The Environs of London: Volume 3, County of Middlesex. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1795.
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Name and ancient situation.
The name of this place was anciently called Tiburn, from its situation near a small bourn, or rivulet, formerly called Ayebrook, or Eye-brook, and now Tybourn-brook (fn. 1). When the site of the church was altered to another spot near the same brook, it was called, I imagine, St. Mary at the bourn, now corrupted to St. Mary le bone, or Marybone.
Boundaries, extent, &c.
The parish lies in the hundred of Ossulston, and is bounded by St. Giles's and Pancras on the east, by Hampstead on the north, Paddington on the west, and on the south by St. Anne-Soho, St. James's, and St. George-Hanover-square. It is eight miles and one fourth in circumference, and it is computed that it contains about 2500 acres of land, of which one third is occupied by buildings, the remainder, extending northward to Primrose-hill, and west to Kilbourn turnpike, is almost wholly grass land. A few acres are occupied by market gardeners. The soil on the south side of the parish is a fine gravel, and on the north side clay. This parish is charged the sum of 5641. 5s. 1d. to the land-tax, which this present year 1794 (such has been the improvement of property by the increase of buildings), is raised by a rate of only one farthing in the pound. There had been an overplus the last year, by making the rate at a halfpenny.
Manor of Tybourn, now Marybone.
The manor of Tybourn, containiug five hides, is described in Doomsday-book as parcel of the ancient demesnes of the abbess and convent of Barking, who held it under the crown. The land, says the survey, is three carucates. Two hides are in demesne, on which is one plough; the villans employ two ploughs. There are two villans holding half a hide, one villan who holds half a virgate, two bordars who have 10 acres, and three cottars. There is pasture for the cattle of the village, woods for 50 hogs, and 40d. arising from the herbage. In the whole, valued at 52s., in King Edward's time at 100s. Robert de Vere, who held this manor under the abbey of Barking, gave it in marriage with his daughter Joan, to William de Insula, Earl Warren and Surrey (fn. 2), whose son John dying without issue, it descended to Richard Earl of Arundel, son of his sister Alice (fn. 3). After the death of Richard the succeeding Earl, who was beheaded in 1394 (fn. 4), his estates became the joint property of his daughters and coheirs (fn. 5). William Marquis of Berkley, who had an interest in this inheritance, as descended from Joan Fitzalan, through the Mowbrays, is said to have given the manor of Marybone to Sir Reginald Bray, prime minister to Henry VII. (fn. 6); but I imagine it was only his share in it; for it appears that Thomas Hobson, about the year 1503, purchased three parts of this manor of Lord Bergavenny, the Earl of Derby, and the Earl of Surrey (fn. 7). It is probable that he purchased the remaining part of Sir Reginald Bray. In the year 1544, Thomas Hobson, son (it is supposed) of the last-mentioned Thomas, exchanged this manor with the King for some church lands (fn. 8). Queen Elizabeth, in 1583, granted a lease of the manor of Tybourn to Edward Forset for 21 years, at the yearly rent of 161. IIs. 8d.; and in 1595, to Robert Conquest and others (trustees it is probable), on the same terms (fn. 9). In the year 1611, King James granted the manor, with all its appurtenances, excepting the park, for the sum of 829l. 3s. 4d. to Edward Forset, Esq. (fn. 10), in whose family it continued several years, and then passed into that of Austen, by the intermarriage of Arabella Forset with Thomas Austen, Esq. (fn. 11) In the year 1710, it was purchased of John Austen, Esq. afterwards Sir John Austen, Bart. by John Holles, Duke of Newcastle (fn. 12), whose only daughter and heir married Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford and Mortimer. This manor is now the property of his Grace the Duke of Portland, whose father, the late Duke, married Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley, heiress of the two noble families of Newcastle and Oxford.
Lord Oxford's library.
The manor-house, which during the time that it was vested in the crown, is said to have been used as one of the palaces, was pulled down in the year 1791. By a drawing of Rooker's, in the possession of John White, Esq. of Devonshire-place, it seems to have retained some traces of the architecture of Queen Elizabeth's time; but the greater part appears to have been rebuilt at a later period, perhaps by the Forsets, and the south front was certainly added or renewed not more than a century ago. Devonshire Mews are built on the site of the manor-house. I do not find that the Earl of Oxford ever inhabited this mansion; but his noble collection of books and MSS. were deposited in a library built for that purpose, which still remains in High-street, being incorporated in a house which is now a boarding-school for young ladies, called Oxford House. Behind this house was a well-known place of entertainment, called Marybone Gardens. In the reign of Queen Anne, there had been a noted tavern at this place, with bowling-greens, much frequented by persons of the first rank (fn. 13). It afterwards grew into disrepute, and is made by Gay the scene of Macheath's debauches. About the year 1740, Marybone-gardens were opened for public breakfasts and evening concerts. Some of the first fingers were generally engaged there, and fireworks were frequently exhibited. In 1777 or 1778, the gardens were shut up, and the site let to builders (fn. 14). The ground is now occupied by Beaumont-street, part of Devonshire-street, and part of Devonshire-place.
It has been mentioned that when the manor was granted to Edward Forset, King James reserved Marybone-park in his own hands. It continued in the crown till the year 1646, when King Charles, by letters patent, dated at Oxford (May 6), granted it to Sir George Strode and John Wandesford, Esq. as security for a debt of 23181. 11s. 9d. due to them for supplying arms and ammunition during the troubles. After the King's death, when the crown lands in general were sold by the usurpers, this park, without any regard to the claim of the grantees above-mentioned, was sold to John Spencer of London, Gentleman, on behalf of Colonel Thomas Harrison's regiment of dragoons, on whom Marybone-park was settled for their pay. Sir John Ipsley was at this time ranger, by authority of the Protector. The purchase-money was 13,215l. 6s. 8d., including 130l. for the deer (124 in number, of several sorts), and 17741. 8s. for the timber, exclusive of 2976 trees marked for the navy. On the restoration of Charles the Second, Sir George Strode and Mr. Wandesford were reinstated in their possession of the park, which they held till their debt was discharged, except the great lodge and 60 acres of land, which had been granted for a term of years to Sir William Clarke, secretary to the Lord General the Duke of Albemarle. A compensation was made also to John Carey, Esq. for the loss of the rangership which he had held before the usurpation. The site of the park (for it was disparked before the Restoration, and never afterwards stocked) was leased in 1668 to Henry Earl of Arlington; in 1696 to Charles Bertie and others, in trust for the Duke of Leeds; in 1724 to Samuel Grey, Esq. whose interest in the lease was purchased by Thomas Gibson, John Jacob, and Robert Jacomb, Esqrs. who renewed in 1730, 1735, and 1742. In 1754, a lease was granted to Lucy Jacomb, widow, and Peter Hinde, Esq. In 1765, William Jacomb, Esq. had a fresh lease for an undivided share, being 15 parts in 24. The term of this share was prolonged in 1772, and again in 1780 for eight years, to commence from January 24, 1803. In the year 1789, Mr. Jacomb sold his interest in the estate to the Duke of Portland, in whom the said share is at present vested. In 1765 and 1772, Jacob Hinde, Esq. had new leases of the remaining undivided share, being nine parts in 24. This lease has not been since renewed, and will expire eight years before the Duke of Portland's (fn. 15).
The said estate, now called Marybone-park farm, contains 543 acres and 17 perches, according to an actual survey made in the year 1794, by order of the board of Treasury, under the direction of John Fordyce, Esq. surveyor-general of the crown lands. About two-thirds of it lie in the parish of Marybone, the remainder in that of Pancras. It extends to the end of Harley-street, Portlandplace, Charlotte-street, and Portland-street. It is probable that this part of the estate will at no very remote period be occupied by buildings, the survey lately taken having been made with that view. The Lords of the Treasury have empowered the surveyor-general also to offer premiums for the best plans for erecting new streets in this district.
Manor of Lilestone, now Lisson Green.
The manor of Lilestone, containing five hides (now Lisson Green in the parish of Marybone), is mentioned in Doomsday-book among, the lands in Ossulston hundred given in alms: it is said to have been in King Edward's time the property of Edward, son of Swain, a servant of the King, who might alien it at pleasure; when the survey was taken, it belonged to Eideva. The land, says the record, is three carucates. In demesne are four hides and an half, on which are two ploughs, the villans have one plough. There are four villans, each holding half a virgate, three cottars of two acres and one slave; meadow equal to one plough-land; pasture for the cattle of the village; woods for 100 hogs; and 3d. arising from the herbage: valued in the whole at 60s.; in King Edward's time at 40s. This manor afterwards became the property of the priory of St. John of Jerusalem: on the suppression of which it was granted, anno 1548, to Thomas Heneage and Lord Willoughby (fn. 16), who conveyed it the same year to Edward Duke of Somerset. On his attainder it reverted to the crown, and was granted, anno 1564, to Edward Downing, who conveyed it the same year to John Milner, Esq. then lessee under the crown. After the death of his descendant John Milner, Esq. anno 1753, it passed under his will to William Lloyd, Esq. The manor of Lisson Green (being then the property of Capt. Lloyd of the Guards) was sold in lots, anno 1792. The largest lot, containing the site of the manor, was purchased by John Harcourt, Esq. M. P.
It would far exceed the limits of this work to enter into a description of the splendid mansions in this parish, which, since Marybone has been in a manner incorporated with London, have been built by the nobility and other persons of fortune, and made their town residence. The most remarkable of these, being all detached buildings, are Manchester-house; Harcourt-house; Foley-house; Chandos-house; the Earl of Aldborough's at the end of Stratford-place; and Mrs. Montagu's very elegant mansion in Portmansquare.
Removal of the old church of Tybourn.
In the year 1400, Bishop Braybrooke granted a licence to remove the old church of Tybourn (fn. 17), which stood in a lonely place near the highway (on or near the site of the present court-house (fn. 18), at the corner of Stratford-place), subject to the depredations of robbers, who frequently stole the images, bells, and ornaments, and to build a new church of stones or flints, near the place where a chapel had been then lately erected, which chapel might in the mean time be used. The Bishop claimed the privilege of laying the first stone. The old church-yard was to be preserved, but the parishioners were allowed to inclose another adjoining to the new church (fn. 19).
In the year 1741, Marybone church being in a very ruinous condition, it was found necessary to take it down; when the present structure, which is very small and ill-suited to the population of the parish, was erected on the same site. The inside of the old church is shown in one of Hogarth's plates of the Rake's Progress. The monuments are represented as they then existed, and some ill-spelt verses, pointing out the vault of the Forset family, were accurately copied from the originals (fn. 20). The inscription, denoting the church to have been beautified when Thomas Sice and Thomas Horn were churchwardens, was not fabricated for the purpose of ridicule (though it might have served that purpose, when contrasted with the ruinous appearance of the church), but proves to have been genuine (fn. 21). The present church is a small oblong square, and has a gallery on the north, south, and west sides. On the east wall are the monuments of Sir Edmund Dowce (fn. 22) of Boughton, cupbearer to Anne of Denmark, and Henrietta Maria, ob. 1644; Elizabeth, only daughter of Sir Matthew Howland (fn. 23) of Streatham, who married first Thomas Roberts, Esq. son and heir of Sir Walter Roberts, Bart. of Glassenbury, Kenc; 2dly, Humphrey Scott of Hawkhurst, Kent, ob. 1658; Dame Frances, relict of Sir Matthew Howland, and daughter of Edward Forset, Esq. of Marybone, 1668; John Crosbie, minister of Marybone, 1669; Deborah, wife of Richard Chambers (fn. 24) of York, merchant, and daughter of Robert Messenden, Esq. 1680. On the north wall are those of Thomas Lee, yeoman, 1726; James Gibbs, Esq. 1754; William Long, Esq. (fn. 25) brother of Admiral Long, 1762; William Thomas, Esq. 1764; Mary, his widow, 1768; Margaret Morgan, his sister, 1774; Anne Thomas, his sister, 1781; Elizabeth, wife of Edward Thornhill, Esq. of Sunbury, and daughter of Francis Tredgold, 1766; Anne, widow of William Lloyd, and daughter of Humphrey Wanley, 1767; Edmund Hodshon (fn. 26), rector of Spennithorne, Yorkshire, 1778; Ralph Smyth of Fieldtown, in the county of Westmeath, 1782; Lady Mary West (fn. 27) daughter of the fourth Earl of Stamford, and wife of the Hon. George West, 1783; and Lieut. General Prescott, of the 7th regiment of Royal Fuzileers, 1788. On the west wall is a monument of lead, gilt, with figures in alto-relievo, to the memory of some children of Thomas Tayler, of Popes in Hertfordshire, by Sarah, daughter of John Wells of Marybone, 1689, &c.
On the south wall are the monuments of John Montagu (fn. 28), Esq. (no date); Thomas Taylor, Esq. (fn. 29) of Kensington, 1716; Mrs. Sarah Kember, 1720; Charlotte, daughter of Godsrey Meynell, Esq. 1769; James Allen, Esq. apothecary to George I. George II. and George III. ob. 1774, aged 91; (he was son of the Rev. George Allen, minister of Marybone;) Gilbert Fane Fleming, Esq. (put up by his widow Lady Camilla Fleming), 1776; Daniel MacGilchrist, Esq. (fn. 30) of Jamaica, 1783; Elizabeth, wife of James Park, Esq. of Sloane-street, Chelsea, 1793; and that of Granger Muir, with the following inscription: "Sacred to the memory of Granger Muir, Esq. Colonel in the service of the East India Company. He went to India in the year 1747. He was a captain, and led the advanced guard at the battle of Plassey. He commanded the army employed against the Maratta chief Madajee Scindia; and by his judicious conduct negotiated a peace with that chief in 1781, which laid the foundation "of the general peace concluded with the Maratta states in 1782. With a delicate sense of honour, he had all the ardour of his profession as a soldier. He was amiable in his manners, generous in his disposition, affectionate and steady in his friendship. He returned to England in 1785, and died the first of August 1786, aged 52 years."
On the floor are flat stones in memory of Humphrey Wanley, "library keeper" to Robert and Edward Earls of Oxford, who died July 6, 1726, aged 55 years; Richard Lloyd, Esq. son of Sir Richard Lloyd, Judge of the Admiralty, and brother of Sir Nathaniel Lloyd, 1742; his wife Anne, 1745; Jane, relict of Josias Calmady, Esq. of the county of Devon, aged 92, 1756; Lady Abigail Hay, fourth daughter of George Earl of Errol, aged 69, 1785; John Cowper, Esq. 1786; and Henrietta Maria, daughter of Sir Charles Asgill, Bart. aged 22, 1790. In the vestry is the tomb of Edward Gwynn, Esq. of the family of Gwynn of North Wales, deputy custos brevium of the court of Common Pleas, 1649. This tomb was removed from the church-yard. In the circuit-walk annexed to the last edition of Stow's Survey, mention is made of a monument in Marybone church to the memory of George Foxcroft, Esq. 1691 (fn. 31); and that of Arabella Wentworth, daughter of Sir George Wentworth, 1653. In the churchyard are noticed the tombs of Richard Reding, groom of the king's great chamber, 1671; Mary, wife of John Andrews of St. Martin's in the Fields, 1679; Samuel Ellis, Esq. 1688; Catherine, wife of Col. Edward Hastings, 1692; and Benjamin, son of Benjamin Crofts of the county of Suffolk, 1702.
Tombs in the church-yard.
In the church-yard are now the tombs of Claudius Champion de Crespigny, Esq. a refugee from France, ob. 1695; his wife Maria de Vierville; Betsey, wife of Paul Champion Crespigny, Esq. 1772; John Towers, Esq. 1744; Dennis Belnot, 1748; John Maule, Esq. 1751; Ormond Tomson, Esq. Captain in the Navy, 1753; Jane Kennedy, his wife, 1784; Rev. Nicholas Robert, a native of France, 1766; Lieut. Peter Foubert, 1766; his son-in-law, Thomas Clarke, Esq. 1772; John Riddell, surgeon, 1767; Joseph Burgess, Gent. 1770; James Ferguson (fn. 32), F. R. S. 1776; Isabell, his wife, 1773; James, their eldest son, aged 24, 1772; Rev. Francis Lawrence Cowley, 1777; Mary, wife of Richard Shadwell, Esq. 1777; Frances, relict of the Rev. George Arrowsmith, 1786; and William Kingsbury, Gent. of Bungay, 1788.
Tombs in the great cemetery on the south side of Paddington-street.
In a large cemetery on the south side of Paddington-street (consecrated in 1733) is a large mausoleum, erected by the Hon. Richard Fitzpatrick, to the memory of his wife Susanna, who died in 1759; and the tombs of the following persons: Frances Rothery (sister of Dr. William Nicolson, Archbishop of Cashel, and mother of Joseph Rothery, Archdeacon of Derry), 1740; Matthew Gossett, Esq. a gentleman-pensioner, "well known for his skill in some of the polite "arts," 1744; Gideon Gossett, Esq. 1785; John Reynolds, masterpainter of the ordnance, 1752; John Lawson, Esq. 1753; Hon. Enoch Hall, Chief Justice of North Carolina, 1753; William Russel, Gent. of Rowley Regis Staff., 1756; John Castles ("late of the "Great Grotto (fn. 33), whose great ingenuity in shell-work gained him universal applause"), 1757; Michael Weston, Esq. 1760; Rev. Thomas Morice, 1762; Henry Lathom, Esq. of Lancashire (who married Abigail, daughter of Richard Twiss, Esq.), 1764; Archibald Bower, 1766 (fn. 34); William Morehead, Esq. 1766; Anne, relict of Captain George Edwards, of the Royal Navy, 1767; Sir Andrew Chadwick, Knt. 1768; Dame Margaret Chadwick, 1783; Elizabeth Humfrey, her sister (no date); Captain Thomas Butler Cole (whose daughter Mary married James Winder), 1769; Anne, daughter of John Dupree, Esq. and relict of John Reynolds, 1770; William Guthrie, Esq. 1770 (fn. 35); James Dubisson, Esq. 1772; Captain Enos Dexter, 1772; Rev. Francis Brissan, 1772; William Wynch, Esq. 1774; Frances, daughter of John Russell, Esq. and wife of John Rivett, Esq. (bedchamber woman to the Princess Amelia) 1775; George Mercer, Esq. 1776; Robert Adams, Esq. 1778; Mary, wife of the Rev. Edmund Gibson, 1779; George Lee, Esq. 1782; Captain George Taylor, 1782; Jessintour Rozea, Esq. 1783; Jessintour Rozea (junior), Esq. 1791; John Anthony Koch, apothecary, 1784; Rev. John Carpenter, rector of Bignor, and vicar of Pagham in Sussex, 1785; Mr. Thomas Chaplin, of the Secretary of State's Office, 1788; Robert Achmuty, Esq. Judge of the Admiralty in New England, 1788; Constant Decharme, merchant, 1788, and others of his family; John Berthon, Esq. 1789; Thomas Malie, M. D. aged 89, 1789; Mrs. Hester Fitzmaurice, sister of Lord Westcote, and relict of John Fitzmaurice, Esq. 1790; Hester, wife of Capt. George Martin, 1790; Matthew Stourton, Esq. 1792; and Sir Thomas Mills, Knt. 1793.
Tombs in the cemetery on the north of Paddington-street.
In the smaller cemetery on the north side of Paddington-street (consecrated in 1772) are the tombs of Joseph Tullie, Esq. of Yorkshire, Receiver-general of the Duchy of Lancaster (and Deputy-usher of the Exchequer), 1774; Anthony Relhan, M. D. 1776; Frances, relict of Colonel Leonard Gwynn, 1776; Edward Cauldwell, Esq. Captain in the Navy (who married Anna Maria, only child of Thomas Clark, Gent.), 1777; Anne, wife of Marco Nasso, Esq. 1779; Thomas Clark, Gent. of Westminster, 1780; Stephen Riou, Esq. 1780; Mary, widow of Captain Edward Horne, of the Royal Navy, 1781; John Jefferson, Esq. 1782; James Craig, Esq. 1784; Dame Leonora Rush, daughter of Brigadier-general Sutton, and relict of Sir John Rush, Knt. 1785; John Sarson, Esq. 1786; David Aquiton La Rose, 1786; Malcolm Macpherson, Esq. 1787; Jonathan Court, Esq. commander of a ship in the service of the East India Company, 1787; Alice, wife of William Baillie, Esq. 1788; Mr. Frederick Baillie, 1793; a child of James Stuart, Esq. (who married Anna Maria Baillie), 1790; Priscilla, wife of John Wilkinson, Esq. 1788; Henry Bradley, Esq. 1789; James Watson, Esq. 1790; Honour, wife of Lieutenant-colonel Harnage, 1790; John Gale, Esq. 1790; Matthew Purling, Esq. 1791; Anne, wife of Major-general William Martin, and daughter of James Gordon, Esq. of Boston, 1793; Thomas Day, Gent. 1794; and Captain John Bower, 1794.
Rectory and curacy.
The church of Marybone (or Tybourn, as it was then called) was appropriated in the reign of King John, by William de Sancta Maria, Bishop of London, to the priory of St. Lawrence de Blakemore, in Essex, a competent maintenance being reserved to the vicar (fn. 36). On the suppression of that priory, which took place in the year 1525, the King gave the rectory to Cardinal Wolsey, with licence to appropriate it to the dean and canons of Christ-church; who, at his request, granted it to the master and scholars of his college at Ipswich (fn. 37). When the Cardinal fell into disgrace, the King seized this rectory as part of his property (fn. 38), and it continued in the crown till the year 1552, when it was granted to Thomas Reve and George Cotton, in common socage (fn. 39). It came into the Forset family, then proprietors of the manor before the year 1650 (fn. 40), and they have since passed through the same hands. The rectory still continues impropriated; the benefice has been considered as a donative from a very early period. The Duke of Portland, as rector, nominates the curate, who is licensed by the Bishop of London. In the year 1511, the curate's stipend was only 13s. per annum, paid by Thomas Hobson, then lessee under the priory of Blakemore (fn. 41). In 1650, the impropriation was valued at 80l. per annum; the curate was then paid 15l. per annum (fn. 42); at that time the whole of his emoluments could be scarcely double. From the prodigious increase of buildings and population, its contingencies are now such as to make it a very valuable benefice.
Thomas Swadling, curate.
Thomas Swadling, D. D. curate of this place during the civil war, published, in 1661, a volume of sermons on the Anniversary of King Charles's death. He had the living of St. Botolph Aldgate, from which he was sequestered. Having suffered much both in person and property, before the Restoration of Charles II., he was then reinstated in his preferment, and obtained some other benefices (fn. 43).
The present curate of Marybone is Sir Richard Kaye, Bart. LL.D. and dean of Lincoln, who succeeded the late Bishop of Hereford in 1788.
There are seven private chapels in this parish belonging to the church of England; Oxford chapel, built before 1739 (fn. 44); Portland chapel, about 1766; Bentinck chapel, in 1772; Titchfield chapel, about 1774; Portman chapel, about 1779; Quebec chapel, about 1788; Margaret-street chapel, first used as a place of worship for the church of England about 1789. Another is intended to be built to the north of Portman-square (fn. 45).
In Little Titchfield-street is a chapel (called Providence chapel) belonging to a congregation who profess the doctrines of the late Mr. Whitfield, and style themselves Independents. Their minister is a man who was a coal-heaver, and for some whimsical reasons changed his name from Hunt to Huntington. He is author of a great variety of tracts, which are in much esteem among his followers. Some of them are of a very singular cast, especially one in which he illustrates the doctrine of a particular providence in a very improper and mistaken way.
In Blandford-street is a meeting-house of the Anabaptists.
The earliest date of any parish-register now extant at Marybone is 1668. The entries for several years subsequent to that date, are copied from a book damaged by fire, and rendered in many instances imperfect.
Comparative state of population.
|Average of baptisms.||Average of burials.|
|1680–1689||13 1/2||34 7/10|
|1712–1721||35 1/10||89 1/2|
|1730–1739||173 1/2||313 4/5|
|1780–1784||1119 3/5||1259 3/5|
|1785–1789||1334 4/5||1286 4/5|
|1790–1794||1693 1/5||1413 2/5|
Progress of buildings.
At the beginning of the present century, Marybone was a small village, nearly a mile distant from any part of the metropolis. In the year 1715, a plan was formed for building Cavendishsquare, and several streets on the north side of Tybourn road. In 1717 or 1718, the ground was laid out, the circle in the centre inclosed, and surrounded with a parapet wall and palisadoes (fn. 46). The Duke of Chandos (then Earl of Carnarvon) took the whole north side, intending, it is said, to build a very magnificent mansion, of which the houses which now belong to the Earl of Hopetoun (late the Princess Amelia's) and the Earl of Gainsborough's, were to have been wings. Lord Harcourt (fn. 47) and Lord Bingley took some ground on the east and west sides, the rest was let to builders; but the failures of the South Sea year put a stop to the improvements for a time, and it was several years before the square was completed (fn. 48). As an inducement to the builders to go on, a chapel and a market were projected for the convenience of the inhabitants of the new streets. Mr. Gibbs gave the design, and they were both finished in 1724, but the market was not opened till 1732, in consequence of the opposition of Lord Craven, who feared that it would affect the profits of Carnaby market. The row of houses on the north side of Tybourn road was completed in 1729, and it was then called Oxford-street. About the same time most of the streets leading to Cavendish-square and Oxford market (fn. 49) were built, and the ground was laid out for several others (fn. 50). Maitland, whose work was published in 1739, says, there were then 577 houses in the parish of Marybone, and 35 persons who kept coaches. Still there remained a considerable void between the new buildings and the village of Marybone, which consisted of pasture fields. Portman-square was begun about 1764, when the north side of the square was built, but it was near 20 years before the whole was finished. In 1770, the continuation of Harley-street was begun, and Mansfield-street, on ground where had been formerly a bason of water. Soon afterwards Portland-place was built, and the streets adjoining. Stratford-place was built about 1774, on some ground belonging to the city of London, called Conduit-mead, where the Lord Mayor's banquetting-house formerly stood. The crescent, now called Cumberland-place (originally intended for a circus), was begun about the same year. Every war had checked the progress of new buildings, which were carried on at its close with fresh vigour. From 1786, till the commencement of the present war, they increased very rapidly; all the Duke of Portland's property, except one farm, was let on building leases; the new buildings in the north-west part of the parish were equally numerous. Manchester-square, which had been begun in 1776, by the building of Manchester-house, was finished in 1788. The present number of houses in this parish is computed at about 6200. Very extensive plans have been formed for increasing the buildings on the Lisson Green estates, which are at present suspended. The intention of building upon the site of Marybone-park has been already mentioned (fn. 51).
Extracts from the Register.
"Humphrey Wanley, buried July 8, 1726." An eminent antiquary, who was librarian to Robert and Edward, Earls of Oxford. Several of his letters are in the British Museum. There is a portrait of him in the Bodleian library at Oxford.
"John Abbadie, D. D. buried Sep. 28, 1727." An eminent divine, born in the canton of Berne, and educated in France. He left that kingdom on account of the persecutions, and went to Berlin, where he resided many years as minister of the French church. When the Prince of Orange came to England, Dr. Abbadie accom panied his patron Marshal Schomberg, and was for some years minister of the French church in the Savoy. He was afterwards made dean of Killaloe. His writings are numerous: On the truth of the Christian religion; on the truth of the reformed religion; a commentary on the Revelations; the art of self-knowledge; several sermons; an account of the assassination plot; a defence of the Revolution; and some panegyrical orations. They were all written in French, but most of them have been translated. Dr. Abbadie was esteemed one of the most eloquent men of his time. He is erroneously called John in the register. His name was James (fn. 52).
Figg, the prize-fighter. Prize-fighting.
Tiger-baiting, bull-fights, &c.
Broughton and Slack.
"James Figg, buried December 11, 1734." The celebrated prizefighter (fn. 53).—The amphitheatres of the prize-fighters afforded in his time a favourite amusement, which reflects little credit on the humanity of the age. These trials of skill were frequently attended with much hurt, and were sometimes fatal to the combatants (fn. 54). Figg, who long bore the palm of victory from all competitors, is extolled by Captain Godfrey in his treatise of the science of defence, as the greatest master of the art that he had ever seen; he calls him the Atlas of the sword, and says, that he united strength, resolution, and unparalleled judgment (fn. 55). He was for many years proprietor of the boardedhouse in Marybone-fields, near Oxford-road. Here he frequently exhibited his own skill, and at other times made matches between the most celebrated masters or mistresses of the art, for the noble science of defence was not confined to the male sex; we find Mrs. Stokes, the famous city championess, challenging the Hibernian heroines to meet her at Mr. Figg's (fn. 56). Sometimes bear-baiting, tiger-baiting, &c. were exhibited at this amphitheatre (fn. 57). A bull-fight was once advertised to be performed by the grimace Spaniard, who had for some time amused the town by making ugly faces. A great company was drawn together by the novelty of the promised entertainment, but it ended as the business of the bottle-conjuror did some years afterwards (fn. 58). A portrait of Figg is introduced by Hogarth, in his second plate of the Rake's Progress. There is a print of him in mezzotinto by Faber. After Figg's death, the celebrated Broughton occupied an amphitheatre near the same spot, and was for many years the hero of bruisers, as Figg had been of the prize-fighters, till at last he was beaten on his own stage, by Slack a butcher (fn. 59). The victor was supposed to have gained 600l. by the event of the battle; the sums won and lost by the bye-standers were to a great amount, the house being crowded with amateurs, some of whom were of very high rank. Not long afterwards a stop was put to all public exhibitions of boxing and prize-fighting, by act of parliament. They had been long found prejudicial, in a great degree, to the morals of the people, and were grown into disrepute, even among the amateurs of the art, who found that the stage-owners imposed upon them by making up sham battles, in which the combatants had settled the event before they mounted the stage. From about the year 1730 to 1750, the newspapers teemed with their advertisements, which generally contained the challenges and answers of the boxers, all couched in the same style of boasting assurance (fn. 60).
"John Vandrebank, buried Dec. 30, 1739." A portrait-painter, much in fashion in the reigns of George I. and II.
Gibbs, the architect.
"James Gibbs, Esq. buried Aug. 9, 1754." The celebrated architect: he was born in 1683, being the son of Peter Gibbs, a merchant in Aberdeen, at the university of which place he received his education, and took the degree of M. A. The Earl of Mar was his first patron in life, and assisted him with money to prosecute his studies in Italy (fn. 61). He settled in England in 1710, and in the course of a few years became the architect most in vogue. His principal works are the Radcliffe library, and the new quadrangle at All Souls college in Oxford; the new building at King's college, and the Senatehouse in Cambridge; the Duke of Newcastle's monument in Westminster-abbey, the New Church in the Strand, and St. Martin's in the Fields (fn. 62). In 1728 he published a large volume in folio of his own designs. He gave an instance of grateful remembrance to his patron the Earl of Mar, by leaving a considerable legacy to his son. All his books, prints, &c. he bequeathed to the Radcliffe library in Oxford. On his monument in Marybone church is the following inscription: "Underneath lie the remains of James Gibbs, Esq. whose skill in architecture appears by his printed works, as well as the buildings directed by him. Among other legacies and charities he left 100l. towards enlarging this church. He died August the 5th, 1754, aged 71."
"Archibald Bower, buried Sep. 7, 1766." Bower was a native of Scotland, being born at or near Dundee, in the year 1686. He was educated at the college of Douay, whence he removed to Rome, and was admitted into the order of Jesus. He resided afterwards at several of the Italian universities, where he read lectures in the sciences, and at length became counsellor to the Inquisition at Macerata. In the year 1726 he quitted the territories of the Pope, flying, according to his own account, by hair-breadth escapes from the resentment of the Inquisition. He bent his course to London, where, after a residence of some years, he publicly conformed to the church of England. Meantime he supported himself by private pupils, and by writing for the booksellers. He contributed to a work, called the Historia Literaria (in the nature of a review), and when that was discontinued in 1734, he engaged in the Universal History, upon which he was employed several years. In 1748, he published the first volume of his principal work, the History of the Popes, which was not completed till a short time before his death. After the publication of the third volume, the work fell into discredit, and its author into disgrace, by the discovery of his clandestine correspondence with the Jesuits, into whose society he had been a second time admitted. A controversy relating to these transactions commenced in the year 1756, which ended to the disadvantage of Mr. Bower, who was convicted of many wilful falsehoods and misrepresentations. This controversy was principally carried on by a learned divine, who now holds a distinguished rank in the church. Bower's defence was spirited, but ineffectual. The material charges alleged against him were never satisfactorily answered, yet he continued to assert his innocence till his death; and his epitaph, which is as follows, speaks the same language:
"Here lie the remains of Archibald Bower, author of the History of the Popes, a man exemplary for every social virtue, justly esteemed by all who knew him for his strict honesty and integrity, a faithful friend and a sincere Christian. He died Sept. 3, 1766, aged 80.
"False witnesses rose up against him, and laid to his charge things that he knew not. They conspired together, and laid their net to destroy him guiltless. The very abjects came together against him, they gaped upon him with their mouths. They sharpened their tongues like a serpent, working deceitfully. They compassed him about with words of malice and batred, and fought against him without a cause.
"He endured these reproaches with fortitude, suffering wrongfully."
A complete list of the pamphlets, written on both sides, in this controversy, is printed in the European Magazine for April 1794, annexed to a life of Bower, whence the above short account of him is taken.
"Edmund Hoyle, buried August 23, 1769." Author of a wellknown treatise on the games of whist, &c. He was 90 years of age at the time of his decease.
Ryssbrack, the statuary.
"John Michael Ryssbrack, buried Jan. 11, 1770." The celebrated statuary. His father was a painter at Antwerp. Ryssbrack came to England in 1720, where he soon acquired great reputation, and was for many years at the head of his profession. His monuments are distinguished for their elegance and simplicity, an improved taste which he was the first to introduce, laying aside the cumbrous and ungraceful ornaments which had been before in use. Among his principal works are Sir Isaac Newton's monument, the Duke of Marlborough's statue at Blenheim, and that of King William III. at Bristol; but his chef d'œ was a Hercules (now at Stourhead), which he compiled from the limbs of the most celebrated boxers. Broughton sat for the arms (fn. 63).
"William Guthrie, buried Mar. 15, 1770." Guthrie was a native of Scotland, where, if we may believe Churchill and some other writers, he followed the profession of a schoolmaster. About the year 1740 he came to London, and having connected himself with the booksellers, was in constant literary employ. He succeeded Dr. Johnson in furnishing the Gentleman's Magazine with the debates in parliament. He wrote a history of England, a history of Scotland, compiled some parts of the Universal History, and for several years carried on the Critical Review, with little or no assistance. In conjunction with Ralph, he published a political journal in defence of the broad bottom administration, and was engaged in many other political works. He wrote a novel also, translated Quintilian and some parts of Cicero, and assisted in various literary undertakings. There is good reason for supposing that the geographical grammar, which passes under his name, was compiled by another hand. Mr. Guthrie was buried in the great cemetery on the south of Paddingtonstreet, where, against the east wall, is his monument, with the following inscription:
"Near this place lies interred the body of William Guthrie, Esq. who died 9th March 1770, aged 62, representative of the ancient family of Guthrie of Haukerton, in the county of Angus, North Britain; eminent for knowledge in all branches of literature and of the British constitution, which his many works, historical, geographical, classical, critical, and political, do testify; to whom this monument was erected, by order of his brother Henry Guthrie, Esq. in the year 1777."
"Anthony Relhan, buried Oct. 11, 1776." Dr. Relhan, who was a fellow of the college of physicians in Ireland, resided for some time at Brighthelmstone, of which place he published a short history in 1761, with observations on the mineral springs and seabathing. He was author also of a treatise on the effects of music in medicine, and several medical tracts. His son, who is a fellow of King's college, has published an account of the plants growing near Cambridge.
"James Ferguson, buried Nov. 23, 1776." This man exhibited a remarkable instance of native genius, surmounting the obstacles of poverty and obscurity, and distinguishing itself in no mean degree in the walks of science. Ferguson was born in the county of Bamff, about the year 1710. The bent of his mind towards mechanic pursuits first discovered itself by the accidental circumstance of his father's making use of a lever in his presence, and applying it as a prop to his decayed cottage, when he was only eight years of age. His own account of the manner in which he prosecuted his favourite studies, during hours snatched from the most laborious employments (for he was many years a farmer's servant), is very curious and interesting. After struggling with various difficulties, his merit procured him patrons, and he was enabled to pursue his studies with more advantage. Having attained a great proficiency in natural philosophy and astronomy, he came to London in 1743; and having constructed an apparatus for experiments, read lectures in those sciences. Before he left Scotland he had learned to draw portraits, and for a few years after he came to town, practised as a limner in China ink. His price, in 1746, was 9 s. at home, or 10s. 6d. any where within the distance of a mile (fn. 64). At the same time he read lectures on the globes and the orrery, at his lodgings in Great Pulteney-street, at a shilling each lecture. In 1748, he tells us that he left off limning, which he never liked as an employment: it was certainly an art in which he did not excel. In his country excursions, he occasionally exercised it for some years afterwards. There is a miniature portrait of the celebrated Dr. Bradley (fn. 65) (one of his best performances, and esteemed a very good likeness), done by him about the year 1752, when the doctor was on a visit to his brother-in-law, Mr. Samuel Peach, of Chalford in Gloucestershire, in whose house Ferguson spent some time, being received with great hospitality, and permitted to read a course of public lectures there. He continued his lectures till near the time of his death, which happened at his house in Bolt-court, in the month of November 1776. He left behind him a very amiable character. His principal writings were, a Discertation on the Harvest Moon; a Description of an Orrery; Astronomical and Mechanical Lectures; Tables and Tracts relating to various Arts and Sciences; and a Treatise on Electricity. His last publication was intituled, Select Mechanical Exercises. He wrote his own life, to accompany this work, which was not published till after his decease. Mr. Ferguson was a fellow of the Royal Society. It should not be omitted, as reflecting honour both on the Royal donor and himself, that his Majesty allowed him 50l. per annum, out of the privy purse, subject to no deductions (fn. 66). The following inscription is upon his tomb in Marybone church-yard:
"Here lies interred the body of James Ferguson, F.R.S. who, blessed with a fine natural genius, by unwearied application (without a master), attained the sciences of astronomy and mechanics, which he taught with singular success and reputation. He was modest, sober, humble, and religious, and his works will immortalize his memory when this small monument is no more. He died 16 Nov. 1776, aged 66."
"Stephen Riou, buried March 17, 1780." This gentleman, who was a captain of horse, and had served in Flanders in the year 1741, distinguished himself as a man of taste, by the publication of a splendid work, in Imperial folio, on the Grecian orders of architecture, explained by delineations of the antiquities of Athens, made during his travels into Greece. He published also an essay on the construction of bridges (fn. 67).
"Allan Ramsay, Esq. buried Aug. 18, 1784." Mr. Ramsay was principal portrait painter to his Majesty. He was one of the writers in the controversy on Elizabeth Canning's case, and was author of a pamphlet called the Investigator, and various political tracts (fn. 68). His father wrote a well-known drama, called the Gentle Shepherd, and several poems.
"The Rev. Charles Wesley, buried Ap. 5, 1788." Mr. Wesley was a younger brother of the celebrated John Wesley, one of the founders of a very numerous body of men, generally known by the name of Methodists. Their father, Samuel Wesley, was author of "the Life of Christ," a poem; a Commentary on the Book of Job, and other works. Charles Wesley was born in 1708, at Epworth; he was educated at Westminster school and Christ church, of which college he was a student. He accompanied his brother during most of his travels, and encountered with him many dangers and difficulties. After his marriage, he divided his time between Bristol and London. His writings, not so numerous as those of his brother, consist chiefly of hymns and sacred poems. His son Charles, before he was three years of age, exhibited uncommon musical talents; his younger son Samuel, at an age not much more advanced, discovered the same talents and inclination for music, and composed an oratorio and several other pieces, whilst a child. A minute account of their progress in the science, from the information of their father, is given in the Hon. Daines Barrington's miscellanies (fn. 69). They both embraced a prosession for which nature had so evidently designed them. Some years ago select concerts were given at their father's house in Chesterfield-street, Marybone, at which the joint performances of the brothers, particularly their double lessons on the organ, were received with much admiration and applause. Mr. Wesley was buried in the church-yard at Marybone, by his own desire, his pall being supported by eight clergymen of the church of England (fn. 70).
"Mark Anthony Joseph Baretti, buried May 9, 1789." This well-known character was son of an architect at Turin, where he was born about the year 1716. After struggling with great difficulties in the early part of his life, he came to England in 1750, and settled in London as a teacher of Italian. He gave a proof of his extraordinary facility in acquiring languages, by publishing in English, within three months after his arrival, a defence of the Italian poetry against Voltaire. About this period he was introduced to Dr. Johnson, with whom he maintained an intimacy till nearly the end of his life. In 1760 he revisited his native country, and whilst resident at Venice, published a periodical paper, which added much to his reputation. At his return he was engaged in a controversy with Sharp, who had published Letters from Italy, in which a very unfavourable account was given of that country and its inhabitants. Soon after his return from a visit to Spain in 1769, he had the misfortune to kill a man in an accidental affray in the streets. He was tried at the Old Bailey, when after a full investigation of the cafe, during which the most honourable testimony was borne to his character, the jury gave a verdict of manslaughter. In 1770 he published an account of his travels, which met with a very favourable reception from the public. At the first institution of the Royal Academy, Baretti was made their secretary for foreign correspondence. About the same time he had a pension of 80l. per annum from the crown. He died on the 5th of May 1789, and was interred in the cemetery on the north side of Paddington-street; Dr. Vincent, Sir William Chambers, and some gentlemen of the academy attending his funeral. His letters, among which were several (fn. 71) from Dr. Johnson, were burnt by his representatives. His principal works were, an Italian grammar; a dictionary of that language, which is in very general use; his travels; a view of the customs and manners of Italy; a discourse of Shakspear and Voltaire, and an edition of Machiavell's works. Some of his later writings were of a personal nature, and are replete with acrimony.
Serres, the, marine painter.
"John Dominick Serres, buried Jan. 20, 1793." An eminent artist, who excelled in painting sea pieces. He was marine painter to his Majesty.
Families of rank.
Very numerous entries, relating to the families of persons of rank, occur in the parish registers at Marybone. Most of them are copied in the note (fn. 72), and references given to others; though it is possible, A charity-school was instituted in this parish in the year 1750, for instructing, clothing, and putting out apprentice the children of the industrious poor. In the year 1754, the then Countess Dowager of Oxford granted the site of the present school-house, in High-street, Hester Lucy, daughter of Charles Lord Mahon (now Earl Stanhope) and Hester, born Feb. 12, 1776;—Griselda, July 21, 1778;—Lucy Rachel, Feb. 20, 1780;—Philip Henry, son of Earl Stanhope and Louisa, Dec. 7, 1781. Charlotte, daughter of Lord Algernon Percy (now Earl of Beverly) and Isabella Susanna, born June 9, 1776;—George, June 13, 1778;—William Henry, March 24, 1788;—Francis John, May 1, 1790. William, son of Lord Westcote (now Lord Lyttelton) and Carolina, born Dec. 6, 1776. Douglass, son of Charles Earl of Aboyne and Mary, born Oct. 10, 1777. William, son of Lord Foley and Harriot, born Feb. 20, 1778;—Charles, April 1, 1779;—Thomas, Dec. 22, 1780. for a long term, at a pepper-corn rent. The house was then built by subscription. Ten girls were at that time wholly maintained, number of girls is now about to be augmented to 42, that of the boys to 52. The children are employed in such a manner as enures them to habits of industry, and is most likely to be serviceable to them in their future lives. The clear produce of their labours in 1793 was 130l. which enables the trustees of the school to extend its utility. A brief account of the rise and progress of this charity was printed in 1794, by which it appears that it has a fund of 3900l. in the 3 per cents. arising from the donations of various persons (fn. 73). Mr. William Huddle, in 1753, bequeathed a house in Castle-street (for an unexpired term of 69 years), now let at 25l. per annum. Mr. Thomas Gaff, in 1776, gave a rent-charge of 2l. 2s. during an unexpired term of 41 years; Richard Balshaw, Esq. in 1784, gave a coach-house and offices in Brianstone Mews, now let at 18l. per annum, and a house in Conway-court, let at 111. per annum. The annual subscription in 1793 was 762l. Collections are occasionally made at the chapels. They amounted in 1793 to 2681.
Benefaction for bread.
Thomas Verley, in 1692, left the interest of 50l. to be distributed in bread among the poor of this parish.
The Middlesex hospital, instituted in 1745, for sick and lame, and lying-in married women, is in this parish. When first erected it stood insulated in the fields. The number of persons relieved by this charity (including out-patients), from its first institution to the 31st of December 1793, were 86,810; the number of married women delivered, 9986. Through the munisicence of an unknown benefactor, an establishment was provided in this hospital in the year 1792 for persons afflicted with cancer. The plan was suggested by the late benevolent John Howard. The Duke of Northumberland is president of the Middlesex hospital.
Ancient conduits belonging to the city of London. Lord Mayor's banquetinghouse.
On the north side of Oxford-road, near Stratford-place, were some ancient conduits belonging to the city of London. Near them stood the Lord Mayor's banqueting-house, whither the city-officers used to resort when they went to view the conduits. It was pulled down in 1737, when the springs were arched over (fn. 74).
Government of the parish.
The parish of Marybone is governed by a select vestry, and is extremely well regulated, for which it is much indebted to the late Bishop Harley, who was many years curate, and exerted all his interest in procuring the acts of parliament, by which these regulations are confirmed and established. A very spacious and commodious workhouse was built in the year 1775. The average number of paupers is about 800. Near the same site is a large parochial insirmary, built a few years ago. Both together are capable of containing 1200 persons.
Place of execution.
The public place of execution for criminals convicted in the county of Middlesex was formerly in the parish of Marybone, at the end of Park-lane, not far from Tybourn-turnpike (fn. 75). There suffered the infamous Catherine Hayes, for the murder of her husband (in this parish), which was attended with circumstances of uncommon atrocity. It is recorded in a well-known ballad, beginning, "In Tybour-road there liv'd a man." Catherine Hayes suffered the utmost severity of her sentence, being literally burnt alive, in consequence (as it was said) of the indignation of the populace, who would not suffer the executioner to strangle her (as is usual) before the fire was kindled.