The Environs of London: Volume 2, County of Middlesex. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1795.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
In old records the name of this place is written Hese, or Heese (fn. 1). It is situated near the Uxbridge road, at the distance of twelve miles from Tyburn turnpike. The parish lies in the hundred of Elthorne, and is bounded by Norwood on the East; Northolt, or Northall, on the North; Hillingdon on the West, and Harlington on the South. It contains 3160 acres of land, exclusive of the site of houses and gardens: 2150 acres are arable, 846 pasture, and 164 waste. The common-field lands (included in the above statement) are 1615 acres, about one half of which is cropped every year. The soil on the North side of the parish is a strong clay; on the South side loam, on a deep bed of gravel. The quota charged to the land-tax in Hayes is 542l. 16s. 1d. which is raised at the rate of about 2s. 7d. in the pound.
The manor of Hayes was bequeathed to the church of Canterbury by Warherdus, a priest. In his will, which bears date anno 830, he calls it his own patrimony, and describes it as containing 32 hides (fn. 2). The survey of Doomsday says, that it was taxed at 59 hides, being then the property of Archbishop Lanfranc. The land, continues that record, is of 40 carucates. Twelve hides are in demesne, on which two ploughs are employed. The freeholders and villeins employ 26 ploughs, and might use 12 more. The priest has one hide; three knights, six hides and a half; two villeins, two hides; 12 villeins, each half a hide; 20 villeins, a virgate each; and 40 villeins, half a virgate each: 16 bordars, two hides jointly. There are 12 cottars, and two slaves; a mill which produces 4s. rent, and meadow equal to one plough-land: pasture for the cattle of the town, pannage for 400 hogs, and 3 s. rents.; in the whole valued at 30l.; in King Edward's time at 40l. This manor was the property of Archbishop Stigand. In the survey of Archbishop Arundel's manors, taken when he was banished by the parliament, that of Hayes was said to contain 120 acres of arable land, valued at 40 s.; 18 acres of meadow, 27 s.; 180 acres of pasture, 30 s.; 23l. 3s. 1d. rents of assize; 64 hens; 120 eggs; profits of court 50s. (fn. 3)The manor of Hayes underwent the same alienations as that of Harrow till the year 1613, when it was sold by Dudley Lord North to John and Richard Page (fn. 4), who conveyed it the same year to John Millet, Esq. (fn. 5), whose son aliened it, anno 1641, to Sir John Franklyn of More Park (fn. 6). In 1677, Richard Franklyn, Esq. conveyed it to Roger Jenyns, Esq. and others. It continued in the family of Jenyns till aliened, anno 1729, by James Jenyns, Esq. to Sir George Cooke, Knt. In the year 1777, it was purchased of George Cooke, Esq. by Francis Ascough, Esq. father of George Merrick Ascough, Esq. the present proprietor.
The manor-house was formerly the occasional residence of the Archbishops of Canterbury. In the year 1095, Archbishop Anselm, then at variance with William Rusus, was commanded to remove from Mortlake, where he was keeping the seast of Whitsuntide, to his manor of Hayes, that messages might more conveniently pass between him and the King, who then kept his court at Windsor. Most of the English bishops waited upon Anselm at Hayes, to persuade him to submit to the King's terms, but without effect (fn. 7). A reconciliation soon afterwards took place, which lasted but a short time.
Cecily, relict of Sir Robert Grene, died anno 1481, seised of an estate in this parish called the Manor of Hayes, held under the Archbishop's manor (fn. 8). This estate, in the reign of Charles I. was the property of Rowland Reynolds, Esq. who died seised of it, anno 1640, leaving two daughters co-heirs. It is described in the inquisition of his property, as the manor of Hayes and Park-hall, and was held of John Millet, Esq. as lord paramount, by suit of court (fn. 9). Hayes-Park afterwards belonged to the family of Child. It is now in the occupation of Mr. Justice Heath, and the property of Joseph Fraine, Esq. Captain in the Navy, whose father purchased it of John Dod, Esq. of Swallow-field in the county of Berks.
The manor of Yeading, anciently Yeldinge, (i. e. Old meadow,) formerly belonged to Walter Langton, Bishop of Litchfield and Coventry, who had a charter of free-warren therein, anno 1307 (fn. 10). I have not as yet been able to learn any thing farther relating to it (fn. 11), than that it was purchased about the year 1736 for Benjamin Lethieullier, Esq. M. P. the present proprietor, then an infant.
The parish-church is built, for the most part, with slints, and consists of a chancel, nave, and two aisles. At the west end is a square embattled tower. In the south wall of the chancel are two stone stalls of the earliest Gothic architecture, with plain pointed arches; a piscina, with the drain very perfect; and another small recess, which was a closet, perhaps, for holding the chrism and sacramental elements. Some of the windows in the chancel are of the architecture which prevailed in the fourteenth century, others are lancet-shaped, with brackets of various forms; some of which are represented in the annexed plate, together with the font, which is of a very singular form, and stands within a pew at the west end of the church. The aisles are separated from the nave by octagonal pillars, and pointed arches. The north aisle appears to have been built in the fourteenth, or early in the fifteenth century. The south aisle has a flat roof, and windows with obtuse arches. It is probable that it was built about the year 1500, and that the nave was repaired and new-roofed at the same time, the cognizances of England and Arragon being carved on the joints of the fretwork with which it is ornamented. On others are emblems of the crucifixion, and devices of various sorts.
In the east window of the chancel are the arms of Talbot, with quarterings (fn. 12); Somerset (fn. 13); Lovell quartering Muswell (fn. 14), and those of the sees of Glocester and London. In the south window are the arms of Younge (fn. 15). Over the communion-table is a good picture (somewhat damaged,) of the adoration of the shepherds. It was given to the parish, anno 1726, by James Jenyns, Esq. lord of the manor. On the north wall is a handsome monument of veined marble to the memory of Sir Edward Fenner (fn. 16), Judge of the King's Bench, whose effigies, as large as the life, in his robes, lies under an arch, ornamented with roses, within a Mosaic pattern. Sir Edward Fenner, who died anno 1611, was son of John Fenner of Crawley in Sussex, by his wife Eleanor, daughter of Sir William Goring. Near Sir Edward Fenner's monument is another with the same arms; the inscription has been removed. I suppose it to be that of Edward Fenner, Esq. son of Sir Edward, who survived him only three years, and was buried at Hayes. Under an arch is an upright half-length effigies of the deceased in armour, with a ruff and whiskers; a truncheon in one hand, the other rests on his helmet. On the same wall is the monument of Dorothy, wife of John Jenyns, Esq. (fn. 17), daughter of William Bromley of Holt-castle, and relict of Cloberry, eldest son of the Right Hon. William Bromley of Bagington, 1720; and on the south wall that of Sir George Cooke, Knt. (fn. 18), lord of the manor, and Chief Prothonotary of the Common Pleas, 1741. In the high chancel are the tombs of Roger Jenyns, Esq. lord of the manor, 1693; Thomas Jenyns, B.A. of Clare-hall, 1696; John Jenyns, son of John Jenyns, Esq. (both lords of the manor,) 1724; and a brass plate to the memory of Robert Lellee, formerly rector of the parish, the date gone. In the lower chancel are the tombs of Robert Burgeys, Rector of Hayes, 1421; and Henry Clerke, Esq. 1609 (each with a brass plate); Richard Lugg, Gent. son of George Lugg of the county of Devon, 1697; John Cox, M. A. Vicar, 1712; Mr. Richard Blanchard, 1717; and Thomas Vivian, Clerk in Chancery, 1721. He was son of John Vivian of Oundle in Northamptonshire, and descended from the Vivians of Cornwall. His wife was Anne, daughter of William Hyde, Esq. of Langtost in the county of Lincoln.
Against the wall of the south aisle is a table-tomb, (on which are figures in brass of the deceased, with his wife and children,) to the memory of Thomas Highgate, Esq. (fn. 19), Justice of Peace, who died in 1576. On the wall is the monument of John Jenyns (fn. 20), Esq. M. P. for the county of Cambridge, 1716. On the floor are the tombs of Anne Edenbras, 1676; and Vere Jenyns, 1644. She was daughter of Sir James Palmer of Dornye, (Bucks,) and wife of Thomas Jenyns, Esq. of Hayes, second son of Sir John Jenyns of Churchill in the county of Somerset, by an heiress of Bulbeck.
At the east end of the north aisle, against the north wall, is a table-tomb to the memory of Walter Grene, Esq. (fn. 21), who died anno 14—: on the top is a figure of the deceased in armour, with a griffin at his feet. I suppose the east end of this aisle to have been a chapel founded by Walter Grene, whose family were proprietors of Hayes-Park, to which estate this part of the aisle still belongs. On the north wall are the monuments of Richard Briginshaw, Esq. (fn. 22), 1661; William Perris, Esq. (fn. 23), (who married Mary, daughter and heir of Richard Briginshaw,) 1720; Thomas Blen cowe, Esq. (fn. 24)(son of Sir John Blencowe, Justice of the Common Pleas,) who married an heir of Perris, 1765; and John Fisher, Esq. (fn. 25), who married an heir of Robert Child, Esq. of Hayes-park, 1679. On the east wall is a tablet to the memory of the Rev. Anthony Hinton, Vicar, who died in 1792; and on the floor at the west end the tomb of the Rev. James Baker, Rector and Vicar, who died in 1738.
In the nave are the tombs of Anne, daughter of Alan Hendre and Anne Millet, 1605; Thomas Paltock, Gent. 1670; the Rev. Samuel Spence, Rector, 1730; Roger Tocketts, Surgeon and citizen of London, 1733. One of the hatchments in the church is inscribed to the memory of Jane, wife of Richard Harland (fn. 26)and daughter of John Jenyns, Esq. who died in 1728.
In the church-yard are the tombs of William Duncker, Gent. (1685); Robert Maybank, Gent. (1736); Mr. John Hope (1767); John Kendrick, aged 92 (1770); Hannah, wife of Sir George Booth, Bart. and daughter of Henry Turner of Botwell in the parish of Hayes (1784); and Mrs. Hannah Bailey, aged 92 (1789).
The church of Hayes, which is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, has a rectory and a vicarage. The patronage of the former (which is now a sinecure,) was annexed to the manor till Mr. Ascough's purchase in 1777, when the advowson remained in the hands of Mr. Cooke, and is now the property of Charles Molloy, Esq. The benefice is of small value to the incumbent, it having been long customary for the Rector, immediately upon his presentation, to grant the patron a beneficial lease of the great tithes, glebe, &c. for three lives. By virtue of this lease the patron of the rectory presents to the vicarage also. It was reported to the commissioners appointed to inquire into the state of ecclesiastical benefices, anno 1650, that Hayes was a parsonage and vicarage, to both of which belonged a cure of souls. The parsonage, with 95 acres of glebe, a house, &c. was valued at 640l. per ann. and had been leased by Patrick Young to Thomas Jenyns, Esq. at the reserved rent of 66l. 13 s. 4d. (fn. 27)The parsonage of Hayes was vested for a considerable time in the Earls of Pembroke, in consequence of a grant from the Archbishops of Canterbury (fn. 28).
The vicarage was endowed by William Warham the Rector, in 1520, with an annual stipend of 20l. (fn. 29), then, perhaps, a competent provision, but now, by the great alteration in the value of money, a very inadequate one.
Robert Wright, presented to the rectory of Hayes in 1601, was the first warden of Wadham College in Oxford, which situation he resigned because Dorothy Wadham would not suffer him to marry. He vacated this rectory in 1623, on his promotion to the bishopric of Bristol, whence he was afterwards translated to Litchfield and Coventry. In 1641, he was committed to the Tower, with nine other bishops, and remained in confinement 18 weeks. Being released he repaired to Eccleshall-castle, the seat of his see, then a garrison for the King, and died there whilst it was besieged by Sir William Brereton (fn. 30).
Henry Gold, presented to the vicarage of Hayes in 1529, was an accomplice of Elizabeth Barton, the holy maid of Kent, and suffered death at Tyburn, anno 1534 (fn. 31).
|Average of Baptisms.||Average of Burials.|
The present number of houses is 141; of inhabitants, 707, exclusive of 100 boys and 100 girls at two eminent boardingschools (fn. 32).
In the year 1603, there were 24 burials at Hayes; in 1625, the same number; in 1638, 42; in 1665, eight only are entered, but the register appears not to have been kept very accurately about that time.
This parish has the same interest as that of Chelsea (fn. 33), in the hos. pital founded by Lady Dacre in Westminster.
Roger Lea, in 1661, gave 10 s. per ann. to the poor of this parish. Thomas Triplet, D. D. by his indenture, bearing date 1668, gave 15l. per ann. out of an estate in Suffolk, for apprenticing poor children. Robert Cromwell, by his will, bearing date 1720, gave lands worth about 61. per ann. to buy gowns for six poor women.