The Environs of London: Volume 3, County of Middlesex. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1795.
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The name of this place has undergone a very material change. From the thirteenth to the sixteenth century, public records call it Haringee, Haringhee, or Haringey. About Queen Elizabeth's time it was usually called Harnsey, or as some will have it, says Norden, Hornsey. If any thing is to be gathered relating to its etymology, it must be sought for in its more ancient appellation. Har-inge, the meadow of hares, is not very wide of its original orthography.
Hornsey lies in the hundred of Ossulston, about five miles from Holborn-bars. The parish is bounded by Islington, Stoke Newington, Hackney, Tottenham, Friarn Barnet, Finchley, and Pancras. It contains about 2200 acres of land; of which about 50 only are arable, about 120 wood, 150 waste, and the remainder meadow and pasture. The soil is for the most part clay; about Highgate, a sandy loam. The parish pays the sum of 957l. 2s. to the land-tax, which in 1794 was at the rate of 2s. 4d. in the pound; but the proportion is very variable.
The manor of Hornsey has belonged, from time immemorial, to the see of London. The bishops had formerly a residence at this place; but there does not occur in the episcopal registers any act dated thence later than the year 1306, in Bishop Baldock's time. I think it not unlikely, that Lodge Hill in Hornsey great park (long since disparked and converted into tillage) was the site of the ancient palace; "it seemeth (says Norden) by the foundation, that it was rather a castle than a lodge, for the hill is trenched with two deep ditches, now old and overgrown with bushes; the rubble thereof, as brick, tile, and Cornish slate, are in heaps yet to be seen, which ruins are of great antiquity, as may appear by the oaks at this day standing, above a hundred years growth, upon the very founda"tion of the building. It did belong to the bishop of London, at which place have been dated divers evidences, some of which remain yet in the bishop's registry, it is said (fn. 1)." Lodge-hill is at the eastern extremity of Lord Mansfield's wood, and about a mile to the north-west of Highgate. The greater part of it is now covered with a copse, but the remains of a moat or ditch are still to be seen in an adjoining field. Bishop Aylmer's house at Hornsey, the burning of which put him to 200 marks expence (fn. 2), must have been upon another site. A survey, taken by order of the parliament in 1647, says, that the manor of Hornsey, which before had been always kept in demesne, was leased in 1645 to —Smith, Esq. for 120l. per ann. and that there were belonging to it 650 acres of wood and waste (fn. 3). When the bishops' lands were sold, the manor of Hornsey came into the hands of Sir John Wollaston (fn. 4), who held it till his death in 1658, after which his widow enjoyed it till the Restoration. Lands in this manor descend according to the custom of gavel-kind. Hornsey woods were leased in 1755 to Lord Mansfield, and the site of the great park to William Strode, Esq. The present Earl of Mansfield is lessee of the woods, and John Bacon, Esq. of the park.
Hornsey park is known in history as the place where the Duke of Gloucester, the Earls of Warwick, Arundel, and other nobles, assembled in a hostile manner, anno 1386, to oppose King Richard, who had given great disgust by the numerous favours which he lavished on his two favourites, Robert Duke of Ireland and the Earl of Suffolk (fn. 5). Their party was so powerful that the king thought it expedient to abandon his ministers.
In the year 1441, Roger Bolingbroke an astrologer, and Thomas Southwell a canon of St. Stephen's, were taken up for a conspiracy against Henry the Sixth; when it was alleged that Bolingbroke endeavoured to consume the king's person by necromantic art, and that Thomas Southwell said masses in the lodge at Hornsey-park over the instruments which were to be used for that purpose (fn. 6). This was the conspiracy in which Eleanor Duchess of Gloucester was concerned.
When the ill-fated and short-lived Edward the Fifth was brought to London, after his father's death, the Lord Mayor of London and 500 citizens met him in Hornsey-park, and accompanied him into the city, on the 4th of May (fn. 7); at the same place Henry the Seventh was met, on his return from a victory in Scotland, and conducted into the city in like manner (fn. 8).
The manor of Brownswood in Hornsey is the corps of a prebend in St. Paul's cathedral, and holds a court-leet and court-baron. By a survey taken in 1649, it appears that this manor had been demised to John Harrington, in the year 1569, for 99 years; and that by several mesne assignments it was then the property of Lady Kemp, the reserved rent being 19l. per annum (fn. 9). It was sold, together with the manor of Friarn Barnet, to Richard Utber, for the sum of 3228l. 4s. 10d. (fn. 10) In 1681, Sir Thomas Draper, Bart. was lessee under the prebendary. John Baber, Esq. who enjoyed the lease under Dame Mary Draper's will, assigned it in 1750 to John Jennings, Gent. In 1758, Richard Saunders, Jennings's sole executor, became lessee. His only surviving son Thomas, in 1789, sold the lease to John Willan, Esq. uncle of Mr. William Willan the present lessee (fn. 11). It is scarcely necessary to observe, that the leases have been renewed from time to time since the expiration of Harrington's term, which was granted before the restraining act of Queen Elizabeth. The lessee is lord of the manor, and holds a court-leet and court-baron. This manor extends over a considerable part of the parish at the East-end. The demesnes consist of about 400 acres.
Among the most eminent men who have held the prebend of Brownswood, are Bishop Fox, the founder of Corpus Christi College at Oxford, and John Barkham (fn. 12). The present prebendary is John Sturges, D.D. who is also prebendary of Winchester, and chancellor of that diocese.
The manor of Toppesfield, or Broadgates, at Crouchend, appears to have been in 1467 the property of John Guybon, to whom it had been conveyed by Thomas Bryan, Serjeant-at-law (fn. 13). I find nothing farther relating to it till the year 1659, when it was aliened by John George and others (who had married the coheirs of Richard Ive, Esq. of Hornsey,) to Nicholas Colquitt; who, by his will, bearing date 1660, devised it to his mother Margaret Fairclough. Mrs. Fairclough in 1662 granted it to her grand-daughter Hester Tyther, afterwards the wife of Sir Edward Graves, Bart. Sir Edward had issue by her one daughter Margaret; who having married one Edward Mattison without her parents' consent, before she had attained her sixteenth year, this estate, by the statute of 4 and 5 Philip and Mary, became forfeited to the next heir, Anthony Tyther, Esq. (fn. 14), who was some time in possession: but it reverted afterwards to Mrs. Mattison (fn. 15); who jointly with her husband aliened it in the year 1717 to Charles Eyre, citizen and haberdasher of London. It was purchased of his executors in 1749 by John Areskine, Esq. who devised it after the death of his wife to his nieces Elizabeth and Eleanor Baston; the first of whom married Frederick Henzelman, and the other John Worgan, Esq. It was aliened by these parties in 1773 to Samuel Ellis, Esq.; of whom it was purchased in 1792 by Thomas Smith, Esq. of Gray's Inn, the present proprietor, to whom I am indebted for the account of its descent from the year 1659.
The manor of Farnfields, or Fernefield, in Hornsey, was given by Sir William Cavendish to King Edward VI. anno 1552, in exchange for other lands (fn. 16); and continued in the crown till 1603, when King James granted it to John Earl of Mar (fn. 17). It was valued at 10l. per annum. I have not been able to procure any farther account of this estate, or to trace its site.
In the year 1388, Joan, relict of William de Brighte, of the county of Devon, cousin and heir of John de Stonford, released all right in a messuage, 300 acres of arable land, 15 of meadow, 14 of wood, and 4d. rents in Hornsey and Tottenham, to John Dovet and Alice his wife (fn. 18). This I suppose to be the same estate which Thomas Burgoyne and others, in the year 1460, gave to St. Bartholomew's Hospital in Smithfield (fn. 19); for I find that the manor of Duckett's, or Duckett's farm, (a misnomer perhaps for Dovet's,) lying in the parishes of Hornsey and Tottenham, and being parcel of the possessions of the late monastery of St. Bartholomew in Smithfield, was granted to Sir Robert Cecil in the year 1547 (fn. 20). The whole of this estate is now considered as in the parish of Tottenham.
Norden says, that at Muswell-hill, called also Pinsenall-hill, there was some time a chapel bearing the name of Our Lady of Muswell, of whom there had been an image, whereunto was a continual resort in the way of pilgrimage. This arose from a miraculous cure performed (according to a tradition in his time still current) on a king of Scots, by the waters of a spring (called Mousewell, or Muswell) on the spot where the chapel stood (fn. 21). The well still remains; but is not samed, as I find, for any extraordinary virtues. The chapel, of which Norden speaks, was an appendage to the priory of Clerkenwell, having been built, as I suppose, upon some lands granted to that convent by Richard de Beauvois, Bishop of London, about the year 1112 (fn. 22). Muswell-farm house, with the site of the chapel, and all quit-rents and other appurtenances, or, as it is called in other records, the manor of Muswell (being situated in the parish of St. James, Clerkenwell (fn. 23)), was aliened in the year 1546, by William Cowper and his wife Cecily, to Thomas Goldynge (fn. 24). The same premises were in 1577 aliened by Anne Goodwin and John Wighell to William Rowe and his heirs (fn. 25). They continued in the possession of the Rowe family (fn. 26) till the latter end of the last century. Newcourt (writing in 1700) says, "Muswell-hill farm was lately sold, as I "am informed, by Sir Thomas Roe." It came either at that time, or soon afterwards, into the family of Pulteney; and is now the property of Lady Bath.
Sir John Musters, who died in 1690, was seised of a house in Hornsey, called the Tower, or Brick-place (fn. 27). This house having suffered great damage by the dreadful storm in 1703, was pulled down by a licence from the Bishop of London, as lord of the manor.
In this parish, about half-way between Highbury and Hornsey, there was formerly a wooden aqueduct, 178 yards in length, constructed for the purpose of preserving the level of the New River. It was destroyed in 1776, and a channel made on a raised bed of clay, in the same manner as described at Bush Hill. This aqueduct, which was called the Boarded River, passed over a small stream which runs to Hackney, and forms the brook there (fn. 28).
The parish church, which is dedicated to St. Mary, appears to have been built about the year 1500. The architecture is of that period, and the arms of Savage and Warham, (two succeeding Bishops of London) on the tower, fix the date (fn. 29). The church consists of a chancel, nave, and south aisle; at the west end is a square embattled tower.
On the north wall of the chancel are the monuments of Francis, only son of Sir John Musters, Knight (fn. 30), 1680; the Reverend Dr. Cartwright, 17 years rector, 1749; and Samuel Towers (fn. 31), A. M. 1757. Upon a pillar on the south side are those of Robert Harrington (fn. 32), 50 years rector, 1610 (he was son of Sir John Harrington of Exton); and Thomas Lant (fn. 33), B. D. 51 years rector, who died in 1688, aged 86. On the floor are the tombs of Lady Basset, wife of Sir Francis Basset, and daughter of Sir Jonathan Trelawny, Bart. ob. 1682; Dame Jane, wife of Sir John Musters, and daughter of Sir Francis Basset, 16. .; and John Kelly, 1721.
On the north wall of the nave is a monument, in memory of Colonel Edward James, who was shipwrecked in the Grosvenor East Indiaman, on the Caffre coast, in 1782, and his sister Elizabeth Chambers (fn. 34), who died in 1756, and that of Samuel Buckley, (the editor of Thuanus,) with the following inscription:
"To the memory of Samuel Buckley, who having not only discharged all the duties of life with ability, industry, and tenderness to each relation, but offices likewise of state and trust, with prudence, fidelity, and gratitude to his benefactors, concluded his days in the study of letters, and the enjoyment of honest and honourable friendships, in the 68th year of his age, 1741."
On the floor are the tombs of Charles Salkeld, Gent. 1720; Stephen Barnes, Esq. 1727; Thomas Barnes, Esq. 1762; Robert Jones, Esq. of Gray's Inn, and of St. John's College, Cambridge, 1730; Mary, wife of Richard Wooley, Esq. 1767; Mr. Robert Garmeson, 1770; and Sarah, relict of George Bellas, 1784.
In the window of the south aisle is the following coat of arms: Az. a chevron Or between three besants; the same coat carved in stone is upon the wall of the vestry, impaled with a saltier charged with five cinquefoils. A similar coat is borne by the family of Scorey, the former is borne by Otoft and Jennings.
Against the wall of this aisle is fixed a small obelisk, to the memory of "Master Richard Candish of Suffolk, Esq."
"Candish deriv'd from noble parentage,
Adornde with vertuous and heroicke partes,
Most learned, bountiful, devout, and sage,
Graced with the graces, muses, and the artes.
Deer to his prince, in English court admir'd,
Beloved of great and honourable peeres,
Of all esteem'd, embraced, and desired;
Till death cut off his well employed yeeres.
Within this earth, his earth entombed lies,
Whose heavenly part surmounted hath the skies."
"Promised and made by Margaret, Countess of Coberland (fn. 35), 1601."
This Richard Candish was chosen one of the burgesses for Denbigh, anno 1572, in opposition to the inclination, and even the threats of Queen Elizabeth's great favourite, the Earl of Leicester (fn. 36). It seems, by his epitaph, that he was afterwards in the court interest.
In the wall of the same (south) aisle is a large slab, (placed upright,) on which are engraved the figures of a man, his two wives and son, in the dress of Queen Elizabeth's or King James's time. It was put up in memory of George Rey of Highgate, Gent.; the date is concealed by a pew. Against a pillar on the north side of this aisle is the monument of John Carter, goldsmith, 1776. On the floor are the tombs of John Barnes, 1675; Charles Eyre, Esq. 1748; the Reverend Matthew Mapletoft, 1751; William Newland, Esq. of Writtle park, in Essex, 1755; Robert Wilson of Liverpool, Gent. 1759; Buriage Angier, Esq. 1792; and a small brass plate with the figure of an infant, underneath which is the following inscription:
"Jsu Criste Mary is son—have merci on the soule of John Skevington (fn. 37)."
In the church-yard are the tombs of Edmund Lawson, 1708; Joseph Eamonson, apothecary, 1741; John Areskine, Esq. 1758; Richard Holland, Esq. (fn. 38) 1760; John Bailey, surgeon, 1761; Mr. Richard Smith, 1769; William Umfreville, Gent. 1770; Hannah, daughter of William King, 1772; Mrs. Rebecca Chetwood, 1773; Samuel Mead, Esq. captain in the navy, and commissioner of the customs, 1776; Mary, wife of Mr. William Randall, 1777; James Moffat, Esq. surgeon, 1777; Mr. John Crane, 1778; Ann, wife of Captain Robert Linzee, 1781; Mr. John Patignon, 1781; Martin Hounshill, (a catholic priest,) chaplain to the late Duke of Norfolk, 1783; John Westneys, Gent. 1784; Henry Laughton, merchant, 1784; Barbara, wife of Arthur Edie, Esq. 1788; Thomas Carnan, bookseller in St. Paul's church-yard, 1788; Mr. John Thomas, 1789; and Albertina, wife of Mr. Henry Wilmot, 1789. On the outside of the chancel, at the east end, is the monument of Francis Waller, Gent. 1733.
The church of Hornsey is a rectory, under the immediate jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, to whom the advowson belongs. It was rated at eight marks in 1327 (fn. 39), in the King's books at 22l.; in 1659, it was said to be worth 92l. per annum (fn. 40). There are belonging to it about 40 acres of glebe.
Thomas Westfield, who resigned the rectory of Hornsey in 1637, was afterwards made Bishop of Bristol. His biographer, speaking of his manner of preaching, says, "he made not that wearisome which should be welcome, never keeping his glass, except upon extraordinary occasions, more than a quarter of an hour; he made not that common which should be precious, either by the coarseness or cursoriness of his matter. He never, though almost fifty years a preacher, went up into the pulpit but he trembled, and never preached before the King but once, and then he fainted (fn. 41)." A volume of his sermons is extant. He was held in such esteem by all parties, that on the 13th day of May 1643, the committee for sequestering delinquents estates, being informed that his tenants refused to pay him his rents as Bishop of Bristol, it was ordered that all the profits of his bishopric should be restored him, and that he should have a grant of safe-conduct, to remove with his family to Bristol, being a man far advanced in years, and of great learning and merit (fn. 42). His successor at Hornsey, Thomas Lant, was cruelly used by the puritans, who turned him out of doors, with his wife and family, not allowing him time even to procure a place of retirement (fn. 43). John Dalton was presented to the rectory by Sir John Wollaston, in 1654 (fn. 44), and Samuel Bendy, by Dame Rebecca Wollaston, in 1659. Bendy soon after his admission, presented a petition to the committee, setting forth, that the rectory was only 92l. per annum, out of which he was obliged to pay 16l. to the wife and children of the late incumbent (fn. 45); he prayed therefore, that a like sum might be granted him out of other rectories, which was complied with (fn. 46).
Dr. Lewis Atterbury, who was collated to the rectory of Hornsey in 1719, had resided several years at Highgate, where he was elected preacher at the chapel in 1695. He was brother to the celebrated Bishop Atterbury, and himself a man of considerable note. Several of his sermons are in print, some published by himself and others after his death. He was author also of some theological tracts (fn. 47).
William Cole, F. A. S. who died in 1782, and bequeathed his large collection of MSS. consisting of parochial surveys, historical anecdotes, &c. to the British Museum, with an injunction, that they should not be opened till 20 years after his decease, was collated to the rectory of Hornsey in the month of November 1749, and held it about twelve months. The present rector is Charles Sheppard, M.A. who succeeded Francis Haultain in 1780.
The earliest date of the parish register is 1653. Some leaves are lost about the latter end of the last century, which prevented me from taking a regular average of baptisms and burials for the period of 1680–9.
|Average of baptisms.||Average of burials.|
In considering the population of this parish, a great part of the baptisms and some of the burials at Highgate-chapel must be brought into the account. About 40 houses have been built in the parish of Hornsey within the last fifteen years. The present number is about 420, of which 90 are in the village of Hornsey, 264 in the hamlet of Highgate, 23 at Crouch-end, and 20 at Muswell Hill. In 1665, forty-three persons, out of fifty-three interred that year, died of the plague.
Reginald Grey of Ruthen, Earl of Kent, died at Hornsey March 17, 1573, and was buried in the church of St. Giles, Cripplegate (fn. 48).
John Lightfoot, the learned commentator and Hebraist, went to reside at Hornsey in the year 1628, for the purpose of being near London, where he might have access to the library at Sion College (fn. 49). One of his works is dated from his study at Hornsey.
It appears by the chantry roll (fn. 50), (dated the first year of Edward VI.) that there was a close of five acres, then valued at 13s. 4d. belonging to the church and poor, the gift of an unknown benefactor. In the table of benefactions which hangs in the church, a meadow called Church-field is said to have been given to the parish by a Bishop of London. It is let now at 14l. 14s. per annum. A close let at 10s. was given also by an unknown benefactor. The sum of 3s. 10d. per ann. was formerly paid out of an acre of land at Muswell Hill to the use of the poor (fn. 51). Mr. Roger Draper gave a close at Islington (let on a building lease at 20 l. per annum) for apprenticing poor children. Anne, widow of John Smith, Esq. in 1662, gave a rent-charge of 20 l. per annum, for the same purpose. Mr. Daniel Midwinter, in 1756, gave the sum of 1000 l. to the Stationers' company, out of the interest of which, 14 l. is appropriated to the apprenticing and clothing two poor children of this parish. Thomas Coventry, Esq. in 1636, gave an annuity of 5 l. for fuel. William Priestley, Esq. in 1620, gave the sum of 250 l. to the Merchant-taylors company, out of which four nobles was to be divided annually among the same number of poor persons of this parish. William Platt, Esq. in 1637, gave 6l. per annum to the poor, charged on his estates. John Smith, Esq. by his will, bearing date 1644, and proved in 1655, gave a rentcharge of 10l. per annum (fn. 52). Mrs. Elizabeth Joiner, in 1738, gave 4l. per annum to buy bread for the poor; Mrs. Susannah Chambers, anno 1640, 2 l. 12 s.; Richard Holland, Esq. in 1757, 6 l. per annum; and Samuel Ellis, Esq. in 1792, the sum of 300 l. for the same purpose. The parish have a few cottages in which poor families are placed rent free.
Highgate is said to have taken its name from the high gate, or the gate upon the hill, a derivation which seems sufficiently satisfactory, supported as it is by facts, the toll-gate belonging to the Bishop of London having stood from time immemorial on the summit of the hill. Norden says, that "the ancient road to Barnet was through a lane on the east of Pancras church, whence leaving Highgate Hill on the left, it passed through Tallingdon-lane to Crouch-end, and thence through Hornsey-park to Colney Hatch, Friarn"Barnet, and Whetstone. This road was in the winter so deep and miry, that it was almost impassable; on which account it was agreed between the Bishop of London and the country, that a new way should be laid forth through the park, beginning at" (what is now called) "Highgate Hill, and leading directly to Whetstone; for which convenience all persons, carriages, &c. passing that way should pay a toll to the Bishop of London, and his successors; and for that purpose was the gate erected on the hill (fn. 53)." In Norden's time the toll was farmed at 40l., now at 150l. The Bishop's reserved rent is 16l. 10s. Mrs. Sarah Gregg is the present lessee, under the Bishop; the farmer of the toll is her tenant. I can find no record to ascertain the time when the agreement which Norden speaks of, took place. The old road through Tallingdonlane, and by way of Crouch-end, &c. to Whetstone, has within a few years been converted, from green lanes almost impassable in winter, into a very good public highway.
"Upon this hill, says Norden, speaking of Highgate, is most plea"sant dwelling, yet not so pleasant as healthful; for the expert in"habitants there report, that divers who have been long visited with sickness, not curable by physicke, have in a short time repayred their health, by that sweete salutarie aire. At this place —Cornwalleys, Esquire, hath a very faire house, from which he may with great delight beholde the stately citie of London, West"minster, Greenwich, the famous river of Thamyse, and the coun"trey towards the south, verie farre (fn. 54)." This Cornwallis was son, I suppose, of Sir Thomas Cornwallis, a man of considerable eminence in the reigns of Edward VI. and Queen Mary. He led a retired life during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and died at a very ad vanced age, in 1604 (fn. 55). I have seen a letter of Sir Thomas Cornwallis, dated from Highgate, in 1587 (fn. 56).
John Lord Russel, son of Francis Earl of Bedford, died at Highgate in 1584 (fn. 57). Sir Richard Baker, author of the Chronicle, resided there about the year 1603 (fn. 58). The great Lord Chancellor Bacon died at the Earl of Arundel's house, at Highgate, on the 19th of April, 1626 (fn. 59). Dr. Sacheverell, to whose name the violence of party has given more than a temporary celebrity, died at his house there on the 5th of June, 1724 (fn. 60).
During the commotions raised by the commons of Kent in 1461, Thomas Thorpe, Baron of the Exchequer, was beheaded by the insurgents at Highgate (fn. 61).
The unfortunate Arabella Stuart, whose only crime was marrying the man she loved, in defiance of a court to which she was allied, having been for some time confined at Sir Thomas Parry's, at Lambeth, was removed to Mr. Coniers's house near Highgate, whence she made her escape in the following manner: "Having induced her keepers into securitie by the fayre shew of conformity and willingness to goe on her journey towards Durham, (whither she was to be conducted by Sr James Crofts,) and in the mean tyme disguising her selfe, by drawing a pair of great French fashioned hose over her petticotes, putting on a man's doublet, a man-lyke perruque, with long locks over her hair, a blacke hat, blacke cloake, russet bootes with red tops, and a rapier by her syde, walked forth between three and four of the clock with Mr. Markham. After they had gone on foot a myle and halfe to a sorry inne, where Crompton attended with their horses, she grew very sicke and fainte, so as the ostler that held the styrrop said, that gentleman would hardly hold out to London. Yet, being set on a good gelding astryde in an unwonted fashion, the stirring of the horse brought blood into her face, and so she rid on towards Blackwall, where, arryving about 6 o'clock, finding there in a readiness two men, a gentlewoman and a chambermaid, with one boate full of Mr. Seimour's and her trunks, and another boate for their persons, they hasted from thence towards Woolwich. Being come so farre, they bade the watermen row on to Gravesend; there the watermen were desirous to land, but for a double fraight were contented to go on to Lee; yet being almost tyred by the way, they were faine to lye still at Tilbury, whilst the oares went a-land to refreshe themselves. Then they proceeded to Lee, and by that tyme the day appeared, and they discovered a shippe at anchor a myle beyond them, which was the French Barque that waited for them. Here the lady would have lyen at anchor, expecting Mr. Seimour, but through the importunity of her followers, they forthwith hoisted saile to sea-wards. In the meane while, Mr. Seimour, with a perruque and beard of blacke hair, and in a tauny cloth-suit, walked alone without suspition from his lodging, out at the great weste doore of the Tower, following a cart that had brought him billets. From thence he walked along by the Tower-wharfe, by the warders of the south gate, and so to the iron gate, where Rodney was ready with oares to receive him. When they came to Lee, and found that the French ship was gon, the billows rising very high, they hired a fisherman for twenty shillings, to set them aboard a certain ship that they saw under saile. That ship they found not to be it they looked for, so they made forwards to the next under sail, which was a shippe of Newcastle. This with much ado they hyred for 40 l. to carry them to Calais; but whether the collier did perform his bargain or no, is not as yet known. On Tuesday in the afternoon, my Lord Treasurer being advertized, that the Lady Arabella had made an escape, sent forthwith to the Lieutenant of the Tower to set straight guard over Mr. Seimour; which he, after his yare manner, would throughly do, that he would: but coming to the prisoner's lodgings, he found, to his great amazement, that he was gonne from thence one whole day before. Now the Kyng and the Lords being much disturbed at this unexpected accident, my Lord Treasurer sent orders to a pinnace that lay at the Downes, to put presently to sea, first to Calais roade, and then to scoure up the coaste towards Dunkerke. This pinnace spying the aforesaid French Barke, which lay lingering for Mr. Seimour, made to her, which thereupon offered to fly towards Calais, and endured thirteen shot of the pinnace before she would stryke. In this barke is the lady taken prisoner, with her followers, and brought back towards the Tower, not so sorrye for her owne restraynt, as she would be glad if Mr. Seimour might escape, whose welfare she protesteth to affect much more than her owne (fn. 62)." This unfortunate lady ended her days a prisoner in the Tower, on the 27th of Sept. 1615, four years after her commitment. Mr. Seymour, her husband, afterwards Marquis of Hertford, effected his escape.
To return to the account of Highgate.—There was formerly a chapel or hermitage upon the hill, standing, according to Norden, on the same spot where the school now is. One of the hermits is said (though it seems not to have been the work of a poor infirm hermit (fn. 63),) to have made the causeway between Highgate and Islington, of gravel taken from the hill where is now the pool (fn. 64). In the year 1386, Bishop Braybroke committed the custody of his chapel at Highgate near the park, (which chapel had been in time past committed to the care of other poor hermits,) to William Litchfield, a poor infirm hermit, for his support (fn. 65). No other presentation to this hermitage appears in the registry till 1531, when Bishop Stokesley presented William Forte to the house and chapel, with the garden, and all the appurtenances, tithes, profits, &c. thereunto belonging (fn. 66). This man, it is probable, was the last hermit.
In the year 1562, Sir Roger Cholmeley, Knight, Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench, who held, it is probable, the site of the hermitage above-mentioned by a grant from the Crown, "did institute and erect, at his own charges, a publique and free grammar schoole, and procured the same to be established and confirmed by the letters patent of Queen Elizabeth, he endowing the same with yearlye maintenance (fn. 67)." The patent here mentioned gives licence to Sir Roger Cholmeley to found a grammar school for the education of poor boys living in Highgate, and the neighbouring parts; and to provide a fund for the relief of certain poor persons in the village or hamlet of Highgate. For carrying this into effect, Sir William Hewet, and Richard Martin, Esq. aldermen of the city of London, Roger Carew, Esq. Richard Heywood, Esq. Richard Hodges, Esq. and Jasper Cholmeley, Esq. were constituted governors, and made a body-corporate, with licence to possess lands in mortmain, to use a common seal, &c. On a vacancy among the governors by death or resignation, the remaining governors were to elect a new one. Sir Roger Cholmeley was to nominate the master during his life, to fix his stipend, and to make such sta tutes as he should think fit for the regulation of the school. After his death the governors were to elect the master, whose place must be always supplied within a month after a vacancy, otherwise the appointment lapses to the Bishop of London. The governors are empowered to make any regulations relating to the school or the master's salary, provided they are not contrary to the founder's statutes (fn. 68). By an ancient order of the governors the number of scholars is limited to 40, to be chosen from Highgate, Holloway, Hornsey, Finchley, and Kentish-town, if there shall be so many in those places; otherwise they are to be elected elsewhere, at the discretion of the governors for the time being (fn. 69). The present governors are the Earl of Mansfield, Lord Southampton, Wilbraham Bootle, Esq. M. P. Alexander Anderson, Esq. Thomas Saunders, Esq. and Charles Causton, Esq. Sir Roger Cholmeley's endowment produces at present an income of 1661. per annum. The governors allow the master a salary of 100l. per annum; which they are enabled to do, as well as to pay the preacher a certain salary, and to keep the buildings in repair, with the profits of Cholmeley's estates, some subsequent benefactions (fn. 70), and the rent of the pews (fn. 71).
The chapel adjoining to the school is said, in an inscription, (put up against the west end in 1682,) to have been built by Edwin Sandys, Bishop of London, in 1565, as a chapel of ease for the inhabitants of Highgate. Here is certainly a mistake. Grindall was Bishop of London in 1565; and his arms (fn. 72) are in one of the windows, with those of Sir Roger Cholmeley (fn. 73) and another coat (fn. 74). The chapel, which consists of a small chancel, a nave, and a south aisle, has been enlarged since its first erection, by sundry benefactions. It was repaired in 1772, with a donation of 500l. from Mr. Pauncefort, aided by other contributions.
In the chancel is the tomb of Rebecca, wife of Edward Pauncefort, Esq. (fn. 75), and daughter of Sir Samuel Moyer, Bart. 1719. At the east end of the south aisle is a monument in memory of the same lady. On the south wall is the monument of William Platt, Esq. founder of some fellowships in St. John's College, Cambridge, who died in 1637. He was son of Sir Hugh Platt of Kirby Castle, Bethnall-green. The monument is surrounded with a great number of escutcheons (fn. 76); under arches are busts of Mr. Platt and his wife Mary, who was daughter of Sir John Hungerford of Down-Amney in Gloucestershire, and afterwards married to Edward Tucker, Esq. of Madingley in Wilts. On the same wall are the monuments of Robert Sprignell, Esq. (fn. 77), 1624; Mr. Peter Pretty, 1678; Mr. John Bailey, 1712; John Schoppens (fn. 78), merchant, 1720; Joseph Edwards, Esq. (fn. 79), 1728, John Edwards, Esq. 1769 (sons of Thomas Edwards, Esq. of Bristol); Hart Bailey (fn. 80), D. M. 1740; William Knatchbull, M. A. of Ch. Ch. Coll. Oxford, preacher at the chapel, 1773; and that of Dr. Lewis Atterbury (fn. 81); being a fluted column of the Corinthian order; on the pedestal of which is the following inscription: "To the memory of Lewis Atterbury, LL.D. formerly rector of Sywell in the county of Northampton, and one of the six preachers to her late sacred majesty Queen Anne at St. James's and Whitehall. He was 36 years preacher of this chapel, 24 years rector of Sheperton in the county of Middlesex, and 11 years rector of this parish of Hornsey. He married Pe nelope, the daughter of John Bedingfield, Esq. by whom he had 4 children; two sons who died young, Bedingfield Atterbury, M. A. who died soon after he had entered into holy orders, and Penelope, who was married to George Sweetapple of St. Andrew, Holborn, brewer; by whom she had one daughter, Penelope Sweetapple, now living. He died at Bath, Oct. the 20th, A. D. 1731, in the 76th year of his age, and lies buried near this place. Abi, spectator & te brevi moriturum scito."
On the floor of the south aisle are the tombs of Mrs. Frances Hewet, (daughter of Sir Henry Hobart, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas,) 1632; Elizabeth, her sister, wife of John Lisle, Esq. 1633; Christopher Wilkinson, merchant, 1676; John Atkinson, Esq, 1773; and John Cobb, Esq. 1778.
On the north wall of the nave are the monuments of Sir Edward Gould, Knt. (fn. 82), 1728, and Samuel Foster, Esq. (fn. 83), 1752. At the east end, that of Sir Francis Pemberton (fn. 84), with the following inscription: "M. S. venerabilis admodúm viri D. Francisci Pemberton Eq. aurati, servientis ad legem, e sociis Interioris Templi, nec non sub serenissimo principe Carolo 2do Banci Regii ac communis capitalis Justiciarii; sacræ majestati a secretioribus consiliis; vir plané egregius, ad reipublicæ pariter ac suorum dulce decus et præsidium feliciter natus. Patre Radulpho in agro Hertford Generoso, ex antiquâ Pembertonorum prosapiâ in Com. Palat. Lancastriæ oriundo. Charissimam sibi adscivit conjugem Annam Domini Jeremiæ Whichcote Baronetti filiam natu maximam ex quâ liberos undecim sus cepit, quorum septem superstites reliquit: e vivis placidé & pié excessit 10mo die Junii A° Dom. 1697mo Ætatis suæ 72mo."
On the floor of the nave are the tombs of Elizabeth, widow of John Jacques, Esq. 1624; Katherine, wife of Richard Chambers, Esq. Alderman of London, (daughter of Robert Sprignell, Esq.) 1643; Basil Nicolls, a governor of the school, 1648; John Smith, Esq. 1655; John Smith, Esq. his son, 1662; Nicholas Burwell, Esq. of Gray's Inn, 1670; Richard Gower, Esq. 1688; William Ord, Esq. 1719; and Elizabeth, wife of Mr. William Yorke, 1724.
In the adjoining cemetery are the tombs of Geoffrey Thomas, Esq. 1681; Robert White, Gent. 1704; Mungo Riddell, surgeon, 1718; Sir Jeremy Topp, Bart. of Bremore, Hants, 1733; and Capt. Peter Walker, 1782. Against the chapel wall are the monuments of John Browne, M.A. chaplain, 1728; Thomas Causton, Esq. 1763; Mrs. Elizabeth Copland, 1766; the Reverend Edward Yardley, archdeacon of Cardigan, preacher at the chapel from 1731 till his death 1769; James Meredith, rector of English Bicknor, Gloucestershire, 1777; and Thomas Bromwich, Esq. 1787.
The master of Highgate school, who is appointed by the governors, is reader also at the chapel, and afternoon preacher. Mr. Carter, master of the school and reader at the chapel during the civil war, was ejected and treated with great cruelty by the Puritans (fn. 85). Humphrey Vernon, who was put in by the committee, was allowed an augmentation of 40l. per annum in 1654 (fn. 86). The present master and reader is Thomas Bennett, M. A. who succeeded the Reverend William Porter in 1793. The morning preacher, who is appointed also by the governors, is the Reverend James Saunders.
William Platt, Esq. in 1637, gave by will 10l. per annum to the minister of Highgate chapel, and 20s. for a sermon on the immortality of the soul, to be preached upon the anniversary of his burial; the preacher to be appointed by St. John's College in Cambridge. John Smith, Esq. by his will proved in 1655, gave 20s. per ann. for a sermon. Sir John Wollaston, who died in 1658, gave 10l. per ann. to the preacher at Highgate. Edward Pauncefort, Esq. gave the sum of 10l. per annum to the reader.
|Average of baptisms.||Average of burials.|
|1635–44||14 3/10||3 7/10|
|1730–9||33 7/10||19 4/3|
The children baptized here are chiefly from the parishes of Hornsey, Pancras, and Islington. It appears by the entries during a few years at different periods, when the parishes have been distinguished, that those from Hornsey have borne a proportion of nearly fourfifths; those from Islington have been very few. The burials from Hornsey and Pancras have been in nearly an equal proportion. The number of baptisms at Highgate has always much exceeded the burials; the fees for which are considerably higher here than at the parish church, exclusive of the dues demandable by the rector. In 1665 there were 16 burials at Highgate.
"Hon. Dna Elizabeth Lisle, uxor Johannis de Insula Armigeri, "sep. 17, Martii 1633." Daughter of Sir Henry Hobart, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, who had a house at Highgate, which seems to have continued for some time in the family. John Lisle was son of Sir William Lisle of Wooton, in the Isle of Wight (fn. 87). "Gulielmus Lisle, hinnulus ad matrem, sep. 28 Maii 1636." "Nathanael f. Dni. Nathanielis Hobart, ex Annâ, bap. 27 Sep. 1636." Sir Nathaniel was a younger son of Sir Henry Hobart, hè was of Broxholme also in Lincolnshire. His wife was Anne, daughter of Sir John Leeke of Wyer Hall, in Edmonton (fn. 88). Mrs. Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Nathaniel Hobart, was buried April 13, 1667.
"Hon. Dna Judith Platt, uxor Hugonis Platt, militis sepult. Jan. 28, 1635." Relict of Sir Hugh Platt, author of "the Garden of Eden," "the Jewell-house of Art and Nature," and other curious works. It is probable that Sir Hugh, who died in 1605, was buried here also, but there is no register extant of so early a date. William Platt, Esq. (whose monument has been described) was buried Nov. 11, 1637. Thomasine, wife of Robert Platt, Esq. (another son of Sir Hugh) Aug. 12, 1656.
"Maria Dni Richardi Sprignell, ex Annâ, Sep. 7 Julii 1638." Sir Richard Sprignell, described as of Coppenthorpe in Yorkshire (fn. 89), was created a Baronet in 1641. He married Anne, daughter of Sir Michael Livesey (fn. 90) of the Isle of Shepey. Hester, daughter of Sir Richard Sprignell, was baptized Dec. 1, 1646; Judith, July 23, 1648; Daniel, buried June 11, 1602; Sir Richard was buried Jan. 19, 1658; Sir William Sprignell, Bart. Sep. 8, 1691; Mrs. Judith Sprignell, spinster, from St. Dunstan's, Stepney, Feb. 8, 1721–2.
"Henricus f. Dni Jacobi Harrington, Mil. & Bart. ex Dominâ "Katherinâ, bap. 26 Octob. 1640." Sir James was grandson of Sir James Harrington, created a Baronet at the first institution of the order. He married Catherine, daughter and co-heir of Sir Edmund Wright, Lord Mayor of London. Martha, daughter of Sir James Harrington, was baptized July 1, 1642.
"William, sonne of Hester Lady Manneringe (Mainwaring) and of Sr William Manneringe, Knt. baptized Sep. 21, 1645,—buried July 29, 1646." Sir William Mainwaring, descended from a very ancient family in Cheshire, distinguished himself by his bravery on the King's side during the civil war. He was slain on the walls of Chester about a month after the birth of this son.
"Susan, daughter of Sr Robert Paine, Knt. was buried Dec. 20, 1645." William, son of Sir Robert and the Lady Mary Paine, baptized Aug. 18, 1649; the Lady Mary Paine, buried June 26, 1652; Mary, her daughter, April 8, 1653; Robert, May 19, 1654; Susan, Aug. 8, 1654; Sir Robert, Sep. 13, 1658. Sir Robert Paine was eldest son of William Payne, Esq. of Highgate, and was 28 years of age at his father's death in 1628 (fn. 91).
"Robert Earl of Warwick and Ellenor Countesse of Sussex, married Mar. 30, 1646." The Earl of Warwick was admiral for the long parliament. This marriage is not mentioned by Dugdale, nor does he speak of any Eleanor Countess of Sussex.
"Henry, son of Sr Henry and Hester Lady Blunt (fn. 92) of Holloway, was buried May 1, 1651." Another Henry, baptized May 18, 1653; buried Aug. 10; Charles, baptized May 10, 1654; Christopher, Dec. 29, 1655.
Sir Henry Blount's family were much distinguished in the annals of literature; he himself published Travels into Turkey and other countries, a satire called the Exchange-walk, and an Epistle in praise of coffee and tobacco; he was editor also of Lilly's comedies. In the political world he was not unknown: he fought on the royal side at the battle of Edghill, but quitted afterwards the King's service, and engaged in that of the Commonwealth, rendering himself very useful to his country. Such at least is the testimony of Wood, who would not bestow undue praise on a deserter from the royal cause. He sat on the celebrated trial of Don Pantaleon Saa, the Portuguese ambassador, and was one of the commissioners for promoting trade and navigation (fn. 93). Sir Henry Blount married the widow of Sir William Mainwaring, by which means he became possessed of the house at Upper Holloway, where he resided several years. He died in 1682. His son Thomas Pope, (so called from his relation Sir Thomas Pope, founder of Trinity college in Oxford,) was born at Upper Holloway, Sept. 12, 1649 (fn. 94). He published a critique in Latin on the most eminent writers of all ages, a work in considerable esteem; various essays; remarks on poetry; and a volume on natural history. Sir Thomas Pope Blount (created a Baronet anno 1679) died in 1697. Charles, his younger brother, was a celebrated Deistical writer; he published also a pamphlet in defence of Dryden, written when he was only 19 years of age; an introduction to polite literature; and a treatise on the liberty of the press. Mr. Blount put an end to his life in a fit of frenzy, occasioned by disappointment in not obtaining the hand of his deceased wife's sister, who was scrupulous as to the legality of such a marriage: his miscellaneous works were published after his death (fn. 95).
"Sir John Wollaston, buried in the chancel April 1658." He was alderman of London, treasurer at war, and one of the committee for the sale of church lands (fn. 96). Rebecca his wife was buried June 1, 1660.
"The Lady Anne Peerpoint, daughter to the honble the Marquis of Dorchester, and John Ld Rosse, sonne of the right honble the Earle of Rutland, were married, July 15, 1658." The Marquis of Dorchester, a peer of great learning, who is remarkable for having been a Bencher of Gray's Inn, and a Fellow of the College of Physicians, had a mansion at Highgate. The marriage here recorded was dissolved by act of parliament in 1666. The divorce occasioned a controversy in print between the Marquis of Dorchester and Lord Roos (fn. 97).
Sir John Pettus, Bart. was cupbearer to Charles II. James II. and William III. His infant son Charles was buried at Highgate, Feb. 19, 1678–9; Anne his daughter, Nov. 4, 1689. Sir John Pettus published "Fodinæ regales," or a History of the Chief Mines and Minerals in England, Wales, and Ireland; "Fleta minor," or the Art of assaying Metals, and a work entitled England's Independency of the Papal Power, abridged from Sir John Davis and Sir Edward Coke.
Sir Francis Pemberton was a native of St. Alban's, and received his education at Emanuel College, Cambridge. He was afterwards of the Inner Temple, was called to the bar, and became very eminent in his profession. He was made one of the Justices of the King's Bench in 1679, Chief Justice of that court in 1681, and removed to be Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in 1682. Sir Henry Chauncy gives a very high character of Sir Francis Pemberton in his Antiquities of Hertfordshire (fn. 98). There is an engraved portrait of him among the counsel for the seven bishops.
"Sr Thomas Rolt and Madam Mary Rolt married July 18, 1685. (fn. 98)
"The Revd John Doughty, minister of St James, Clerkenwell, buried July 1, 1768." Author of a volume of sermons published in 1764, and several single discourses. He was elected minister of Clerkenwell in 1746, after a contest which produced a great deal of newspaper scurrility.
It appears by the letters patent before mentioned, that it was Sir Roger Cholmeley's intention that the produce of his estates should be appropriated in part for the maintenance of certain poor inhabitants of Highgate; meaning, it is supposed, the pensioners in an ancient hospital, or lazar-house, to whom by his will he bequeathed 40s. to be distributed after his death. Richard Clowdesly, in 1517, left 6s. 8d. to the poor lazars at Highgate, to remember him in their bede-roll.
In the year 1656, Sir John Wollaston founded six alms-houses at this place, and endowed them with a rent-charge of 15l. per annum. These houses being decayed, Edward Pauncefort, Esq. in the year 1722, built twelve others on the site at his own expence, and a school-house in the centre for the charity gins. By his last will he directed 60l. per annum to be purchased, one moiety of which he appropriated to the widows in the alms-houses. Samuel Foster, Esq. who died in 1752, bequeathed the sum of 300l. to the governors of the free school, to be laid out at their discretion, for increasing the pensions of the widows in the alms-houses. John Edwards, Esq. in 1769, left the same sum for the like purpose, and 50l. to be distributed after his death, of which 12l. to be given to the alms-women. Thomas Bromwich, Esq. who died in 1787, left the sum of 100l. 4 per cent. to the alms-women: they now receive 7l. per ann. each, which arises principally from the benefactions above-mentioned. The pensions of the alms-women will receive a considerable augmentation upon the death of Mr. Sebastian Gottlob Kleinert, pursuant to the will of Mr. Tobias Kleinert, who died in 1785, and bequeathed the reversion of three houses and some garden-ground, valued at about 100l. per annum, to the governors of the school, for the purpose of increasing, in an equal proportion, the endowment of the charity school and alms-houses. Edward Pauncefort, Esq. abovementioned, allotted 20l. out of the lands purchased, pursuant to his will, as a salary for the mistress of the girls' school; the remainder, after paying the other annuities appointed by his will, is appropriated to the maintenance of the school, being only 5l. per annum; yet with the amount of an annual subscription, and the collections at two charity sermons, 20 children are clothed.
About the year 1685, one William Blake, a woollen-draper in Maiden-Lane, Covent Garden, set on foot a scheme for establishing an hospital at Highgate, for the education and maintenance of about 40 fatherless boys and girls (fn. 99), to be supported by the voluntary subscription of ladies, and to be called the Ladies' Hospital, or Charity School. The boys to be taught the art of painting, gardening, casting accounts, and navigation, or put forth to some good handicraft trade, and to wear an uniform of blue lined with yellow. The girls to be taught to read, write, sew, starch, raise paste, and dress, that they might be fit for any good service (fn. 100). The projector, according to his own account, had himself expended the greater part of his fortune, viz. 5000l. upon the undertaking, by purchasing Dorchester House, and other premises. He published a book (now rarely to be met with) called "Silver Drops, or Serious Things," being a kind of exhortation to the ladies to encourage the undertaking. Prefixed to this work are several letters of application to individuals (whose names do not appear) written in the name of the hospital boys. As a frontispiece to the book, there is a print of Dorchester House, and his own mansion at Highgate; the margins of the print are full of notes, in which he complains of the want of encouragement, which threatened to defeat his plan; and laments, that he is treated as a madman. He observes, that if Sir Francis Pemberton, Mr. William Ashurst (fn. 101), and his own brother F. Blake, would yet comply, all might be immediately forwarded to the great advantage of the town of Highgate. Dr. Combe, to whom I am indebted for the loan of this book, has also a very scarce print, upon a large scale, of the Ladies' Charity School (fn. 102), a large building, which seems to have been altered from Dorchester House, as represented in the smaller print. A note to the great print informs the public, that a subscriber of 50l. may send any boy or girl, French or English, into the hospital; and it is recommended as a proper charity, to send some of the children of the distressed French protestants, which it is observed would be advantageous in matter of language. It may be collected from passages in the "Silver Drops," that some boys had been received into the hospital, and that subscriptions had been collected, but the undertaking soon dropped.
The custom of imposing a burlesque nugatory oath (fn. 103) on all strangers, upon their first visit to Highgate, is well known: how or when it originated I have not been able to learn. A pair of horns, upon which the oath is administered, is kept at every inn, but is now seldom produced; for the custom, I am informed, has been for some years on the decline.