rose and pomegranate, the devices of England and Arragon, frequently occur. In this hall are some good family-pictures. In an upper room are the arms of the Merchant-Adventurers, to which company it is most probable Mr. Huxley belonged.
Bush-hill Park, the seat of Mrs. Catherine Mellish, relict of the late Joseph Mellish, Esq. was formerly the property of the Sambrooke family, from whom it descended to John Gore, Esq. Mrs. Mellish's father. The park exhibits some very pleasing scenery. It is said to have been originally laid out by Le Nautre. The house commands a good prospect towards Woodford, Chinkford, &c. In the hall is a very curious piece of carving in wood, by the celebrated Grinling Gibbons, representing the stoning of St. Stephen; the architectural parts are particularly fine. It stood for a long time at Gibbons's house at Deptford, where it attracted the notice of his neighbour, the scientific Mr. Evelyn, who was induced, by this favourable specimen of the artist's abilities, to recommend him warmly to the notice of Charles II. (fn. 70) The carving was afterwards purchased by the Duke of Chandos, and placed at Cannons, whence it was brought to Bush-hill.
On Bush-hill, adjoining to the seat of Samuel Clayton, Esq. (and inclosing a part of his garden,) are to be seen the remains of a circular entrenchment of considerable dimensions, by some supposed to have been a Roman camp; and by others, a British oppidum (fn. 71).
New River aqueduct.
When the water of the New River was brought to London by Sir Hugh Middelton, it was found necessary to adopt some method to obviate the inequality of the level at Bush-hill, for which purpose a wooden aqueduct, or open trough, was constructed, six hundred and sixty feet in length. It was supported by arches of various dimensions; the largest, under which ran a stream of water, was fifteen feet high and three feet wide. This arch was rebuilt in 1682, when Henry Earl of Clarendon was Governor of the New River Company. Over the centre was placed Sir Hugh Middelton's coat of arms (fn. 72). The aqueduct was kept in repair till the year 1784, when preparations were made for removing it, under the direction of Mr. Milne, surveyor to the company. For this purpose a new channel was contrived, by raising the ground on the sides, and making secure embankments. The work was completed the next year. The site of the wooden aqueduct lay within the pleasure-grounds of John Blackburn, Esq. to which the new channel is a considerable ornament. Mr. Blackburn's place was the property and residence of Sir Hugh Middelton, who left it to his son Simon. It afterwards belonged to Alderman Bathurst; and before Mr. Blackburn's purchase, had been occupied for more than ninety years by the family of Clark.
In the year 1780, the proprietors of the New River being alarmed by the threats of the rioters, who talked of destroying the wooden aqueduct, application was made to government for the protection of the military; in consequence of which, the 62d regiment of foot was quartered in and about Enfield till the danger was over.
The parish church of Edmonton, which stands near the sevenmile stone on the road to Enfield, is a large structure, consisting of a nave, chancel, and north aisle: at the west end is a square stone tower embattled. The windows of the chancel are gothic. The nave and aisle, which are of brick, were in a great measure rebuilt in 1772.
At the north-east corner of the chancel is an ancient altar-tomb of purbeck marble, richly ornamented with quatrefoils, &c. The arms and brass figures have been torn off (fn. 73). On the north wall is the monument of George Huxley, Esq. (fn. 74) of Wyer-hall, who died in 1627, and his wife Katherine, (afterwards married to Robert Viscount Kilmorey,) who died in 1629. On the south wall are those of Edward Rogers, Esq. (fn. 75) and his son Richard Rogers, Esq. who both died in 1661; and of Thomas Maule, Esq. (fn. 76) (1714). Within the rails of the altar are the tombs of Hezekiah Myddelton (1688); and Elizabeth, wife of John Lane, merchant (1690), (son and daughter of Simon Myddelton, Esq. of Hackney); and Henry Thompson, Esq. of Haughton-hall, in the county of Salop (1778). In other parts of the chancel, those of Mary, sixth daughter and twelfth child of Hugh Middelton, citizen and goldsmith (16..); Mary, wife of Simon Middelton (1656); Sir Nicholas Butler (1700); Anne, wife of Richard Andrew (1704); Sir Felix Feast, Knt. (1723); Sarah, wife of Charles Molloy, Esq. (1758); and William Yates, Esq. (1787).
In the south-east corner of the nave is a monument with a depressed gothic arch, richly ornamented with foliage, to the memory of John Kirton, Esq. the fourth in descent from Alan Kirton, who died anno 1362. The arms (fn. 77), which are described by Norden, have been almost obliterated by the white-washer. On the same wall are the monuments of John Huxley, Esq. (1661); Anne Huxley (1653); John Dent, Esq. (fn. 78) of Thornbury, in the county of Gloucester, (grandson of George Huxley) (1659); and Elizabeth, wife of John Tatem, Esq. (fn. 79) and daughter of John Huxley (1730). On the north side of the nave are those of Thomas Maynard, citizen of London (1770); and Sarah, wife of Edward Walbancke (fn. 80) (1778). On the floor, the tombs of Edward Nowell, formerly of Merley in the county of Lancaster (1616); Joshua Galliard, Esq. (1700); Mr. John Harris (1730); Sarah, wife of Jonathan Keate, Esq. (1733); Lawrence Parker, Esq. (1749); Mrs. Honor Huxley (1762); and Susanna Margaret, wife of John Oakes Hardy, Esq. captain in the navy (1781). On the wall of the north aisle are the monuments of Jasper Draper, Esq. (fn. 81) (1657); and Elizabeth Warren, daughter of Dr. William Steers (1771). Near the door is a brass plate, with some English verses, to the memory of Rowland Monoux (fn. 82) (no date); at the east end are the monuments of Edward Nowell, Esq. (fn. 83) (the date concealed by a gallery), and Francis Chaplin (1720). On the floor, near the door, is the tomb of ....... wife of Sir Hugh Middelton, Bart. (164.). In this aisle are the tombs also of John Asplyn and Godfrey Askew, (a brass plate without date); Nicholas Boone, Esq. and Elizabeth his wife (a brass plate also without date); Thomas Sandiford of the island of Barbadoes (1712); William Gould, Esq. (1733); Mr. Thomas Fossick (1767); Peter Roberts, Esq. (1773); Anne, wife of John Blackburn, Esq. (1786); and Mary, wife of Mr. Joseph Holmes (1787).
Peter Fabell, the Merry Devil of Edmonton.
Weever mentions the tombs of John Innocent, priest and undertreasurer of England, who died in 1399; John Daniel (1444); and Thomas Charlton, lord of the manor, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir' Adam Francis, and died 1447 (fn. 84). " There is a fable (says Norden) of one Peter Fabell, that lyeth in this church, who is said to have beguiled the devell by policie for money; but the devell is deceit itselfe, and hardly deceived."—" Belike (says Weever) he was some ingenious conceited gentleman who did use some sleightie stricks for his own disport. He lived and died in the reign of Hen. VII. says the book of his merry pranks." The book Weever refers to is a pamphlet, now very scarce, called " The Life and Death of the Merry Devil of Edmonton; with the pleasant Pranks of Smug the Smith, &c." These pleasant pranks compose the greater part of the book, which informs us, that Peter Fabell was born at Edmonton, and lived and died there in the reign of Hen. VII. He is called " an excellent scholar, and well seene in the arte of " magicke (fn. 85)." His story was worked up into a play, called also " The Merry Devil of Edmonton (fn. 86);" which has been falsely attributed to Shakspeare, but is now generally supposed to have been written by Michael Drayton. There are five editions of this play; the first came out in 1608; the scene is laid at Edmonton and Enfield.
Norden mentions also a very ancient tomb at Edmonton, with a
fair marble, on which was a figure in brass of a man in armour.
Weever says, it was thought by some to have been one of the ancient family of Mandeville; by others, one of the Darcy family. It
is more probable that it was the tomb of Adam Francis, who purchased the manor, or his nephew Sir Adam; the arms of Francis,
impaling another coat, being among those copied from the tomb
by Norden. (fn. 87). The following verses were remaining in Weever's
" Erth goyth upon erth, as mold upon mold,
Erth goyth upon erth al glysterynge in gold;
As thogh erth to erth ne'r turne shold,
And yet must Erth to erth soner than he wold."
Tombs in the church-yard.
In the church-yard are the tombs of Anne, wife of Tryce Hammond (1709); William Wilson (1725); Rev. William Washbourne, subdean of St. Paul's, and vicar of Edmonton (1737); William Richardson, Gent. (1741); John Snee, jun. (1750); Mary, relict of Captain Daniel Mocher (1759); Captain John Hunter (1760); John Scott, Esq. (1761); John Snee, Sen. Esq. (1763); Mary, wife of William Wilson, Esq. (1765); Rev. Francis Cooke, vicar (1765); Joseph Caraffa, Gent. (1768); John Rooke, A. B. son of Henry Rooke, Esq. (1769); Rev. James Barclay of Baliolcollege, Oxford (1771); James Ware, schoolmaster (1771); Samuel Savage, V.D.M. (1772); Samuel Ellis, Esq. (1772); William Pinckney, A. M. sub-dean of St. Paul's and vicar of Edmonton (1775); Rev. John Lindsay, rector of Waltham-abbey and of Upper Swell in the county of Gloucester (1779); James Vere, Esq. (1779); Edward Yardley, Esq. (1779); Captain Richard Morrison (1780); Mr. Robert Kinningsley (1780); John Harrison, Esq. (1781); Mr. George Stanbridge (1782); Edward Barker, barrister at law (1783); William Worsfold, Esq. (1784); Bartholomew Abell, surgeon and apothecary (1784); Mr. William Cooke (1784); Richard Hussey, Gent. of the Middle Temple (1785); Mr. James Legrew, (1786); John Theophilus Holbrooke, Esq. of the county of Salop (1789); Mr. John Hammond (1790); Mrs. Judith Le Mesurier (1791); Hannah, wife of the Rev. Isaac Henley (1791); Henry Jones, Esq. (1792) ; and Susanna, wife of John Milward, Esq. (1792).
There was formerly a singular epitaph (fn. 88) in this church-yard, (on a head-stone now removed,) to the memory of one William Newbury, who died in 1695. He was said to have been a hostler at one of the inns, and to have lost his life in consequence of some improper medicines administered by an ignorant fellow-servant.
The rectory of Edmonton was appropriated, at a very early period, to the monks of Hurley, on whom Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, settled an annual pension of one hundred shillings in lieu of the tithes of Edmonton and Enfield (fn. 89), which he gave to the abbey of Walden, founded by himself anno 1136 (fn. 90). By a chronicle of that abbey in the British Museum we find, that Geoffrey, the second Earl, confirmed all his father's grants, but took away a large and very excellent field adjoining to the parish-church at Edmonton, and unjustly added it to his own demesnes (fn. 91). After the dissolution of monasteries, the rectory and advowson were granted by Henry VIII. to Thomas Lord Audley (fn. 92), who surrendered them again to the king, anno 1544 (fn. 93). The next year they were granted to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's (fn. 94), in whose possession they still continue.
The rectory of Edmonton was rated at fifty marks, anno 1327 (fn. 95). The abbot of Walden's portion was forty shillings, and the vicar's salary one hundred shillings. The parsonage was leased, anno 1641, to Edward Nowell, Esq. (fn. 96); to the family of Thorne, anno 1694 and 1701; to Mrs. Lynch in 1755; and in 1777, to Mrs. Rawling. The lease has since that time gone through several hands, and is now the property of Mr. William Cobbett. The reserved rent is 20l. and two good capons, or five shillings. In 1650 the glebe, with the parsonage-house, &c. was valued at 47l. 6s. 8d. per ann. and the tithes at 200l. (fn. 97)
Philip de Waude was presented to the vicarage in 1397, to hold it with all profits and arable lands, and one acre of meadow, as William, the chaplain, had enjoyed it (fn. 98). In 1650 it was presented by the jury to the commissioners appointed to inquire into the state of ecclesiastical benefices, that there was a ruinous house, with five acres of glebe belonging to the vicarage, valued at 61. per ann. (fn. 99) The vicarage in the king's books is rated at 181.
William Muffet was turned out of this benefice for his loyalty during the civil war (fn. 100). Ralph Panne was presented to it by the protector in 1654 (fn. 101), and Giles Andrews in 1658 (fn. 102). Muffet was restored in 1660, and lived till 1679 (fn. 103).
The present vicar (instituted in 1776) is the Rev. Henry Owen, M.D. author of some learned critical and theological works.
Peter Fanelour, (one of the sounders of Guildhall chapel,) who died anno 1361, seised of various premises in Edmonton (fn. 104), built a chapel adjoining to the parish-church, in which he sounded a chantry for two priests, and endowed it with a rent-charge of about twenty marks per ann. to be paid out of certain houses in London. The chantry was called after his name, and the patronage was vested in the vicar (fn. 105). It appears by the chantry-roll at the Augmentationoffice, that the Chamber of London were to find a chantry-priest for the church of Edmonton, and to allow him 131. 6s. 8d. per ann. to pay 13s. 4d. for a lamp, the like sum for an obit, and 6s. 8d. to the vicar. The same record adds, that the chantry-priests had a house in Edmonton, valued at 13s. 4d. per ann.; another which they let at ten shillings; and a few acres of land.
The Quakers and Presbyterian Diffenters have each a meetinghouse in this parish; and there are three for the people called Methodists. The Quakers have a burial ground at Winchmorehill.
The register of burials in this parish begins in the year 1557; that of baptisms in 1559. They appear to have been very accurately kept, except during a part of the last century.
Comparative state of population.
|Average of baptisms.||Average of burials.|
|1630–1639||42 1/10||53 1/10|
|1730–1739 (fn. 106)||81½||1054/5|
The increase of population during the last two centuries appears to have been in a proportion of about three to one; the present number of houses is about 810.
In the year 1603 there were one hundred and forty-five burials at Edmonton; eighty-five of which were persons who sell victims to the plague. In 1625 there were one hundred and fifty-seven burials, of which fifty-three only are marked peste.
Extracts from the Register.
Elizabeth Countess of Lenox.
"Eliz. f. Wmi Candish, Arm. baptis. Jul. 5, 1586." William Cavendish was father of the first Earl of Devonshire of that name. His daughter Elizabeth married Charles Stuart, Earl of Lenox, and was mother of the unfortunate Arabella Stuart (fn. 107).
"Frances Vere sil. Comitis Oxfordiæ sepult. Sep. 12, 1587." A child
of Edward Earl of Oxford, who married Lord Burleigh's daughter.
It is probable that she died at Pymmes, her grandfather's house.
"Sr Philip Matthews, buried Dec. 7, 1630."
"The R Honourable Sarah Lady Vicountesse Corbett, of Linslade, was buryed June 10, 1682." The daughter of Sir Robert Monson, and widow of Sir Vincent Corbett, Bart. She was created Viscountess Corbett of Lyncbdale in the county of Salop, for life.
" Nicholas Chambers, servt to Dr. John Tillotson, buried Augst "20, 1684." Archbishop Tillotson resided many years at Edmonton, whither he continued occasionally to resort after he was promoted to the see of Canterbury. The house which he occupied is now in the tenure of Captain Dorrien.
" Brook, the son of John Taylor, Gent. and Olive ux. was baptised Augst 24, 1685." Brook Taylor was son of John Taylor, Esq. of Bisrons-house in Kent, (some time residing at Edmonton,) by Olivia, daughter of Sir Nicholas Tempest, Bart. He was educated at the University of Cambridge, where he soon became attached to mathematical and philosophical pursuits, and cultivated a friendship with Sir Isaac Newton, and the most eminent men in those branches of science. Dr. Taylor was several years secretary to the Royal Society, to whose transactions he contributed many ingenious papers. His principal work was a well-known and learned treatise on Linear Perspective. He died Dec. 29, 1731, and was buried at St. Anne's, Soho. His life has been written by his grandson, Sir William Young, Bart. and is prefixed to a posthumous treatise which has been lately printed for private circulation, and is accompanied by a portrait of the author.
Sir Henry Bathurst.
Sr Henry Bathurst, Knt, buried May 5, 1695." Sir Henry was
descended from Robert Bathurst of Horsemanden in Kent, a brother
of Edward, ancestor to the Right Hon. Earl Bathurst. Sir Henry
died without issue; his father, John Bathurst, Esq. Alderman of
London, who was settled at Edmonton, had a lease of the royalties
of that manor from Queen Henrietta Maria in 1663. (fn. 108). Alderman
Bathurst's name is to be found in the list of persons who were to
have been made Knights of the Royal Oak by Charles II. if the
foundation of that order had taken place (fn. 109).
"Sr Charles Lee, Knt. buried Oct. 18, 1700."
"Sr Jeremiah Sambrooke, Knt. buried May 4, 1705."
"Sr Samuel Vanacker Sambrooke, Bart. buried Jan. 4, 1715."
"Sr Jeremy Vanacker Sambrooke, Bart. buried July 13, 1740."
Nicholas Vanacker, Esq. of London, was created a Baronet in the year 1700, with remainder (on failure of male issue from himself and his brother John) to the heirs male of Sir Jeremy Sambrooke, Knt. Sir S. V. Sambrooke succeeded to the title on the death of Sir Nicholas Vanacker. Sir J. V. Sambrooke dying without issue, it went to an uncle, and is now extinct. The Sambrookes lived at Bush-hill, now the seat of Mrs. Mellish, one of the representatives of that family. (fn. 110).
"Dr. Thomas Gill, buried July 9, 1714." A physician of eminence, of whom there is an engraved portrait.
Countess of Oxford.
"Elizabeth Harley, Countess Dowager of Oxford and Mortimer, buried June 25, 1737." Widow of the Lord Treasurer. Collins says, that Robert Earl of Oxford married to his second wife Sarab, daughter of Thomas Middelton, Esq. and grand-daughter of Sir Hugh Middelton, Bart. Edmondson also calls her Sarah.
"The Right Rev. Father in God Edmund Keen, Bishop of Chester, batchelor, and Mary Andrews of this place, spinster, were married by licence, May. 12, 1751."
Sir Thomas Birch.
"Sr Thomas Birch, buried March 22, 1757." One of the Justices of the Common Pleas, to which situation he was promoted in 1746. He received the honour of knighthood on occasion of ac companying his brethren of the law when they went up in a body to address the late King upon the alarm of an invasion in 1745. Sir Thomas Birch died on the 14th of March 1757, being then the senior judge of the court (fn. 112).
"Sr Atwell Lake, Bart. buried April 28, 1760." He was Governor of the Hudson's-Bay Company. His father, Sir Bibye Lake, was created a Baronet in 1711, being descended from Edward Lake, LL. D. advocate-general for Ireland, who had a patent for the same honour from Charles I. but his descendants had never availed themselves of it till the reign of Queen Anne, when Sir Bibye Lake laid it before the Lord Treasurer, by whom it was mislaid; in consequence of which the Queen granted a new patent (fn. 113). The present Baronet, (son of Sir Atwell,) is Sir James Winter Lake, who has a seat at Edmonton near Tanners-End, called "the Firs."
"July 20, 1767. Charles Molloy buried." Mr. Molloy, a gentleman of good family in Ireland, was born at Dublin, and educated at Trinity-college. He afterwards became a member of the Middle Temple; and was concerned in some periodical works, particularly "Fog's Journal," and " Common Sense." Of the latter, he was the principal author. He is recorded in the Biographia Dramatica as a writer for the stage, having produced two comedies, and a farce called the " Halspay-Officers," in which Peg Fryer, an actress of Charles II.'s days, appeared, after having left the stage for fifty years, in the character of Lady Richlove, and afterwards danced with wonderful agility.
"June 20, 1771. James Barclay buried." Son of James Barclay, who was many years curate of Edmonton, and editor of a well-known English dictionary. The son was an ingenious young man, and distinguished himself by an answer to Kenrick's attack on Johnson's Shakspeare (fn. 114). He wrote some poems also, which are printed in Pearch's Collection. Mr. Barclay died of a consumption at the age of twenty-four, as appears by the following inscription on his tomb in the church-yard: "Revdi Jac. Barclay, "A. B. optimæ spei juvenis Coll. Ball. Oxon. haud dudum alumni, siliique dilectissimi, M. S. hoc monumentum dicârunt mæstissimi parentes. Dum vixit ille, bonarum literarum scientiâ, morum elegantiâ, rerum hominumque super annos cognitione veræque religionis amore maximè eminuit; easque ob causas optimis doctissimisque viris semper in deliciis suit. Acerrimo phthisi morbo novem mensibus conflictum, tandem divinæ voluntati piâ mente parens, vitamque hanc molestam relinquens, in Christo obdormivit 13° Junii A. D. 1771, annos 24 natus."
"James Vere, buried Sept. 9, 1779." Mr. Vere was author of a book intitled "A Physical and Moral Inquiry into the Causes of that Internal Restlessness in the Mind of Man which has been the Complaint of all Ages." He was a worthy charitable man, and a considerable benefactor to the girls' school at Edmonton.
Richard Rogers, citizen of London, anno 1578, left 2l. 12s. per ann. to buy bread weekly for the poor; 13s. 4d. to be distributed in money on the first Sunday in August, and 6s. 8d. for a sermon. Richard Rogers, jun. anno 1633, added Il. 6s. per ann. to the allowance for bread, and 10s. 8d. to the money; both of which to be given to such persons as did not partake of his father's gift. Edward Rogers, anno 1659, added Il. 6s. per annum for bread; and he and Richard Rogers, jun. gave 3s. 4d. each, in addition to the former 6s. 8d. for a sermon. All these gifts were charged on lands in Edmonton. John Wilde, Gent. anno 1662, gave 2l. per ann. out of a tenement in Edmonton, for bread. Jasper Hallam, anno 1625, 2l. per ann. for the same purpose, charged on lands in Edmonton, besides 10s. to the vicar; the same sum for a sermon on Good Friday; and 6s. 8d. to the church-wardens. Mr. John Lewitt, anno 1771, gave 100l. in the 4 per cents.; and Mr. George Stanbridge, anno 1780, 400l. 3 per cent. consol. for bread.
Henry Cade, by deed of gift, 1578, gave 6s. 8d. per ann. to the poor, charged on lands in Edmonton. John Wilde gave 4l. per ann. to be distributed among sick families. Mrs. Judith Olstone, anno 1677, gave 4l. per ann. to the poor, charged on lands in Edmonton.
Latimer's school, and other benefactions, for the education of children.
Edward Latimer, anno 1624, bequeathed a messuage and appurtenances at Edmonton, and lands at Hammersmith, for the purpose of clothing and educating eight boys, between the age of seven and twelve. These lands were leased, anno 1648, for seventy years, at the rent of 10l. 13s. 4d.; they now produce about 70l. and the number of boys is increased to twenty-five, who are clothed, and taught writing, reading, and arithmetic. Thomas Style, Esq. anno 1679, left 20l. per ann. to a schoolmaster to instruct twenty boys in grammar and Latin, and 10l. to apprentice two boys each year, at the age of twelve. John Wilde left 4l. per ann. to educate four boys, and 61. to apprentice two. Mr. Henry Smith, anno 1666, gave 2l. per ann. to teach two boys, which is paid out of premises in Edmonton.
Mr. George Stanbridge, anno 1780, left the sum of 1000l. 3 per cent. bank-annuities (fn. 115), to the girls' school, which had been established principally at his instance two years before. James Vere, Esq. gave 300l. to this school. Mr. R. Barnevelt, 200l. The present stock amounts to 2300l. of which sum 1550l. is in the 3 per cents. and 750l. in the 4 per cents. An annual charity sermon is preached for its benefit.
Mr. John Wilde, above-mentioned, (who died anno 1662) built three alms-houses near the church-gate, to which he bequeathed 4l. per ann. as an endowment. Thomas Style, Esq. (who died anno 1679) built twelve alms-houses for poor aged persons near the same spot, endowed them with 331. 16s. per ann., and left Il. 16l. per ann. for repairs. This endowment, and his other benefactions, were charged upon Deephams-farm. Mr. Lewitt, anno 1771, left 800l. 4 per cent. bank-annuities, to the poor in Style's almshouses; and Mr. George Stanbridge, 500l. bank-stock, to Style's and Wilde's.
The residue of John Wilde's property, after paying the benefactions already mentioned, and deducting 4l. per ann. to the support of a poor scholar at Cambridge, 2l. to a person for letting the water out of the highways, twenty shillings to the trustees, and 2l. for a dinner, goes by the will of the donor to the repairs of the church.
Felix Clerke, on condition of being permitted to inclose a piece of waste, anno 1654, settled ten shillings per ann. on the poor. By the act for inclosing Enfield-chase, the proprietor of the Old-park is bound to pay the sum of 5l. per ann. for ever to the parish of Edmonton, in consideration of their making and maintaining a road from Fillcap's-gate to Enfield Old-park allotment.
The hamlet of South-gate, in this parish, is situated about three miles from the church; it contains (with Palmer's-green,) about one hundred and eighty houses.
Minchenden-house, the seat of the late Duke of Chandos, was built by John Nicholls, Esq. and is situated on or near the site of an ancient mansion called Arnold's, which belonged, in the last century, to John Weld, Esq. ancestor of the Welds of Lulworth-castle, and founder of South-gate chapel, which was consecrated in the year 1615 by Bishop King. The rights of the church of Edmonton having been strictly preserved by the sentence of consecration; the chapel was appropriated to the use of the inhabitants of the house called Arnold's, and the neighbouring hamlets of South-street (or South-gate) and Bowes. The patronage was vested in John Weld, Esq. his heirs and assigns, who were allowed to nominate a fit person to officiate, with consent of the vicar and the approbation of the bishop, and were to allow him a yearly stipend, not less than 131. 6s. 8d. (fn. 116) Sir John Weld (as appears by his epitaph in the chapel) gave the sum of 550l. to purchase lands, the produce of which was to be thus distributed: twenty marks to the curate; twenty marks to poor kindred; twelve-pence weekly in bread; ten shillings to the clerk; the remainder to be employed in repairing the chapel, or increasing the salary of the curate, who, in default of applications from poor kindred, was to have the twenty marks also that had been allotted to them. There has been no claim of this kind for several years. The patronage of the chapel has passed through various hands, and is now the property of Elizabeth, relict of Robert Winbolt, Esq. The present curate is the Rev. Thomas Winbolt, M. A.
The original dimensions of the chapel, which is a brick building, were forty-two feet by twenty (fn. 117). It was enlarged, towards the beginning of the present century, by the addition of a north aisle.
On the south wall of the chancel are the monuments of the founder, Sir John Weld, Knt. (fn. 118) who died in 1622, and Sir David Hechstetter, Knt. (fn. 119) who died in 1721. On the south wall of the nave is that of George Hadley, Esq. (fn. 119) who died anno 1654; and at the west end of the north aisle, a marble tablet to the memory of John Hill Winbolt, Gent. who died in 1790.
In the chapel-yard are the tombs of Thomas Hinton, citizen of London, who died in 1742; the Rev. Thomas Hinton (1755); Mary, relict of Luke Morgan, chaplain (1779); Sir Thomas Harris of Finchley, Knt. (1782); his widow, daughter of Sir Thomas Hare, Bart. (1791); and Samuel Purlewent, Esq. (1792).