The Environs of London: Volume 3, County of Middlesex. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1795.
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The church is situated to the north of London a little more than a mile from Holborn-bars. The parish is of great extent. It is bounded on the north by Islington, Hornsey, and Finchley: the boundary towards Hornsey is in the hamlet of Highgate, one third of which is in this parish; it joins to Finchley in Lord Mansfield's woods. On the west it is bounded by Hampstead (including part of Haverstock-hill and Chalk-farm) and Marybone; on the south by St. Giles's in the Fields, St. George the Martyr, St. George-Bloomsbury, and St. Andrew's-Holborn (the parish of Pancras extending to the foot of Gray's Inn Lane, and including part of a house in Queen's Square); on the west it is bounded by St. James-Clerkenwell, the line of division being between the New River-head and Bagnigge Wells. Tottenham-court Road (fn. 1), and all the streets to the west as far as Cleveland-street and Rathbone-place, are in the parish of Pancras.
The principal hamlets are Kentish-town (anciently Kentistonne), where William Bruges, Garter King at Arms in the reign of Henry V. had a country-house at which he entertained the Emperor Sigismund (fn. 2); part of Highgate; Battle-bridge, Camden-town, and Sommers-town.
At a place called the Brill in this parish were to be seen, a few years ago, some remains of what is supposed to have been a Roman camp (fn. 3). A part of Sommers-town is now built upon the site. The celebrated and ingenious Dr. Stukeley, whose imagination in the pursuit of a favourite hypothesis would sometimes enable him to see more than other antiquaries, has written 16 pages in folio (fn. 4) upon this entrenchment, which he expressly affirms to have been the camp of Cæfar. He supposes it to have extended 500 paces by 400, including a small moated site to the south of the church, and another to the north (fn. 5). Quitting the language of conjecture, the doctor points out the disposition of the troops, and the station of each general's tent, with as much confidence as if he had himself been in the camp. Here was Cæfar's prætorium; here was stationed Mandubrace, King of London; here were the quarters of M. Crassus, the Quæstor; here was Cominius; there the Gaulish princes, &c. &c. It is but justice to Dr. Stukeley's memory to mention, that this account of Cæfar's camp was not printed in his lifetime; as he withheld it from the public, it is probable he was convinced that his imagination had carried him too far on this subject. Dr. Stukeley remarks that the vallum thrown up in the civil war was in the fields next the Duke of Bedford's; he adds, that it was levelled after the Restoration, and that scarcely a trace of it was (when he wrote) visible, notwithstanding Cæfar's camp remained in so perfect a state after an interval of 1800 years. I do not suppose that the entrenchment at the Brill was thrown up by the Londoners in 1642 (since the name denotes something more ancient (fn. 6) ); but it certainly appears by the diurnals published at the time, that entrenchments and ramparts were thrown up in the fields near Pancras church during the civil war. I think it not improbable that the moated areas abovementioned near the church were the sites of the vicarage and rectory-house; which, in a survey of the parish of Pancras bearing date 1251 (fn. 7), are described as two area, one prope ecclesiam; the other ad aquilonem ecclesiæ. The rectory-house at Newington-butts still exists in a moated state.
In the survey of Doomsday two manors are described as being in the parish of Pancras, besides that of Totehele. The canons of St. Paul's, says that record, hold four hides at Pancras for a manor. The land is of two carucates. The villans employ only one plough, but might employ another. There is timber in the hedgerows; pasture for the cattle, and 20d. rents. Four villans hold this land under the canons, and there are seven cottars. In the whole, valued at 40s. in King Edward's time at 60s. I suppose this to have been the prebendal manor of Kentish-town, or Cantelows. The name of Kaunteloe, or de Kaunteloe, occurs in some of the most ancient court-rolls of the manor of Tottenhall (fn. 8). The demesne lands consist of about 210 acres, according to the survey taken by order of parliament in 1649 (fn. 9). The manor house was then sold to Richard Hill, merchant of London, and the manor (which had been demised to Philip King and George Duncomb for three lives, all then surviving) to Richard Utber, draper. After the Restoration, the lessees, or their representatives, were reinstated in their property. About the year 1670 the lease came into the possession of John Jeffreys, Esq. father of Sir Jeffrey Jeffreys of Roehampton, Alderman of London (fn. 10). By the intermarriage of the late Earl Camden with Elizabeth, one of the daughters and coheirs of Nicholas Jeffreys, Esq. grandson of Sir John, it became vested in him in right of his wife, and is now the property of the present Earl. This estate is held on lives subject to a reserved rent of 20l. 1s. 5d. per annum, paid to the prebendary, who keeps the manor in his own hands, and holds a court leet and court baron.
Walter, a canon of St. Paul's, held, when the survey of Doomsday was taken, one hide at Pancras. The land, says that record, is of one carucate, and employs one plough. On this estate are 24 men, who pay a rent of 30s. per annum. In the year 1375, Joan, widow of Robert Lord Ferrers, of Chartley, died seised of an estate, called the manor of Pancras (fn. 11) (held under the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, by a rent of 30s.) being the same, I suppose, which belonged to Walter the canon. Robert Lord Ferrers, of Groby, who inherited his mother's lands, sold this estate to Sir Robert Knolles, in 1378 (fn. 12). In the year 1381, the reversion which belonged to the crown, was granted after the death of Sir Robert and his wife Custancia, to the prior and convent of the house of Carthusian monks, built in honour of the holy salutation (fn. 13). I have not been able to find what became of this estate after the dissolution of monasteries. Perhaps it is Lord Somers's estate at the Brill, which is freehold, but the title deeds are not sufficiently ancient to ascertain it.
The manor of Totehele (now Tottenham court) contained five hides, and is thus described in the record of Doomsday. The land is of four carucates, but only seven parts in eight are cultivated. There are four villans and four bordars, wood for 150 hogs, and 40s. arising from the herbage. In the whole valued at 4l., in King Edward's time at 5 l. This manor was formerly kept by the prebendary of Totenhall in his own hands. In 1343, John de Carleton held a court baron as lessee, and the prebendary the same year held a view of frank-plege (fn. 14). In the year 1560, the manor of Totenhall, or Tottenham, was demised to Queen Elizabeth for 99 years, in the name of Sir Robert Dudley (fn. 15). In the year 1639, twenty years before the expiration of Queen Elizabeth's term, a lease was granted to Charles the First, in the name of Sir Henry Vane, for three lives (fn. 16). In 1649, this manor, being seized as crown land, was sold to Ralph Harrison, Esq. of London, for the sum of 3318l. 3s. IId. (fn. 17) At the Restoration, it reverted to the crown; and in the year 1661, two of the lives in King Charles's lease being surviving, it was granted by Charles II. in payment of a debt to Sir Henry Wood, for the term of 41 years, if the said survivors should live so long (fn. 18). The lease became the property of Isabella Countess of Arlington (fn. 19), from whom it was inherited by her son Charles Duke of Grafton. In the year 1768, the lease being then vested in the Hon. Charles Fitzroy (now Lord Southampton), younger brother of the present Duke of Grafton, an act of parliament passed, by which the feesimple of this manor vests in Lord Southampton and his heirs, subject to the payment of 300l. per annum, to the prebendary of Tottenham, in lieu of the ancient reserved rent of 46l. and all fines for renewals. The demesne lands of this manor, according to the survey of 1649, are about 240 acres.
Among the eminent men who have held this prebend may be reckoned Ralph de Diceto, dean of St. Paul's, the English annalist; Lawrence Booth, Archbishop of York; Alexander Nowell, dean of St. Paul's, and John Overall, Bishop of Norwich (fn. 20). The present prebendary is the Rev. Thomas Willis, LL. B. collated in 1790, on the death of the late Dr. Lort.
The prebend of Pancras has for its corps an estate of about 70 acres in this parish. In very remote times, the rectory belonged to it. The appropriated rectory of Chigwell in Essex, formerly the endowment of a chantry founded by Bishop Kemp in St. Paul's cathedral, and annexed to the prebend of Pancras (fn. 21), is still held under the prebendary. The mansion-house belonging to this prebend was leased in 1584, to George Benyon, Esq. for 21 years (fn. 22). The prebendal estate was demised for the same term, to John King, Esq. in 1641, the reserved rent being 10l. (fn. 23) The present lessee is Henry Newcome, Esq. of Devonshire-place.
Lancelot Andrews, Bishop of Winchester, and William Sherlock, are among the prebendaries who have filled this stall (fn. 24). The present prebendary is the Rev. W. Paley, Archdeacon of Carlisle, well known by his admired work on the principles of moral philosophy. He was collated by the present Bishop of London in 1794.
The corps of the prebend of Rugmere was formerly in this parish. The capital messuage of Ruggemere is mentioned in the survey of Pancras, anno 1251 (fn. 25). It is mentioned also by Norden (fn. 26), as a seat belonging to one of the prebendaries of St. Paul's. Its site is not now known, nor any estate in Pancras held under this prebend, the corps of which consists, as I am informed, only of the parsonage and tithes of Throughley in Kent, of which Lord Sondes is the lessee (fn. 27). The present prebendary of Rugmere is the Rev. Drake Hollingbery, M. A. Chancellor of Chichester, collated in 1780.
Within this parish, in a singularly beautiful situation, is the Earl of Mansfield's seat, called Cane-wood, or Ken-wood. I think it not improbable that the wood near this mansion, and the neighbouring hamlet of Kentish-town, in old records written Kentesstonne, are both called after the name or title of some very remote possessor. One of the deans of St. Paul's was Reginald de Kentewode. Either he or some of his ancestors, in all probability, derived their name from living near a wood so called. The alteration from Kentwode to Ken-wood is by no means unlikely to happen. The estate and house at Ken-wood, in the year 1661, appear to have been the pro perty of John Bill, Esq. who married Lady Pelham (relict, as I suppose, of Sir Thomas Pelham, and daughter of Sir Henry Vane). I have not been able to procure any thing farther relating to its history, than that the late Earl of Mansfield (then Attorney General) purchased it, in 1755, of the Earl of Bute, and that it had previously been the property of the Duke of Argyle (fn. 28).
The most remarkable room at Ken-wood is the library, a very beautiful apartment (about 60 feet by 21), designed by Adam (fn. 29), and ornamented with paintings by Zucchi. In this room is a whole length of the late Lord Mansfield by Martin, and a sine bust of him by Nollekens. There is another bust of his Lordship, when young, in the hall, one of Sir Isaac Newton, and the antique bust of Homer, in white marble, which was bequeathed to Lord Mansfield by Pope. The paintings in the hall are by Rebecca. In the breakfast parlour is a bust of Pope, and a portrait of Sir Christopher Hatton; in the other rooms are some portraits well deserving of notice, particularly those of Pope, Garrick, the Duchess of Queensbery, and a good head of Betterton, the celebrated tragedian, said to be by Pope, who had been instructed in the art of painting, by his friend Jarvis. The present noble owner is improving and enlarging the house very considerably. Saunders is employed as the architect.
The pleasure grounds, including the wood which gives name to the place, contain about 40 acres. Their situation is naturally very beautiful, and the hand of art has been successfully employed in making them still more picturesque. The cedars of Libanus, though young, are very fine, and are shot up to a great height with their leaders entire. One of them was planted by the late Lord Mansfield with his own hands. The inclosed fields, adjoining to the pleasure grounds, contain about 30 acres. Hornsey great woods, held by Lord Mansfield under the Bishop of London, join this estate on the north; they consist of about 100 acres, and have been lately added to the inclosures.
The reservoirs belonging to the Hampstead water-works (fn. 30) are a considerable ornament to Ken-wood.
"Pancras-church," says Norden, "standeth all alone, as utterly forsaken, old and wether-beaten, which, for the antiquity there"of, it is thought not to yeeld to Paules in London. About this church have bin many buildings now decayed, leaving poor Pancras without companie or comfort, yet it is now and then visited with Kentishtowne and Highgate, which are members thereof; but they seldom come there, for they have chapels of ease within themselves; but when there is a corpse to be interred, they are forced to leave the same within this forsaken church or church-yard, where (no doubt) it resteth as secure against the day of resurrection, as if it laie in stately Paules (fn. 31)." It is clear, that the stealing of dead bodies was not then practised. Newcourt, whose work was published in 1700, says, that houses had been built near the church. It is still, however, one of the least populous parts of the parish.
The church is of Gothic architecture, built of stones and flints, which are now covered with plaster. It is certainly not older than the 14th century, perhaps in Norden's time it had the appearance of great decay; the same building, nevertheless, repaired from time to time, still remains; and having lately undergone a complete repair, looks no longer "old and wether-beaten," and may exist perhaps to be spoken of by some antiquary of a future century. Its disproportion to the population of the parish is very striking. It is a very small structure, consisting only of a nave and chancel; at the west end is a low tower, with a kind of dome (fn. 32).
Weever speaks of a wondrous ancient monument in this church, by tradition said to belong to the family of Gray, of Gray's Inn. If it be that which now remains in the north wall of the chancel, I should suppose it not to be much older than the year 1500. It is of purbeck marble, and has an elliptical arch ornamented with quatrefoils. No inscription or arms remain. Weever mentions also the tomb of Robert Eve, and Laurentia his sister, daughter of Francis, son of Thomas Eve, clerk of the crown (fn. 33). There is no date. The family of Eve, or Ive, were of great antiquity in this parish. In the year 1252, King Henry III. granted leave to Thomas Ive to inclose a portion of the highway adjoining to his mansion at Kentessetonne (fn. 34). Richard Ive, about the middle of the last century, had the manor of Toppesfield in the parish of Hornsey, and died without male issue, leaving some daughters, coheirs.
The church and church-yard of Pancras have been long noted (fn. 35) as the burial-place of such Roman Catholics as die in London and its vicinity. Many persons of that persuasion have been interred at Paddington, but their numbers are small when compared with what are to be found at Pancras, where almost every tomb exhibits a cross, and the initials R. I. P. (Requiescat in pace), which initials, or others analogous to them, are always used by the Catholics upon their sepulchral monuments. I have heard it assigned by some of that persuasion, as a reason for this preference to Pancras as a burial-place, that before the late convulsions in that country, masses were said in a church in the south of France, dedicated to the same saint, for the souls of the deceased interred at St. Pancras in England.
On the north of the chancel at Pancras are the monuments of John Offley (fn. 36) of London, merchant, 1667, and Thomas Doughty (fn. 37), 1694. On the east wall are those of Daniel Clarke, Esq. (fn. 38) who had been master cook to Queen Elizabeth, 1626, and Richard Draper, Esq. (fn. 39) serjeant at law, 1756. On the south wall are those of Samuel Cooper, Esq. (fn. 40) 1672; Richard Fitzgerald, 1702; and Philadelphia, wife of Thomas Wollaston, Esq. (fn. 41) of London. The date of the latter is concealed. It is of the last century, a small monument of veined marble; the effigies of the deceased is represented reclining on a bed with an infant in her arms. Within the rails of the communiontable are the tombs of Richard Nicolls, Esq. of Kentishtown, 1612; and Frances, wife of Thomas Nevill, Esq. of Holt in Leicestershire (relict of Sir Charles Wintour, of Lidney in Gloucestershire), 1720. In the chancel are the tombs also of William Talbot, Gent. 1660; Captain Robert Harland, and Frances his wife (the dates concealed). On the south wall of the nave is the monument of the Hon. Rowland Belasyse (fn. 42) (uncle to the present Earl of Fauconberg), 1768; on the north wall, a small brass plate to the memory of Mary, wife of John Beresforde (fn. 43), Gent. "ouster barester" of Gray's Inn, 1588; on the floor, flat stones in memory of Frances, wife of Anthony Monson, Esq. and daughter of Sir Philip Tirwhit, Bart. 1658; Isabel, wife of Sir Valentine Brown, of Lincolnshire, Knt. 1680; Mary Frances, wife of Henry Tasbourgh, Esq. 1706; Charles Somerset, Esq. 1724; Margaret, relict of Sir Charles Anderton, Bart. 1720; Hon. Anne Belasyse, 1731; Hon. Penelope Belasyse, 1750 (aunts of the present Earl of Fauconberg); and Mary Clare, Lady Gerard, daughter and heir of Henry Tasbourgh, and wife of Sir Thomas Gerard, Bart. of Bryn in Lancashire, 1749.
Against the north wall, on the outside, is the monument of Mr. John Horton, Gent. 1738; Catherine, his wife, 1748; Mr. Ignatius Cugnoni, who married her grand-daughter; and others of the family of Horton.
In the church-yard are the tombs of Robert Davies, Gent. son of Robert Davies, Esq. of Guisancy in Flintshire, 1668; Dorothy, only daughter of John Eyton, of Leewood in Flintshire, by Dorothy, sister of Robert Davies, 1672; Abraham Woodhead (fn. 44), 1678; Edward Boteler, Esq. 1681; Robert Pennant, second son of Piercy Pennant, Esq. (fn. 45) of Byghtan in Flintshire, by Katherine, sister of Robert Davies, 1689; Edward Betts, of the College of Physicians, son of the famous John Betts (fn. 46), 1695; Obadiah Walker (fn. 47), 1699; Catherine, widow of Thomas Brent, Esq. of Stoke in Gloucestershire, 1706; Gilbert Whitehall, Gent. 1709; Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Carlton, Esq. Knight-harbinger to Charles I. and Charles II. (by his second wife Mary, daughter of Richard and Barbara Boyle), 1709; Terence Macmahon, Gent. 1710; Andrew Giffard, 1714; Bonaventura Giffard, 1734; Thomas Dongan, Earl of Lymerick, 1715; Catherine, relict of Jonas Cudworth, and wife of Edward Fenwick, Esq. of Northumberland, 1715; William Sulyard, Gent. 1715; Mary, daughter of Charles Townley, Esq. (by Ursula Ferriour, of Tysmore in Oxfordshire), 1716; Philippa, wife of Sir Henry Bateman, Knt. 1718; Elizabeth, wife of John Beaumont, Gent. 1721; Charlotte, wife of Nicholas Stapleton, Esq. 1721; Mabel, his second wife, 1727; Mr. Martin Harrold, 1721; John Walpole, Esq. of Gray's Inn, 1721; Edward Walpole, Esq. (fn. 48) of Dunston in Lincolnshire, 1740; Thomas Shuttleworth, Gent. 1724; George Erington, Esq. 1725; Thomas Gibson, Esq. of Northamptonshire, 1726; Dennis Molony, Esq. 1726; the Hon. Esme Howard, son of Henry Earl of Arundel, 1728; Daniel Macnamara, Esq. 1730; George Fuller, 1730; Adam White, Gent. 1730; Amy Constable, daughter of Hugh Lord Clifford, and wife of Cuthbert Constable, Esq. 1731; Sir John Butler, 1731; Richard Chapman, merchant, 1733; Mr. George Shadforth, 1734; Mr. Matthew King, 1734; Peter Sexton, 1734; Sir James Tobin, Bart. (fn. 49) 1735; William Gower, Esq. 1736; Captain William Drummond Pierpoint, 1737; Mary, widow of Francis Moore, Esq. 1737; Mrs. Margaret Dixon, 1738; Sir Joseph Richards, Bart. 1738; William Montague, merchant, 1740; Barbara, wife of Sir John Webb, Bart. daughter and heir of John Lord Bellasyse, 1740; William Walton, 1740; Ralph Clayton, Gent. 1742; the Right Hon. Elizabeth Countess of Castlehaven, relict of James Earl of Castlehaven, and daughter of Henry Lord Arundell, 1743; Elizabeth, widow of Charles Conquest, M. D. 1743; Sir Thomas Mackworth, Bart. 1744; William Kirwood, surgeon, 1744; the Hon. Mary Browne, sister of Lord Viscount Montague, 1745; John Dutry Cornelisz, Esq. 1745; Charles Vere, Esq. 1746; James Leoni, 1746 (fn. 50); Peter Christopher Balzlow, Esq. 1747; Igna tius Conran, merchant, 1748; Anthony Cousien, 1749; Charles Standford, M. D. 1750; James Allen, Gent. 1750; the Hon. Thomas Arundell, Count of the most sacred Roman empire (uncle to Lord Arundell of Wardour), 1752; Lady Henrietta, daughter of James Earl of Waldegrave, wife, first of Edward Lord Herbert; secondly, of John Beard (the celebrated vocal performer), ob. 1753, ætat. 36; Margaret Daly, widow, daughter of Robert Walsh, Esq. and coheirefs of Edmund Sheffield, the last Duke of Buckinghamshire, 1754; Thomas William Selbye, Esq. of Northumberland, 1755; Thomas Smyth, M. D. of Ireland, 1755; Mr. Thomas Berington, 1755; Thomas Wollascott, Esq. 1756; Charles Button, Gent. 1758; Mrs. Catherine Hall, 1758; Robert Allen, Esq. of Barbadoes, 1759; Brian Philpot, merchant, 1759; Arabella, wife of Thomas Bedingfield, Esq. 1762; Mr. Thomas Abbott, of Swaffham in Norfolk, attorney at law, 1762; Sir Thomas Webb, Bart. 1763; Peter Van-Bleeck (fn. 51), Esq. 1764; Michael Connell, M. D. 1764; Mr. John Hankin, 1764; Mr. Anthony Fediere, 1764; Anne, relict of Ralph Widdrington, Esq. 1764; Walter Quin, Esq. merchant of London, 1764; Thomas Wadding, Esq. 1765; Thomas Basnett, Gent. 1765; Catherine Dignan, aged 90, 1765; Frances, relict of George Brownlowe Doughty, Esq. (daughter and coheir of Sir Henry Titchbourne, Bart.), 1765; James Doughty, Esq. 1778; Richard Cowley, Esq. 1766; Richard Taaffe, Esq. 1769; Henry Wybarne, Esq. 1769; Frances, Countess Dowager of Litchfield, 1769; Alexander Wood, Esq. 1769; John Power of London, merchant, 1770; John Power of Cadiz, merchant, 1788; Thadæus Fitzpatrick, Esq. 1771; Robert Skerret, Esq. 1771; Stephen Lynch, Esq. 1771; Mrs. Alice Dover, 1771; Mrs. Mary Tyte, sister of William Dover, Esq. of Kingston in Jamaica, 1772; Mrs. Anne Tyte, 1772; Mr. Henry Sidgier (on the same tomb), 1786; Mr. George Snowden, 1771; Nicholas Tuite, Esq. 1772; Rev. Francis Blyth, 1772; Rev. William Bower, 1773; Basil Forcer, Esq. 1774; Abraham Langford, Esq. 1774 (fn. 52); Henry Rackett, Esq. 1775; Robert Rackett, Esq. (fn. 53) 1779; Mr. James Underhill, 1775; Edmund Duany, Esq. 1776; George Wilmot, Esq. of Lincoln's Inn, 1776; Mary, wife of Joseph Webb, Esq. 1776; Rev. James Nicholas, 1777; Rev. John Dunn, 1778; Jane, wife of Francis Risdon, Esq. 1778; Judith, widow of John Stockwell, Esq. 1778; Mrs. Anne Cooper (fn. 54), 1779; John Bradshaw, Esq. 1779; Thomas Parkinson, Esq. 1779, &c.; Matthew O'Reilly, Esq. 1780; Manoel Roiz, of Lima, Gent. 1780; Thomas Hirst, Esq. of Yorkshire, 1780; Isaac Hitchcock, of Clifford's Inn (fn. 55), 1781; Anthony Wright, Esq. 1782; Lucy, his wife, daughter of Edmund Plowden, Esq. of Shropshire, 1786; Francis Wright, Esq. 1786; Patrick Larkan, merchant, 1782; John Smyth, Esq. surgeon, 1782; John Newton, Esq. of Lincolnshire, 1783; Count Haslang (fn. 56), 1783; Manoel Vieira, merchant, 1783; Mrs. Elizabeth Pereira, 1783; Catherine, daughter of William Haggerston Constable, Esq. and Lady Winifred, 1783; Edward Harlee, aged 91, 1784; Robert Bernard Grant (Principal of the Scotch College at Douay (fn. 57) ), 1784; Laurence Cotter, Esq. 1784; William Woollett (fn. 58), 1785; John Garden, Esq. 1785; Philippa, Lady Fleetwood (fn. 59), 1786; John Prendergast, Esq. 1786; Mr. John Anthony Tagle, of Lima in Peru, 1787; Anne, daughter of Francis Trapps, Esq. 1787; Mr. Stephen Paxton (fn. 60), 1787; Rev. Geo. Kingsley, 1787; Victor Rependor, Esq. 1788; Miss Anne Dias Santos, 1788; James Macnamara, Esq. 1788; Jane, relict of Theobald Bourke, Esq. 1788; Michael Bourke, Esq. 1789; Mr. Robert Fleetwood (fn. 61), 1789; Mary, daughter of John Kirwan, 1788; Timothy Cuningham, Esq. F. S. A. (fn. 62) 1789; M. I. B. Baron de Wenzel (fn. 63), 1790; Thomas Langdale, Esq. (fn. 64) 1790; Wm. Howard, Esq. 1790; Miss Ruth Ellis, 1791; John Lawson, Esq. 1791; Thomas Bodkin, merchant, 1792; Thomas Kiernan, Esq. of Gray's Inn, 1792; Matthew Plunket, Esq. 1792; Christopher Mac Evoy, Esq. of St. Croix, 1792; John Prou, Esq. 1793; Duncan Stewart, Esq. of North Britain, 1793; Elizabeth Everett, relict of the Hon. William Barnett, of Arcadia in Jamaica, 1793; his Excellency Count Philippo Nupumeceno Fontana (fn. 65), 1793; Mary, daughter of Michael Bothomley, Esq. 1794; and Mrs. Candace Margaret Bartholomew, 1794.
In the circuit walk, annexed to Stow's Survey, are recorded tombs of the following persons (since removed, or become illegible): Tho mas Plot, of Spershott in Buckinghamshire, 1677; Randolph Yearwood, vicar, 1684; Richard Finchamp, son of John Finchamp, of Outwell in Norfolk, 1689; Susanna, wife of John Carlton (daughter of Sir Hugh Ackland, of Killerton in Devonshire, and relict of Edward Hassall, Esq. equerry to Queen Catherine), 1696; and Mrs. Mary Judd, 1699.
There was a chapel at Kentish-twon, as early as the reign of Queen Elizabeth (fn. 66). It stood on land which belonged, anno 1633, to the family of Hewitt. In that year, the parish having received a sum of money for renewing the lease of their church-lands, applied it to the rebuilding and enlarging this chapel. Randall Yearwood, vicar of Pancras, in a paper dated 1673, states, that the parish did not buy the site, nor take a lease of it, but that they paid a noble per annum to the Hewitts, to be permitted to have the use of the chapel (fn. 67). The present chapel, which stands about a quarter of a mile to the north of the old building, and more in the centre of the hamlet, was erected, partly by a brief, and partly by savings out of the church lands, in the years 1783 and 1784 (fn. 68). It is a neat brick structure. There is a vault beneath, in which a few bodies have been interred, but there are no monumental inscriptions in the chapel.
Percy chapel, near Tottenham-court Road (fn. 69) (being private property), was built about the year 1769; Fitzroy chapel (fn. 70), about the year 1778; Bethel chapel (fn. 71), at Sommer's town, about the year 1787.
St. James's chapel, built in 1792, on the east side of the road from Tottenham-court to Hampstead, and the adjoining cemetery, are made by act of parliament to belong to the parish of St. James Westminster, as are the cemeteries of St. Andrew Holbourn, St. George the Martyr, and St. George Bloomsbury, to those respective parishes, though locally situated in that of Pancras.
In Tottenham-court Road, within this parish, is a large chapel belonging to the Methodists of Mr. Whitefield's persuasion. It was built by subscription under the auspices of this celebrated man, who was founder of the community. The first stone was laid on the 10th of May 1756, and it was opened on the 7th of November following. Mr. Whitefield preached upon the occasion to a very crowded auditory. Over the door are the arms of Whitefield (fn. 72). Mrs. Whitefield was buried in the chapel, where is a monument to her memory, and that of her husband, who died in New England (fn. 73). On the walls of the chapel are monuments of the following persons: Elizabeth, wife of John Griffiths, Esq. 1770; John Griffiths, Esq. 1788; John Green, minister of the chapel, 1774; Mrs. Catherine Groves, 1781; Mrs. Elizabeth Bacon, 1782; Christian, wife of William Morley, Esq. and daughter of George Hart, Esq. of Newington, 1785; and Edward Webster, Esq. (fn. 74) 1788. On the floor are the tombs of Mr. Mason Jenkin, limner, 1758; Mr. Matthew Pearce, builder of the chapel, 1775; Rev. A. M. Toplady (fn. 75), aged 38, 1778; Charles Smyth, Esq. Captain in the second troop of Horse Guards, 1780; and Mercy, wife of Dr. James Illingworth, 1785. In the cemetery adjoining are the tombs of Mr. Bartholomew Goodson, who was struck dead with a flash of lightning, Mar. 22, 1772, as he was attending divine service in the chapel; Mr. William Burrell, attorney at law, 1774; William, son of Captain John Welsh, 1781; George Gauld, A. M. of King's College, Aberdeen (surveyor of the coasts of Florida), 1782; Mr. Benjamin Love, of Fulham, 1785; Major William Cawthorne, 1786; Sarah, wife of Captain Matthew Gage, 1786; Mrs. Susanna Lewis, of Bourn in Gloucestershire, 1787; Rev. Richard Elliott (fn. 76), 1788; and Mr. Richard Smith, clerk of the chapel (of whom there is an engraved portrait), 1790.
In the year 1758, 12 alms-houses for poor widows were built by Mr. Whitefield near this chapel. It was proposed to allow them 2s. 6d. each weekly, out of the sacramental collections at the chapel (fn. 77).
William de Belmeis, nephew of Richard de Belmeis, Bishop of London, being possessed of the prebend of Pancras, within which the church was situated, gave the tithes to the canons of St. Paul's (fn. 78), which grant was confirmed by Bishop Gilbert (anno 1183) (fn. 79), and by Belmeis's successor in the prebend, John de St. Lawrence (fn. 80). Soon afterwards the dean and chapter granted the church of Pancras, with all tithes, &c. to the hospital within their cathedral, founded by Henry de Northampton, reserving to themselves an annual pension of one mark (fn. 81). About the same time Ralph de Diceto, dean of St. Paul's, gave to that church the tithes of his prebend of Totenhale in this parish (fn. 82), which grant was confirmed by Lucius Bishop of London (fn. 83). Various ancient leases of the rectory (for the most part to canons of the church), are to be found among the Cartæ Antiquæ at St. Paul's (fn. 84). After the suppression of chantries, guilds, &c. the rectory came again into the possession of the dean and chapter, and has since been leased in the usual manner of church property, subject to a reserved rent of 13l. 6s. 8d.
It appears by an old rent-book at St. Paul's, that Margaret Bust was lessee of the rectory in 1630: in 1650, John Elborow, clerk, was in possession of the lease as her heir (fn. 85); in 1694 Jacob Joyner (fn. 86) was the lessee; in 1701 Mr. Brown, in 1704 Francis Collins. Richard Draper, Esq. serjeant at law, was lessee at the time of his death, in 1756. The lease is now vested in Mr. Swinnerton, of the White Hart Inn, at Colebrook.
The rectory of Pancras was valued at 13 marks per annum, in 1327 (fn. 87). It appears by a visitation of the church, anno 1251, that the vicar had all the small tithes, a pension of 5l. per annum, out of the great tithes, four acres of glebe, and a vicarage house near the church (fn. 88). The vicarage is rated in the King's books at 9l. per annum; in 1650 it was valued at 28l.; an augmentation of 50l. per annum was at that time voted by the committees (fn. 89).
It has been usual to perform divine service at this church only on the first Sunday in each month, at other times in Kentish-town chapel to the same congregation. This arrangement was sufficiently convenient before the great increase of buildings on the south side of the parish. About the year 1787, the Rev. Mr. Mead having been chosen preacher by consent of the vicar, service was performed at Pancras every Sunday for some years, but it is now only monthly as before.
The earliest date of the register of baptisms and marriages is 1660, that of burials 1688. The registers are now kept with great regularity. That of baptisms has an index, which forms itself as the names are entered, by means of a marginal alphabet at the beginning. It is to be feared, that for several years past the registers, particularly those of baptisms, are incomplete. The great increase of population in the more distant parts of the parish, induced the vicar to permit baptism to be performed in those districts. This circumstance, though attended with convenience in other respects, caused many omissions in the registers, and the average number of baptisms, of late years, will be found very inadequate to what might be expected in a parish supposed (by a calculation in which I think the number is under-rated) to contain 4000 houses. The number of burials also is extremely disproportionate to the population of the parish, but it is probable that the parishioners of the distant hamlets have interred their friends in more convenient cemeteries.
It appears by a visitation of the church of Pancras, in the year 1251, that there were then 40 houses in the parish, including the capital messuages of Tothale, Rugmere, Northbi, and Alkichesbri. A very great increase of buildings has taken place in this parish within the last 40 years, the proportion is calculated at 20 to one. The first increase of much consequence was in the neighbourhood of Tottenham-court Road. The streets near Percy chapel were built about the year 1765 (fn. 90). Those more to the north are of later date, some of them very recent. The magnificent square, called Fitzroysquare, was begun in 1793, and is as yet unfinished. The hamlet of Kentish-town has been increased more than one half within the last 20 years. Sommers-town was begun about 1786; Camdentown, in 1791; a considerable number of houses have been built of late near Battle-bridge.
"Sir Thomas Gardiner (fn. 91) and Mrs Jane Brookes, were married May 28, 1661."
"Diana, daughter of John Bill, Esq. and Lady Pelham (fn. 92), baptized at Caen-wood, June 13, 1661."
"Dame Mary Slingsby, widow, from St. James's, buried March 1, 1693–4." It is most probable that this was the actress whose name occurs as Lady Slingsby in the Dramatis Personæof Dryden's and Lee's plays, between the years 1681 and 1689. In 1680, she appears as Mrs. Mary Lee. Her name was originally Aldridge (fn. 93). Who her husband was is not known. He certainly was not one of the present Baronet's immediate ancestors; nor was he of Sir Robert Slingsby's family, who was created a Baronet in 1660. Sir Arthur Slingsby's of Bisrons in Kent, who was created a Baronet by King Charles II. at Brussels in 1657, left a son, Charles, who succeeded to the title in 1671. Perhaps he might be the husband of this lady. Both his family and that of the Hertfordshire Baronet, Sir Robert, have been long extinct. Lady Slingsby appears to have been an actress of eminence, and to have played the principal characters in tragedy.
"Obadiah Walker, clerk, buried Feb. 2, 1699." Obadiah Walker
was born at Wosperdale in Yorkshire, and received his education at University College in Oxford, of which he afterwards became master.
In the year 1687, by virtue of letters patent from King James, he
set up a press, for the avowed purpose of printing books against the
reformed religion. The patent specifies the names of the books
(many of which were written by his deceased friend Abraham Woodhead), and exempts him from any penalties to which he might be
subject by the statutes against Popery. The number of copies to be
published of each work, is limited to 20,000 within the year (fn. 94). He
procured also other letters patent, by which he and some fellows of
his college were excused from attending the public service of the
church (fn. 95). Under the sanction of this authority he opened a chapel
for mass within the walls of the college. Upon the arrival of William the Third, following the example of his Royal patron, he abdicated his headship, and went to London, where he passed the remainder of his days, and died in the month of January 1699, aged 86.
He translated a life of King Alfred, which he published, with plates
and notes; he was author also of a treatise on education; instructions
in the art of oratory and grammer; a description of Greenland, the
Northern Islands, Muscovy, and Russia; a life of Christ, and a Greek
and Roman history, illustrated by coins and medals, a work in good
esteem (fn. 96). He was buried in the church-yard at Pancras, near the
grave of his friend Abraham Woodhead, where is a monument to
his memory, with this short inscription:
"Per bonam famam, et infamiam.
"Ob. Jan. 31. A. D. 1699. Æt. 86.
"The Right Hon. Mary Lady Dowager Abergavenny (fn. 97), buried Nov. 14, 1699."
"John Ernest Grabe, D. D. buried Nov. 9, 1711." A learned divine, born at Koninsberg in Prussia, in the year 1666. He received his education at the university of that place, where his father, Martin Sylvester Grabe, was professor of divinity and history. Having determined to quit the Lutheran religion on account of some points of conscience, he hesitated for some time in his choice, and at length determined to embrace that of the church of England; for which purpose he came to this country in 1695, bringing with him very strong recommendations to the King, who assigned him a pension of 100l. per annum, to enable him to pursue his studies. He soon afterwards entered into priest's orders in our church. His edition of the Septuiaginst from the Alexandrian MS. is well known. He published also Spicilegium S. S. Patrum, or the lesser works of the Fathers and Heretics of the three first centuries; an edition of Justin Martyr's first Apology; the works of Irenæus; Bishop Bull's works; and a tract against Whiston's doctrine of the Apostolical constitutions, written in English. Grabe resided much at Oxford, both for the convenience of the Bodleian library, and for the society of learned men which he found there. The university gave him the degree of D. D. to which he was presented by Dr. Smalridge, who made a speech upon the occasion, containing a very handsome and just eulogium upon his merits. There is a monument to this eminent divine in Westminster Abbey (fn. 98), which has occasioned it to be said that he was buried there (fn. 99). Dr. Smalridge published a life of Dr. Grabe, and an account of his MSS. prefixed to a tract against Whiston. Two others of his posthumous works were afterwards printed; a Greek liturgy, and a treatise on the Eucharist.
"Jeremiah Collier, clerk, buried April 29, 1726." This celebrated writer was son of a clergyman, and born at Stow Qui, in the county of Cambridge, in the year 1650. He received his education at Caius College. Having entered into holy orders, in the early part of his life, he had the small living of Ampton in Suffolk. In 1685 he came to London, and was soon afterwards appointed lecturer at Gray's Inn. On the eve of the Revolution, though a member of the church of England, he strenuously attached himself to King James's interest, and wrote the first pamphlet which appeared against the Prince of Orange. When that Prince was settled on the throne of these kingdoms, Collier published several tracts, written with much force and spirit against the government. His conduct in other respects was at the same time so imprudent as to subject him to very unpleasant consequences. He was twice imprisoned, and upon refusing to comply with some legal forms, subjected himself to an outlawry, under which he continued to the day of his death. After his second imprisonment, he seems wholly to have directed his talents to more beneficial objects. He first published a collection of essays upon various subjects, which were very favourably received. Soon afterwards he attacked the stage for its immorality. This engaged him in a controversy with some of the most distinguished wits of the age. He came off victorious in the contest, and was the means of checking the progress of that licentious style of writing, which threatened to banish every friend to virtue and decorum from the theatres. Mr. Collier published also a translation of Moreri's great dictionary, a translation of Marcus Antoninus, a collection of sermons, and an ecclesiastical history of Great Britain. At Queen Anne's accession, he was earnestly solicited to conform to the establishment, and was promised considerable preferment. It is to the credit of his consistency that he refused, and shows at least, that his former conduct, however erroneous, originated from motives of conscience. In 1713, he was consecrated a Bishop by the nonjurors (fn. 100). He died on the 26th of April 1726, and was buried at Pancras. There is no memorial to him.
"Edward Ward, buried June 27, 1731." A writer of low humour, generally known by the familiar appellation of Ned Ward. He was a native of Oxfordshire, of humble extraction; for many years he kept a coffeehouse in Moorfields, and afterwards, a punchhouse in Fulwood's rents, near Gray's Inn, where he died on the 20th of June 1731. His funeral was directed by a poetical will written by himself in 1725. His most noted work is the London Spy, being a description of the manners of the town at the beginning of the present century. His poems, abounding with humour of the lowest kind, are numerous; and he published one dramatic piece, called the Humours of a Coffeehouse (fn. 101).
"Thomas, son of Sir Thomas and Sarah Mackworth, baptized May 15, 1732, buried Aug. 16; Jane, baptized July 13, 1734 (fn. 102). Sir Thomas Mackworth, buried Feb. 10, 1745; the Rt Hon. Lady Anne Mackworth, Dec. 21, 1792."
"Bevil Higgons, buried March 6, 1735." Author of a book against Bishop Burnet's History, and a tragedy called the Generous Conqueror, or the Timely Discovery. He was a younger son of Sir Thomas Higgons. Being devoted to the interest of James II. he was one of those who accompanied that monarch in his exile (fn. 103).
"Sir John Sidley (fn. 104), buried May 3, 1737."
"Thomas (fn. 107), son of Sir Robert and Diana Adams, baptized Feb. 17, 1738."
"Ld Charles Dillon (fn. 108), buried Oct. 27, 1741; Lady Dillon (fn. 109), Nov. 23, 1751; the Honble Miss Anne Dillon, Ap. 19, 1763; the Rt Hon. Viscount Dillon (fn. 110), Sep. 25, 1787." Others of the family of Dillon have been interred here.
"Sir John Wittewrong (fn. 111), buried Ap. 1, 1743."
"Lady Osbalson Sophia More (fn. 112), buried Ap. 29, 1750."
"Lady Elizabeth Bishop (fn. 113), buried Mar. 18, 1751."
"Count of the holy Roman empire (fn. 114), buried July 29, 1781."
"Sir Robert Burdett, Bart. and the Right Hon. Lady Caroline "Honble Thomas Arundell (fn. 115), buried Apr. 13, 1752; the Honble Anne Arundell (fn. 116), Oct. 11, 1778; the Honble Thomas Arundell, Harpur (fn. 117), married July 17, 1753."
"The Rt Hon. Barbara Barnewall (fn. 118), buried Oct. 29, 1761."
"Peter Pasqualino, buried Feb. 20, 1766." An eminent performer on the violoncello, and the first who brought that instrument into fashion, about the year 1740 (fn. 119).
"Peter Henry Treyssac de Vergy, buried March 3, 1775." A portrait in mezzotinto of this person was published in February 1775, with a short printed account of him, in which he is styled advocate in the parliament of Bourdeaux, author of several literary performances in England, and famous for his concern in the memorable quarrel between the Count de Guerchy, ambassador extraordinary from the court of France, and the Chevalier D'Eon, minister plenipotentiary from the same court to the court of Great "Britain in 1763." There is a copy also of his last will, in which he confesses his concern in a plot against D'Eon; and intimates that he withdrew his assistance upon finding that it was intended to affect the Chevalier's life. De Vergy died on the 1st of October 1774, aged 42, and remained unburied till March, his executor waiting for directions from his family. He had desired in his will that his relations would remove his body to Bourdeaux. It appears by his will that he published some pamphlets or papers against the Chevalier D'Eon. He was author also of some novels in English, which are said to have little other merit than that they are remarkably well written for a foreigner.
"Maria Teresa, Duchess of Wharton (fn. 120), buried Feb. 20, 1777."
"Anne Lady Webb (fn. 121), buried Oct. 14, 1777."
"Baron Gustavus Adam Nolcken (fn. 122) and Mary Lemaistre, married June 30, 1779."
"John Count O Rourke, buried April 2, 1785." A well-known character in the fashionable world, descended from the O Rourkes, ancient sovereigns of O Rourkes county, now Leitrim, in Ireland. He had been in the Imperial and French service, and wore the order of St. Louis.
"The Neapolitan Ambasador (fn. 123), buried June 3, 1793."
"Antoine Francois Comte de Gramont, son of Antoine Adrien Charles, and grandson of Louis Antione Duc de Gramont, (leaving behind him three children, Antoine Louis Raymond Genevieve, and two daughters, Antoninette Cornelie Sainte Eugenie, and Antoinette Marie Jeanne de Gramont, by Dame Gabrielle Charlotte Marie Eugenie de Boisgelin his wife,) buried Feb. 12, 1795, aged 37."
Children of the following persons connected with the peerage have been baptized in this parish: Thomas Somers Cocks, Esq. (fn. 124), and Anne (1769); James Walker, Esq. and Lady Mary (fn. 125) (1771, &c.); Lord William Campbell (fn. 126), and Sarah (1774); Henry James Jessup, and Lady Anna Maria (fn. 127) (1794).
John Morant gave four acres of land, valued in 1547 at 16s. per annum, for an obit, at which the whole rent was to be given to the poor in recreation (fn. 128).
A benefactor, now unknown, gave a third part of the profits of three acres of land, near the Fortress in the manor of Cantelows, to the poor, which third, in 1696, produced 21. 10s. per annum (fn. 129), now 14l. There are 23 acres of land belonging to the church, given also by persons now unknown. These lands were leased for a term of years by Sir Robert Payne and others, then fessees; and it is stated in a survey, bearing date 1650 (fn. 130), that when the lease was expired, they would be worth four nobles per annum. In 1696 they were let at 361. 10s., now at about 1201 (fn. 131).
John Miller, in 1583, gave a rent-charge of I l. 6s. 8d. on lands at Pancras, to poor impotent people. Sir Edward Stanhope, LL.D. anno 1603, gave the sum of 20l. to the poor. William platt, Esq. in 1637, gave 10l. per annum to the poor of Highgate, and 4l. to the poor of Kentife-town.
Thomas Charles, in 1617, gave a rent of I l. 4s. to buy bread for the poor. Thomas Cleeve, in 1634, gave (for the same purpose) the sum of 50l., with which was purchased a rent-charge of 21. 16s. He gave the like sum to parishioners of Pancras living in Highgate, to be distributed in Highgate chapel.
The late John Craven, Esq. of Gray's Inn, left the sum of 20001. to be distributed among 100 poor housekeepers of this parish, who had been rated in the poor's books. The distribution was made on the 14th of March 1786.
A charity-school, for "instructing, clothing, qualisying for useful servants, and putting out to service the female children of the industrious poor of this parish," was instituted by subscription in the year 1776, at first in a rented house, and with only six children. The next year they were increased to 24, and afterwards, for a time, reduced to 18; but the subscription having been since enlarged, a school-house was built in the year 1790, on a piece of ground given by Lord Southampton, and 30 children are now wholly maintained, clothed, and educated. A benefaction of 200l. has been given to this charity by Mrs. Culling (fn. 132).
The Foundling-hospital, which stands within this parish (at the end of Lamb's Conduit-street), was instituted in the year 1739. The building was not inhabited till the year 1745, and it was not completed till some years afterwards. It is intended for the maintenance and education of foundlings, and other poor children, who are admitted in their infancy, and remain in the hospital till the age of fourteen, when they are apprenticed either to trade of service. Some time ago a large sum was voted annually by parliament for the use of this institution, when all children that offered were admitted, and brought up either here or in hospitals established in various parts of the kingdom for that purpose. For several years past it has depended solely upon its own funds (the interest of benefactions and annual subscription), which are sufficient for the maintenance and education of 450 children, but there are not at present so many in the hospital (fn. 133). None are admitted now without a recommendation. Among the principal benefactors may be reckoned G. F. Handel, who for several years performed his oratorio of the Messiah at the chapel, which is extremely well calculated for the purpose. When that great master presided there at his own Oratorio, it was generally crowded; and as he engaged most of the performers to contributed their assistance gratis, the profits to the charity were very considerable, and in some instances approached nearly to 1000l. After Handel's death, Smith continued these perfomances; but not with equal success; and they became at length so little productive, that they were discontinued. There are some valuable pictures in the hospital, particularly the original of Hogarth's march to Finchley; Moses presented to Pharaoh's daughter, by the same artist; Ishmael and Hagar, by Highmore; a sea-piece, by Brooking; a sketch of the Charter-house, by Gainsborough, being one of his earliest productions; and several portraits of benefactors and other persons connected with the hospital. Among these are Captain Coram, a very active promoter of the institution; Dr. Mead; the Earls of Dartmouth and Macclesfield, &c. Over the altar in the chapel is the wife men's offering, by Cazali; in the windows are the arms of benefactors in stained glass (fn. 134). The low buildings which occupy the fides of the area before the hospital, are the schools. The King is patron of this institution, the Duke of Portland president.
The hospital for inoculation, generally called the Small-pox hospital, was removed from another site about the year 1765, to a field near Battlebridge-turnpike, where it now stands. The hospital for the reception of patients with the natural small-pox was removed to its present situation, contiguous to the other building, in 1793. These excellent institutions were established in the year 1746, from which time to the first of January 1795, 19,004 patients with the natural small-pox have been received, and 29,260 have been inoculated (fn. 135). The King is patron: the names of the president and other persons belonging to the establishment, are printed annually in the Court Calendar.
Within this parish also, near Gray's Inn lane, is the Welsh charityschool, built about the year 1771. The institution is of a much earlier period. About the year 1718, some gentlemen of the principality of Wales began a subscription for the purpose of instructing, clothing, maintaining, and apprenticing poor boys, born of Welsh parents in or near London, having no parochial settlement at the place of their birth. At first a small number were educated in a room near Hatton-garden. In the year 1737, a school-house was erected on Clerkenwell-green. In 1769, the society enlarged their plan, and extended it to the education and maintenance of girls. The patronage afforded to the charity by the Prince of Wales encouraged them to build the present school-house at the end of Gray's Inn lane. The whole expence of the building and furniture, purchasing the ground, &c. amounted to 3695l. At present there are about 50 boys in the school, and 20 girls, who are wholly maintained, clothed, and educated. From the first establishment to the year 1793, 493 boys were put out apprentices, 112 went out to service, and 120 into the navy. From the time that the plan has been extended to the education of girls to the year 1794, sixteen were put out apprentices, and 34 went out to service (fn. 136). The collections at the anniversary meeting of ancient Britons on the first of March, go in aid of this charity. Several benefactions have been left to it, among which should be particularly noticed the sum of 1951l. 16s. being the residue of his fortune (after the payment of other legacies) bequeathed as a grateful remembrance by Mr. Edward Williams, who had received his education from this charity. It should be mentioned also, that Mr. Pennant intended the profits of his great work on British Zoology for the benefit of this school, but the great expences attendant on the undertaking frustrated his benevolent design. He afterwards gave to the school the sum of 100l. which he received from Mr. White for the octavo edition of the work.
The noted place of public entertainment, called Bagnigge-wells (much resorted to by the lower sort of tradesmen), is situated in this parish, in the valley between the New-river head and the Foundling hospital. It was first opened about the year 1767, in consequence of the discovery of two springs of mineral water. A treatise upon these waters, bearing the above date, was published by John Bevis, M. D. One of the springs is chalybeate, the other cathartic. Near the church-yard, in a house now occupied by Mr. Reading, is a spring, formerly called Pancras-wells; the water of which was in much esteem some years ago. Dr. Russel, in his treatise on mineral waters, speaks of this spring as impregnated with calcareous nitre, considerably diuretic, and somewhat cathartic (fn. 137). Near Battlebridge is a spring, called St. Chad's-well, of nearly the same quality, which is still in use.
At Camden-town, in this parish, is a large building, called the Veterinary College, consisting of an infirmary for horses, and an academy for studying the diseases of cattle, particularly of that useful animal the horse. Proposals for such an institution were first published in the newspapers in the year 1784. This college was established in 1791. The theatre is completed, and an infirmary capable of containing 50 horses; but it is intended to enlarge it so as to contain 300. There is a house for the Professor, who reads lectures on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays, from 11 to 12, on the structure, œconomy, and diseases of the horse, and other domestic animals. Seven pupils have already passed their examination before the medical committee (which consists of some of the most eminent physicians and surgeons in London), and are settled in various parts of the kingdom. Seventeen are now attending. The subscription to the infirmary is 20 guineas for life, or two guineas per annum, either of which entitles the subscriber to send any number of horses, if there is room for them in the infirmary; otherwife they have advice gratis, and medicines at a cheap rate from the college (fn. 138). Application is now making to parliament for incorporating the Veterinary college.