The Environs of London: Volume 3, County of Middlesex. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1795.
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This place in ancient records is called Toteham, and Totham. Ham signifies a dwelling; the meaning of Tot or Tote, which occurs very frequently in the names of many parishes in various parts of the kingdom, is uncertain (fn. 1).
Situation, extent, boundaries, &c.
The village of Tottenham is situated in the hundred of Edmonton, about five miles to the north of London. The parish is about 15 miles in circumference (fn. 2), and is bounded on the east by the river Lea, which divides it from Walthamstow in Essex; on the north by Edmonton; on the west by Hornsey and Friarn Barnet; and on the south by Hackney and Stoke-Newington. It is computed that it contains about 4000 acres of land, of which about one eighth is arable, the remainder grass (fn. 3). The soil is various, clay, loam, and brick earth. This parish pays the sum of 1069l. 14s. 2d. to the land-tax, which in the year 1794, was at the rate of 1s. 10d. in the pound on land, and 1s. 4d. on houses.
Division into wards.
Tottenham is divided into four districts, distinguished by the names of the Middle, Lower, High-cross, and Wood-green Wards. There is an overseer and a constable for each ward, and two churchwardens for the whole parish.
The only manufactures in the parish are an oil mill, the property of Mr. Edward Wyburd, and a large tannery belonging to Mr. Abraham.
The New-river passes with a very circuitous course through the western part of this parish. A little brook, called, by Bedwell, the Mose or Mosell, rising at Muswell-hill, in the parish of Hornsey, runs between Hornsey and Tottenham-woods, and passing through the village of Tottenham, falls into a branch of the Lea (fn. 4).
On the east side of the high road, nearly in the centre of the village, stands an ancient wooden cross, whence the place is said to have obtained the appellation of Tottenham High Cross (fn. 5). About the year 1580, Bedwell "observed it to be a columne of wood, covered with a square sheet of leade to shoote the water off every way, underset by four spurres (fn. 6)." This being decayed and rotten, was taken down about the year 1600, by Dean Wood, who erected on its site an octangular brick column (ending pyramidically), which still remains.
The history of the manor of Tottenham affords a very striking instance of the instability of honours and property, in the early periods of our annals. In the reign of Edward the Confessor, it was the property of Earl Waltheof (in the survey of Doomsday (fn. 7) called Wallef), son to the famous Siward Earl of Northumberland; who defeated Macbeth the usurper of the crown of Scotland (fn. 8). In the year 1072, Gospatric Earl of Northumberland having been deprived of his Earldom, King William the Conqueror gave it, with the Earldoms of Huntingdon and Northampton, to the said Waltheof, who had married his niece Judith, daughter of Odo Earl of Albemarle (fn. 9). Not many years afterwards Waltheof was accused of designs against the King, and beheaded at Winchester (fn. 10), being the first nobleman, as it is said, who suffered that death in England. His widow Judith, who is supposed to have incensed the King against him, and to have hastened his death (fn. 11), was in possession of this manor when the survey of Doomsday was taken. It passed afterwards to her eldest daughter Maud, who married first Simon de St. Liz (a Norman nobleman, who is said to have been refused by her mother because he was lame of one leg) (fn. 12); and secondly, David, son of Malcolm III. King of Scotland. By the favour of King Henry I. this David, who succeeded afterwards to his father's throne, possessed the Earldom of Huntingdon, and all the lands which had been Earl Waltheof's (fn. 13). The manor of Tottenham continued to be annexed to the Earldom of Huntingdon, and passed with it, by royal grants, to Henry (fn. 14), son of David King of Scotland, in 1134; to Simon de St. Liz, son of the above-mentioned Earl of that name, 1136; to Malcolm IV. King of Scots (fn. 15) (son of Henry), 1152; to his brother William, surnamed the Lion, King of Scots, 1165; to Simon de St. Liz, the third of that name, and the right heir, 1174: on his death, which happened in 1184 (fn. 16), King Henry II. gave the Earldom to William King of Scots, who immediately gave it to his brother David (fn. 17), to whom the manor of Tottenham was confirmed by King John in 1199 (fn. 18). This David, who was Earl of Angus, Galloway, and Huntingdon, died in 1219, having married Maud, daughter and heir of Hugh Kevelioc, Earl of Chester, who in the same year had the manor of Tottenham, among other lands, assigned as her dower, having been part of her frank marriage (fn. 19). Their only son, John Earl of Chester and Huntingdon, was poisoned in the year 1237, by his wife Helen, daughter of Llewellin Prince of Wales (fn. 20). Soon after her husband's death, she married Robert de Quincy, a younger brother of Roger, the last Earl of Winchester of that family, who, in 1238, had livery of the manor of Tottenham and other lands, till such time as his wife's dower should be made out (fn. 21).
Division of the manor into three parts.
Hitherto the manor of Tottenham remained entire. In the year 1254, an extent or survey was taken of the lands of Helen, formerly the wife of John Earl of Chester, to the intent that they might be divided between Robert de Brus, John de Baliol, and Henry de Hastings, as coheirs (fn. 22) of the said Earl. The particulars of the survey, as far as it relates to Tottenham, are given in the note (fn. 23). The manor, being divided into three portions, formed as many distinct manors, some of which were subdivided, and acquired also the name of manors, being called after their different possessors.
Manor of Bruses.
The portion allotted to Robert de Brus (who was competitor for the crown of Scotland with Baliol) was called the Manor of Bruses, by which name it is still distinguished. Richard de Brus, a younger son of Robert, who held this manor for life by grant from his father, died seised of it, anno 1287 (fn. 24). His father survived him, and died in 1295 (fn. 25). Robert Earl of Annandale, and in right of his wife Earl of Carrick (eldest son of Robert de Brus above-mentioned), after his return from the holy war retired to England (fn. 26), and it is probable made Tottenham his residence, whence the mansion-house belonging to this manor obtained, I suppose, the name of Brus, or Bruce Castle. He died in 1303, leaving Robert his son and heir (fn. 27), who, revolting from England in 1306, and claiming the crown of Scotland, King Edward II. seized all his lands in this kingdom (fn. 28). The manor of Bruses, in Tottenham, continued in the crown till 1335, when Edward III. granted a third part of it at first for life, and afterwards, it appears, in fee to Richard Spigurnell, in consideration of his good services to his father and grandfather, in Chancery (fn. 29). A few years afterwards (anno 1340) the King granted the reversion of all the lands in Tottenham, which had been Robert de Brus's (then held by Walter Shobbedon for term of life), to Sir Thomas Hethe, for his life; in consequence of which Hethe claimed the portion formerly granted to Richard Spigurnell; but upon Spigurnell's application to the crown, the grant to Hethe, so far as it related to the said third part, was revoked (fn. 30). Sir Thomas Hethe died in the year 1374 (fn. 31), when the other two parts (still called the manor of Bruses) reverted to the crown, and were granted the same year for life to Edmund de Chesthunte, one of the King's falconers (fn. 32). In 1376, in consideration of his good services, this manor was granted to him in fee (fn. 33). He died seised of it, anno 1399 (fn. 34). His son Robert de Chesthunte, alias Fauconer, who was at his father's death 26 years of age, sold it in 1400 to John Walden, Esq. and others (fn. 35). John Walden died seised of it in 1417 (fn. 36), his wife Idonea in 1427, when by virtue of several former deeds and releases, the reversion of this manor, then indiscriminately called Bruses or Fauconer's, came to John Gedeney, alderman of London in the year 1429 (fn. 37), in whom all the manors were united.
Manor of Baliols, or Dawbeneys.
The manor of Baliols, afterwards called Dawbeneys, was seized by Edward I. upon the revolt of John Baliol King of Scotland, and granted to John Duke of Britanny and Earl of Cornwall (fn. 38). This Duke of Britanny, who was son of the preceding Duke, by Beatrix, daughter of King Henry III. (fn. 39), died in 1334 (fn. 40). As he left an heir, and there is no record of any forfeiture, it is to be presumed that he surrendered this manor to the crown; for it appears, that in the year 1337, King Edward gave it to William Dawbeny, in consideration of his military services (fn. 41). This William died in 1374, having some years before settled the manor of Baliols on Sir Giles Dawbeny and his heirs (fn. 42). John Cavendish held a court as lord of the manor of Daubeneys, in 1377 (fn. 43). John Northampton held his first court in 1391. James Northampton died seised of it in 1409 (fn. 44), when it was inherited by his cousin William Cumberton, then six years old, who died under age in 1421, leaving Richard his brother and heir, who was of age in 1425 (fn. 45). This Richard was in possession of the said estate in 1434 (fn. 46). John Gedeney, in whom all the Tottenham manors centered, died seised of the manor of Dawbeneys (sometimes called Northamptons), anno 1449 (fn. 47).
Manor of Pembrokes.
The third part of the manor of Tottenham, which was assigned to Henry de Hastings, descended to Lawrence de Hastings (fn. 48), who by reason of his descent from Isabel, eldest sister and coheir of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, was declared heir to that title by Edward III. in the year 1339. His grandson John, the last Earl of that family, was killed at a tournament in the year 1390, being only 17 years of age (fn. 49). His widow Philippa, daughter of Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, married, after his death, Richard Earl of Arundel, who had an assignment of his wife's dower, of which this manor in Tottenham was a part (fn. 50). She died seised of it in 1401 (fn. 51), when the reversion, in consequence of a deed of William de Beauchamp, Lord Bergavenny, dated 1396 (fn. 52), came to Roger Walden, Bishop of London, and Lord High Treasurer of England, and passed afterwards with the manor of Bruses to John Gedeney, as beforementioned.
Manor of Mockings, a portion of Bruses.
The manor of Mockings I suppose to have been that third part of the manor of Bruses (called Breuse-hagh) which was granted to Richard Spigurnell (fn. 53), and sold by him to John Mocking, who died seised of it in 1347 (fn. 54). His wife, Nichola, died seised of it the next year (fn. 55). This Nichola had also at the time of her death the manor of Pembrokes, escheated to the crown by the death of Lawrence de Hastings. So says the record at least; yet it is certain that Lawrence de Hastings left a son who had the manor of Pembrokes, and that it continued some time longer in that family, as appears by the records before quoted. John Mocking, junior, died seised of the estate above mentioned, in the year 1360 (fn. 56). Elmingus Leget died seised of the manor of Mockings (valued at six marks), in 1412 (fn. 57); leaving his son Thomas, eight years of age, his heir (fn. 58). His widow, Alice, died seised of it in 1420 (fn. 59). Soon afterwards it came to the Gedeneys, in whom the other manors were centered.
Other small estates, called in the calendars at the Tower, Manors, were found, upon recurring to the records, to have been small portions of some of the manors before mentioned, having no distinct names, as may be seen in the note (fn. 60).
Manors of Bruses, Pembrokes, Daubeneys, and Mockings united.
The manors of Bruses, Pembrokes, Dawbeneys, and Mockings, having been united, as already shewn, in the Gedeney family, have ever since passed through the same hands. John Gedeney died seised of these manors in 1449 (fn. 61). After the death of his widow, Joan, in 1462, they came to her son (by a former husband (fn. 62) ) Richard Turnant, and his wife Joan, daughter of John Stokton, alderman of London, with remainder to William Bishop of Winchester, and others, as trustees under the will of the said Richard, who at the time of his mother's death was 34 years of age (fn. 63). Richard Turnant's daughter and heir, Thomasine, married Sir John Risley (fn. 64), at whose death, for want of heirs (fn. 65), his estates escheated to the crown, and these manors were granted in the year 1514, by King Henry VIII. to Sir William Compton (fn. 66). In the year 1592, being vested in Anne, relict of Henry Lord Compton, she, by her deed of that date, granted them under a proviso to William Lord Compton, her husband's heir by a former wife (fn. 67). This Lord Compton, in the year 1600, mortgaged them to Thomas Sutton and Thomas Wheeler (fn. 68). In 1605, Thomas Earl of Dorset purchased them of Wheeler, in whom the mortgage was then vested (fn. 69). They continued in the Dorset family (fn. 70) till the year 1625, when Edward Earl of Dorset conveyed them to Hugh Audley, Esq. and Thomas Audley (fn. 71), by whom they were sold the next year to Hugh Lord Colerane (fn. 72), from whom they descended to Henry Lord Colerane, who died in 1749 without male issue, having bequeathed all his estates to Henrietta Rosa Peregrina, his daughter by Mrs. Rose Duplessis (born at Crema in Italy, in 1745), as soon as she should attain the age of 21; but the devisee being an alien, these manors escheated to the crown. A grant of them was afterwards obtained for the late James Townsend, Esq. alderman of London, who married Miss Duplessis. They were sold in 1792 by his son Henry Hare Townsend, Esq. to Thomas Smith, Esq. of Gray's Inn, who is now lord of the said manors.
Bruce Castle, the site of the ancient manor of Bruses, may now be considered as the manor-house of Tottenham, the others(except Mockings) having been separated from the estate. It is a large brick mansion, exhibiting in its present state few remains of antiquity. It is probable that Sir William Compton rebuilt it soon after he became possessed of the manor, and that it was finished in readiness to receive his royal guests, in 1516; for we find, that on the Saturday after Ascensionday that year, King Henry VIII. met his sister Margaret Queen of Scots at "Maister Compton's house besids Tottnam (fn. 73)." Queen Elizabeth paid a visit to his grandson Henry Lord Compton in May 1578 (fn. 74). Bruce Castle was repaired and altered in the latter part of the last century by Henry Lord Colerane, at which time, as he himself informs us, he removed the arms of Compton from the old porch, and placed them over the entrance on the inside (fn. 75). It is probable that the detached brick tower which stands in the front of the house was built by the Comptons.
Manor-house of Pembrokes.
The manor-house of Pembrokes, which has long been alienated from the estate (fn. 76), is now the property of Stephen Jermyn, Esq. who inherited it from the Hobbys. It is a moated house, situated about three quarters of a mile from the high road, in the lane leading to Wood Green.
Mockings-house, surrounded also with a moat, is situated on the south side of Marsh-lane, about a quarter of a mile from the London road. It is still attached to the manor.
An account of the manor of Willoughbies, in Edmonton and Tottenham, has been given already (fn. 77). The ancient site of the manor was in Edmonton. The present Willoughby-house, which stands in the parish of Tottenham, was in 1697 the property of Charles Pryor, Esq. Some years ago it belonged to Daniel Booth, Esq. governor of the Bank of England (fn. 78), who sold it to Mr. Mendes de Costa; from him it passed to Stephen Briggs, Esq. who, in 1779, sold it to Andrew Jordaine, Esq. Mr. Jordaine, in 1792, sold it to Mr. Richard Welch, who soon afterwards conveyed it to the present proprietor, William Willson, Esq.
Manor of Ducketts.
The history of the manor of Ducketts, till the grant to Sir Robert Cecil, has been given in the account of Hornsey (fn. 79). Ancient records describe it as in that parish and Tottenham. As Hornsey is always mentioned first, it is to be supposed that the manor-house formerly stood in that parish. In the year 1555, the manor of Ducketts was conveyed by Edward Lord North to William Parker (fn. 80). It appears by Lord Colerane's MSS. that Anne Lady Compton had Ducketts farm, and that after her death the reversion was vested in Thomas Sutton, Esq. (fn. 81). From him it descended to Sir Francis Popham (fn. 82), who, in 1638, sold it to Sir Edward Scott (fn. 83); of whose heirs it was purchased, about the year 1673, by Dr. Edmund Trench (fn. 84). This estate is now divided into two shares, the greater of which is the property of Thomas Berney, Esq. of Norfolk; the other of Richard Muilman Trench Chiswell, Esq. whose maternal grandfather, Richard Chiswell, Esq. married Mary, daughter and heir of Thomas Trench, Esq.
Manor of Twyford, or Marteines.
The manor of Twyford was in 1414 the property of John Twyford, who held it of the manor of Bruses by a quit-rent of 1d. (fn. 85) In the year 1524, Thomas Elrington, Esq. died seised of the manor of Twyford in Tottenham, valued at 10l. held of the manor of Tottenham, by a quit-rent of 5s. leaving Thomas his son and heir, aged two years (fn. 86). Matthew de Quæstor died seised of the manor of Twyford, alias Marteines, in 1624 (fn. 87), leaving his only daughter and heir, Matthea, three years of age. A field (near Stamford-hill) called Twyford, being a part, it is probable, of this estate, is now the property of Mr. Stonard.
Manor of Stoneleys.
The manor, or manor-farm, of Stonelease or Stoneleys, formerly part of the demesne lands, was alienated by Lord Buckhurst to ——Pynson (fn. 88); it afterwards became the property of Balthazar Sanchez (fn. 89), whose brother-in-law and heir, Christopher Scurrow, sold it to John Moyse (fn. 90), who died seised of it in 1618 (fn. 91). I have not been able to learn any thing farther relating to this estate, than that it is now the property of Mr. Edward Scales, of Stoke-Newington.
Sir Michael Foster.
Grove House, now the seat of Thomas Smith, Esq. lord of the manor of Tottenham, was for several years the residence of Sir Michael Foster, judge of the King's Bench, and author of some professional works in great estimation. He died at Tottenham in 1763.
The parish church.
The parish church, dedicated to All-Saints, is situated about a quarter of a mile to the west of the high road. It is a Gothic structure, built of hewn stone, flints, and pebbles, and consisting of a chancel, nave, two aisles (with octagonal pillars and pointed arches), and a square embattled tower. Lord Colerane mentions, that in his time it was overgrown with ivy to the upper windows, for which green livery he says it was indebted to the lord of the manor (himself), who, in 1690, employed workmen to lay up all the leading branches, and tack them to the steeple. Lord Colerane adds, that there was formerly a high cross of wood on the steeple, which was destroyed in the civil war with great difficulty and hazard, and that one of the persons employed to do it broke his leg (fn. 92). The great bell, before it was recast in 1612, had this inscription: "Robertus Bacar & Christiana uxor ejus, me fieri fecerunt in honorem beatæ Mariæ virginis." The weight of the bell was then 2011 pounds, the expence of recasting 9l. 10s. (fn. 93) On the south side of the church is a large brick porch, built, as appears by the architecture, about the beginning of the 16th century. Over it is a room originally intended, as I suppose, for a church-house, a building, of which traces are to be found in the records of almost every parish. They were, as our vestries (improperly so called (fn. 94), nevertheless, when used in this sense) are now, places where the inhabitants assembled to transact the parish business, generally contiguous to the church-yard, and sometimes, as here, over the church porch. They were frequently built at the expence of some opulent benefactor. Lord Colerane mentions a tradition, that this building at Tottenham (which he supposes might have been a school) was the gift of a widow lady. It was long appropriated to the residence of some poor pensioner, which Lord Colerane, nearly a hundred years ago, complained of as a great nuisance, and "a horrible abuse (fn. 95)." It is now used for the Sunday-school. At the east end of the north aisle is the vestry, erected at the expence of Henry Lord Colerane in 1696 (fn. 96), and repaired, pursuant to his will, in 1790. The building is semicircular at the east end, its roof is in the shape of a dome. Underneath is Lord Colerance's vault.
Monuments in the church.
On the north wall of the chancel is a tablet to the memory of the Rev. James Davies, M.A. curate, who died in 1748. The inscription gives a very high character of the deceased. Within the rails of the communion-table are the tombs of William Bedwell, vicar, 1632 (fn. 97); Margaret, his daughter, wife of —— Clarke, B. D. 1663; and the Right Hon. Lady Lucy Colerane, daughter of Henry Earl of Manchester (by his wife Lady Catherine Spencer), and wife of Hugh Hare, Baron of Colerane, 1681. In the chancel are the tombs also of Hugh Hare, Esq. son of Hugh Lord Colerane, and Lady Lucy his wife, 1685; Jeffrey Walkdine, Esq. citizen and skinner, and free of the merchant adventurers, 1599; Thomas Goddard, citizen and ironmonger, 1609; Elizabeth, wife of John Burrough, Gent. 1616; Humphrey Westwood, citizen and goldsmith, 1622; James Pagitt (or Paget), Baron of the Exchequer (fn. 98), 1638; Mrs. Mary Hobby, daughter of Stephen Beale, Esq. 1707; and Mrs. Margaretta Maria Jermyn, relict of Stephen Jermyn, Esq. and daughter of Mr. John Hobby, 1735.
At the east end of the north àisle is the monument of Bridget (fn. 99), daughter of Anthony Bowyer, Esq. (by Bridget daughter of Thomas Fitch, Esq. of Warwickshire) wife, first of John Moyse, by whom she had three sons, John, Erasmus, and Anthony; afterwards of James Pagitt, Esq. (after her death), Baron of the Exchequer (ob. 1626). On the north wall, near the vestry door, is a very handsome monument to the memory of Maria, daughter of Richard Wilcocks, of Tottenham, and wife of Sir Robert Barkham (fn. 100), of Wainfleet in the county of Lincoln, who died in 1644. This monument is ornamented with busts of the deceased and her husband, very well executed in white marble. Sir Robert is represented in armour, with a peaked beard and whiskers. His lady is habited in a veil, a necklace, and a handkerchief and stomacher, very richly ornamented with lace. Beneath are the effigies of their children (four sons and eight daughters). The sculptor's name was Edward Marshall. On the same wall is the monument of Ephraim Beauchamp (fn. 101), citizen of London, erected by his widow, Letitia, daughter of John Coppin, Esq. of Bedfordshire, 1739; and that of Mrs. Hannah, daughter of Stephen Estwike, alderman of London, 1705. On the south wall is that of Jane, daughter of William and Elizabeth Skinner, 1787. On the floor are the tombs of Thomas Hynningham (son of George), 1512 (with a figure in brass of the deceased); Mr. John Bavine, 1740; Mr. Richard Morsse, 1751; Michael Massey, Esq. 1779; John Ardesoif, Esq. 1789; and Arthur Deane, Esq. 1789.
In the south aisle is a monument to the memory of Richard Candeler, Esq. (fn. 102), 1602; Eliza, his wife, daughter and sole heir of Matthew Lock, second son of Sir William Lock, 1622; Sir Ferdinando Heyborne (fn. 103), gentleman of the privy chamber to Queen Elizabeth and King James I., 1618; and Anne his wife, daughter and heir of Richard Candeler, 1615. The monument is of veined marble, and has two arches, under which are the effigies of the deceased in kneeling attitudes. Candeler is habited in a gown, Sir Ferdinando Heyborne is in armour. In the same aisle is another monument of veined marble, to the memory of Sir John Melton, Knt. (fn. 104), keeper of the great seal for the north of England, who died in 1640. He was thrice married, first to Elizabeth, relict of Sir Ferdinando Heyborne, by whom he had four children (of which Francis and Elizabeth survived him); his second wife was Catherine, daughter of Alan Currance, Esq. by whom he had three sons and one daughter, all surviving at his death; his last wife and relict was Margaret, widow of Samuel Aldersey, Esq. In the south aisle are monuments also of Richard James, merchant, 1658; and the Rev. Daniel Chadwicke (fn. 105), 1697 (erected by his widow, Martha, daughter of Isaac King, of the county of Hertford, Gent.). On the floor are the tombs of Ralph Harwood, Esq. 1749; James Harwood, his brother, 1762; Mrs. Mary Harwood, 1768; Mrs. Timothy Walker, 1777, &c.
On the north wall of the nave is the monument of Mr. Thomas Rennoldson, 1789. On the floor are the tombs of Thomas Hynningham, 1499; William Hynningham (son of George), 1507; Umfray Povy (son of Walter), 1510 (with a figure in brass of the deceased); and Margaret, daughter of Sir Edward Barkham, Lord Mayor of London, and wife of Sir Anthony Irby, of Boston in Lincolnshire, 1640.
In the christening-pew is the tomb of Anna, eldest daughter of Sir Edmund Jennings, Bart. of Rippon in Yorkshire, 1691.
The font is octagonal, richly ornamented with Gothic tracery, and the devices of a mermaid, a pelican, &c.
Tombs mentioned by Weever.
Weever mentions (fn. 106) the tombs of Elizabeth, wife of Richard Turnant, 1457; Margaret, daughter of Sir William Compton, 1517; George Hynningham, Esq. "some time servant, and greatly favoured of King Henry the VIII. (fn. 107), who founded here an hospitall, or alms-house, for three poore widowes, and died anno 1536;" Thomas Billington (said in Lord Colerane's MSS. where the inscription is preserved at length, to have been a benefactor to the town), 1539; and a mutilated inscription to one of the Gedeney family. In 1742, there remained in the north aisle a brass plate, (with a figure of the deceased,) to the memory of Walter Hunt, vicar of Tottenham, who died in 1411 (fn. 108).
Tombs in the church-yard.
In the church-yard are the tombs of Helen, daughter of Richard Standley, of Derbyshire, and wife of Edmund Conold, 1681; Mary, wife of Benjamin Naylor, citizen of London, and daughter of William Tod, 1698; John Johnson, 1706; Henry Beale, Gent. 1715; Edward Tyson, Gent. 1723; Edward Tyson, Esq. 1784; Henry Mulcaster, Gent. 1725; Mr. Daniel Alavoine, 1727; Moses Delahaize, Esq. and Mary his wife, daughter of Daniel Alavoine; Philip Delahaize, Esq. 1769; Mr. Samuel Alavoine, 1746; Esther Deheulle, his daughter, 1739; Mr. Abraham Deheulle, 1763; Esther his daughter, wife of Richard Dalton, Esq. 1782; Mary Terron, daughter of Samuel Alavoine, 1767; John Terron, her husband, aged 91, 1776; Abraham Loeffs, 1731; Captain Thomas Hebert, 1734; Mr. William Clarke, citizen and merchant, 1736; Samuel Smith, citizen of London, 1737; Elizabeth his daughter, wife of the Rev. Capel Berrow, rector of Rossington in Nottinghamshire, 1766; Mr. Robert Smith, 1747; Mr. John Reynolds, merchant, 1758; Anne, wife of Francis Maxwell, M. A. 1759; Richard Cheslyn, Esq. of Doctors Commons, 1761; Thomas Rock, his grandfather (no date); Mr. Vincent Leggat, 1763 (his only daughter married Thomas Butterworth Bayley, Esq. of Lancashire); Anne, wife of James White, 1764; Samuel Bignell, Esq. 1764; Captain James Herbert, 1768;—— Herbert, Esq. of Bermondsey, 1782; Mr. Richard Toll, 1767; Mr. John Stephens, 1770; Susanna, wife of John Champante, Gent. 1771; Mr. Randall Dyson, 1772; Thomas Daubuż, Esq. 1775; Josiah Cottin, Esq. 1776; Richard Kee, Esq. 1776; Byatt Walker, surgeon, of Castle Hedingham, 1783; Sarah, wife of John Brown, Esq. 1785; William Calvert, Esq. 1786; Mr. Thomas Huggon, master of the free school, 1790; and Thomas Cock, Esq. 1791. The church-yard was enlarged in 1792; in the north-east corner is a tablet against the wall, in memory of the Rev. Samuel Hardy, who died in 1793.
The rectorial manor and advowson.
The church of Tottenham was given by David, King of Scotland, in the 12th century, to the canons of the Holy Trinity in London (fn. 109), to whom it was appropriated till the dissolution of that monastery, when the rectorial manor of Tottenham, with the advowson of the vicarage, were granted in fee, anno 1538, to William Lord Howard, and his wife Margaret (fn. 110), who surrendered them again to the crown in 1541 (fn. 111). In 1544, the King granted them to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's (fn. 112), in which body they are still vested.
Lessees of the rectory.
The canons of the Holy Trinity having leased the demesne lands of the rectorial manor of Tottenham, with the great tithes, to Thomas Bentley, M. D. for 40 years commencing from 1525; the dean and chapter of St. Paul's granted a lease of them to Anthony Cole for 60 years, to commence after the expiration of Bentley's term. Before the restraining act, another reversionary lease of 40 years was granted to Robert Noel, Esq. of Gray's Inn, to commence in 1625 (fn. 113). In 1622, the lease of the rectory was vested in Humphrey Westwood (fn. 114), who died that year, when it was inherited by his son Humphrey, who was in possession when the parliamentary survey was taken in 1649 (fn. 115). The manor and rectory were then sold by order of parliament. The purchaser was Stephen Beale, Esq. (fn. 116). After the Restoration, Mr. Beale became lessee (fn. 117), having made, it is probable, some compensation to the Westwoods. The lease of the demesne lands and tithes (having been renewed from time to time) came by intermarriage from the Beales to the Hobbys, and from them to the Jermyns (fn. 118). It is now vested in the committees of Stephen Jermyn, Esq.
Valuations of the rectory.
In the year 1327, the rectory of Tottenham was taxed at 21 marks (fn. 119). According to the parliamentary survey in 1649, there were 110 acres of demesne lands belonging to the rectorial manor, then valued at 13s. 4d. per acre. The great tithes were valued at 173l. 6s. 8d. The reserved rent is 19l. 5s. Courts are held by the dean and chapter for this manor.
William Bishop of London (supposed to have been William de St. Maria) endowed a vicarage at this place, reserving to the vicar all the small tithes, oblations, &c. and a pension of 20s. per annum out of the treasury of the canons, the vicar rendering annually to the prior a pound of wax (fn. 120). The vicarage is rated at 14l. per annum in the King's books. There are about 10 acres of glebe belonging to it (fn. 121). The custoday of the hospital of St. Laurence, Clayhanger, in Devonshire, was formerly annexed to the vicarage of Tottenham (fn. 122).
Vicars. William Bedwell.
Tournament of Tottenham.—See the note.
William Bedwell, instituted to this vicarage in 1607, was chaplain to Sir Henry Wotton in his embassy to Venice, where he is said to have assisted Petro Soave Polano, in composing and writing the history of the council of Trent (fn. 123). King James had such an opinion of his abilities, that he employed him in the translation of the Bible (fn. 124). Mr. Bedwell published a history of this parish (to which was annexed an ancient poem called the Tournament of Tottenham (fn. 125) ), and the Traveller's Calendar, showing how the months in various nations answer one another. He died in the month of May 1632, and was buried in the chancel at Tottenham. His successor, William Wimpew, was ejected in 1643; and having suffered great difficulties and distresses during a sequestration of 17 years, recovered his benefice, and lived till the year 1665 (fn. 126). In 1650, William Bates (fn. 127), whom I suppose to have been the celebrated presbyterian divine of that name, was minister of Tottenham; upon his relinquishing the cure, Thomas Sympson was put in by the Lord Protector, in 1655 (fn. 128). In 1662 (calling himself late preacher at Tottenham, High-Cross), he published a sermon, entitled "a Protestant Picture of Jesus Christ."
Edward Sparke, who succeeded Wimpew, was author of a book upon the fasts and feasts of the church, called Scintilla Altaris; a few religious tracts, and some single discourses (fn. 129).
Samuel Pratt, instituted in 1693, on the death of Mr. Sparke, was preceptor to the Duke of Glocester. He published some single sermons.
The present vicar of Tottenham is the Rev. Thomas Comyn, M. A. who succeeded William Dowding in 1771.
The evening lecturer, appointed by the vicar, is the Rev. John Turner.
John Drayton, by his will dated 1456, gave lands and tenements for the maintenance of a priest to say mass daily at the altar of the blessed Virgin Mary and St. Katherine in Tottenham church, and on Wednesdays and Fridays in the chapel of St. Anne, near the highway called the Hermitage, for the souls of Roger Walden, Bishop of London; John Walden, his brother; and Idonea, his wife; John Waltham, late Bishop of Salisbury; his own soul; those of his wives Agnes and Anne, and all Christian souls (fn. 130).
A stock of kine, 33 in number, valued at 66 s. are mentioned in the chantry-roll (fn. 131), bearing date 1547, as given by various persons for a priest to sing in the church.
The hermitage or chapel of St. Anne.
The hermitage, mentioned in a court-roll of the manor anno 1430, stood, according to Bedwell, about 120 yards south of the cross, near the highway. It was, in his time, a little square brick building, a pretty dwelling for a small family (fn. 132). In 1638, it was the property of Ferdinando Pulford, and Anne his mother (fn. 133).
The Offertory of St. Loy.
On the west side of the road, near the bridge, stood a building, called the Offertory of St. Loy (fn. 134). Bedwell says, that it was in his time "a poor house."
There is a considerable Quakers' meeting in this parish, and a chapel belonging to the Methodists.
Procession of James the First through Tottenham.
The parish register begins in the year 1558, but there are chasms of a few years both in that and the last century. It is very imperfect about the time of the civil wars. The death of Queen Elizabeth, the accession and death of James I., and the accession of Charles I., are recorded in the register with great minuteness. After mentioning the accession of King James, it is remarked, that "not longe after he came from the kingdome of Skotland into the kingdome of England, first to Barwick, from thence to Durham, then to Yorke, and so came to Tibolls in Hertfordshire, the 3d day of May 1603; the seaventh day of May he rid through the mershes to Stanford-Hill, where the Lord Maior of London and all his brethren met him, with a nomber of citizens in velvet coates and gold chaines, and so conducted him most royally to the charterhowse, accompanied with the most part of the nobilitie of England and Skotland."
Comparative state of population.
|Average of baptisms.||Average of burials.|
|1630–1639||33 9/10||37 7/10|
|1730–1739||37 3/10||70 9/10|
This parish is more populous than the above averages denote, a great proportion of the inhabitants consisting of Quakers, and other dissenters. The present number of houses is about 470.
In the year 1603, there were 79 burials at Tottenham, being about double the average of that period; 44 persons are said to have died of the plague. In 1625, there were 54 burials. There are no entries from 1660 to 1666.
Extracts from the Register.
"Edward, son of Edward Simpson, vicar of Tottenham, christened May 11, 1578." Edward Simpson, whose baptism is here recorded, was author of a church history, published in 1634, and Chronicon Catholicon, &c." being an universal Chronicle from the beginning of the world, published in 1652.
Family of Barkham.
"John, son of Edward Barkham, Esq. buried Nov. 16, 1597; Margaret, his daughter, June 15, 1603; another Margaret (fn. 135), christened Dec. 18, 1603; John, christened Dec. 7, 1604; Thomas, June 2, 1606; buried Nov.29; Edward Barkham, Esq. son of Edward Barkham, Lord Mayor of London, and Frances Barney, daughter of Thomas Barney, of Northfolk, Knt. married July 31, 1622; Frances, daughter of Sir Edward Barkham, junior, Knt. and Bart. and the Lady Frances, bap. Sep. 16, 1624; Joan, Sep. 8, 1630; William, Feb. 26, 1638–9; Luce, Feb. 20, 1639–40; Julian, Feb. 22, 1641–2; Robert Barkham, son of Sir Edward Barkham (fn. 136), and Mary Wilcox, daughter of Richard Wilcox, deceased, married Nov. 24, 1625; Dorcas, daughter of Robert Barkham, Esq. and Mary, bap. Sep. 29, 1636; John, their son, buried Jan. 10, 1637–8; Robert, Ap. 3, 1641; Robert, bap. Sep. 10, 1643; Dame Mary Barkham, wife of Sir Robert, buried Dec. 16, 1644; Susanna, daughter of Sir Robert, Sep. 20, 1649; Margaret, Jan. 20, 1652–3." An intention of marriage between Robert Cony, Esq. of Walpole, Norfolk, and Alice, daughter of Sir Robert Barkham, was published in Tottenham church, in the month of April 1655, between Edward, son and heir of Sir Robert Barkham, and Anne, daughter of Sir Robert Lee, Knt. in the month of September, 1656. "Norton Curtise, of Gatton in Surrey, and Mrs. Mary, daughter of Sir Edward Barkham, were married June 24, 1656; Edward Barkham, of Great Walton, and Mary, daughter of ——Heck, Esq. of Peterborough, married June 18, 1634; Edward, son of Edward Barkham, and Mary, bap. June 29, 1638; Mrs. Theodosia Barkham, buried June 5, 1710; Edward Barkham, Knt. Feb. 15, 1710–11; Madam Jane Barkham, Oct. 26, 1724."
"Gressell, daughter of Sir Thomas Barnardiston, christened April 1, 1593."
"Dorcas Marten, the Lady Marten, and wife of Sir Richard Marten, alderman of London, was buried in the south chancel of Tottenham church, the second daye of Sep. 1599, nocturno tempore; Richard Martyn, son of Sir Richard, May 28, 1616; Sir Richard Martyn, July 30, 1617."
Sir Richard Goddard's death is entered in 1604, though he neither died nor was buried at Tottenham, because he had lived some time in the parsonage, and had been a benefactor to the parish by giving the church clock.
Hard frost in 1607–8.
"Edward Terrill, a foole, or innocent, who was brought up in Mr. George Kempe's howse, Esq. at Tottenham parsonage, and at other places where the said Mr. Kempe dwelt, for many yeares, was buried upon Wednesday the 13th day of Januarie, 1607–8; the ground in the church-yard so hard frosen, that it cold hardlie be pearced with a mattock or pickaxe. Note, The Thames frosen over." Mr. Bindley, of the Stamp-office, has a very rare pamphlet in the black letter relating to this frost, called "The Great Frost (fn. 137), Cold Doings in London, &c. a familiar Talke betwene a Countryman and a Citizen." A wooden cut is prefixed, representing booths, &c. upon the Thames.
"Dame Marie Woodhouse (fn. 138), of Tottenham rectory, buried May 27, 1609."
"Honor, daughter of Sir Walter Aston (fn. 139), baptized July 17, 1610."
"Memorandum, that upon Thursdaie, being the eight of November, theire was a meting of the neyghbours, to warme Mr. John Syms his house, the seigne of the Swanne at High-crosse, among whom came John Nelham and John Whiston, whoe having some grudge or quarrell betwene them, diner being done, they two did use som private speches within themselves, taking leave of the companie, went to their houses, either of them taking his pickstafe in their handes, mett in a felde behinde Mr. Edward Barkam's house, comonly caulld or knowne by the name of Baldwin's: theare they two fought till John Nelham receyved a wound by John Whiston in his throtte, fell downe dead, and never spake word after; so the coroner, upon the Saturdaie next, sate upon him; was buried the same daie, being the 10 of Nov. 1610." This singular duel will not fail to remind the reader of the tournament of Tottenham (fn. 140).
"Hugh Broughton, preacher, died the fifth day of August, out of Mr. William Bennet's house, and was transported to London, and buried in the parish church of St. Antholin, upon the ..... of August 1612." Hugh Broughton, the celebrated divine, whose death is here recorded, was born in 1549 at Oldbury in the county of Salop, and received his education at Christ's College, Cambridge. He was afterwards professor of Hebrew in that University. So highly were his abilities rated, that the church of Rome offered him a Cardinal's hat if he would change his religion (fn. 141). His works (theological, controversial, and critical) were published after his death in four volumes folio. He is stiled in the title-page, "the great Albionean divine, renowned in many nations for his rare skill in Salem's and Athen's tongues, and for his familiar acquaintance with all Rabbinical learning."
Families of Heyborne and Melton.
"Margaret Richardson, mother of Sir Ferdinando Heyborne, buried Feb. 22, 1612–3; Anne, wife of Sir Ferdinando, July 11, 1615; Sir Ferdinando Heyborne, Knt. and Elizabeth, daughter of Francis More, Esq. of Sussex, married April 4, 1616; Ferdinando, son of Sir Ferdinando and Elizabeth, baptized Oct. 1, 1617; Sir Ferdinando Heyborne, buried July 2, 1618; John Melton, Esq. of Sussex, and Dame Elizabeth Heyborne, widow, married Jan. 20, 1623–4; Anne, daughter of Sir John Melton, and Lady Heyborne, baptized Mar. 21, 1625; John and Francis, sons of Sir John Melton and Dame Elizabeth, baptized Sep. 27, 1627; Lady Elizabeth Heyborne, buried the same day; John, son of Sir John Melton, buried Jan. 27, 1627–8; Christopher Heyborne, Esq. Sep. 20, 1630; Sir John Melton, Knt. keeper of the great seale for his Majestie in the northe partes, buried Dec. 19, 1640."
Family of Aldrych.
"Robert—servant to the Lord Digby, buried June 17, 1614."
"Thomas Wollaston, of London, Esq. and Sabina, daughter of Sir George Aldrych, Knt. married Ap. 23, 1618; the Lady Mincea, wife of Sir George Aldrych, buried June 25, 1621; Sir George, June 26, 1626."
Family of Paget, or Pagitt.
"Bridget, wife of Thomas Pagett, Gent. buried Oct. 17, 1626; James Paget, one of the Barons of his Majesty's Exchequer, Sep. 10, 1638; Justinian Paget (fn. 142), and Dorcas Wilcox, married July 7, 1636; James, son of Justinian Paget, Esq. by Dorcas, bap. July 7, 1637; Mrs. Rachel Paget, of Hadley, buried Sep. 24, 1657."
Family of Cæsar.
Sir Charles Cæsar. Sir Julius Cæsar.
"Edward, son of Sir Charles Cæsar, Knt. and LL.D. by Dame Jane (fn. 143), bap. Oct. 10, 1634; Charles, Feb. 23, 1635–6; Hugh, Feb. 27, 1638–9." Sir Charles Cæsar was Master of the Rolls, which high office had been enjoyed by his father, Sir Julius Cæsar, the celebrated civilian, who was born at or near Tottenham, where he resided in the year 1593. He was the son of Julius Cæsar, otherwise Cæsar Dalmare, a Venetian, who was physician to Queen Elizabeth (fn. 144).
Family of Garrard.
"Justinian Isam (fn. 145), of Lamport in Northamptonshire, and Jane, daughter of Sir John Garret (fn. 146) of Hertfordshire, Knt. and Bart. married Nov. 10, 1634; Margaret Garret, gentlewoman, daughter of Sir John, and grandchild of the Lady Barkham, buried Feb. 16, 1646–7."
Family of Irby.
"Margaret, daughter of Sir Anthony Irbie (fn. 149), by Dame Margaret (fn. 150), bap. Jan. 27, 1636–7; buried May 17, 1637; Jane, bap. May 4, 1638; buried Jan. 31, 1639–40; another Margaret, buried July 16, 1640; Dame Margaret Irbie, Nov. 28, 1640."
Sir John Coke.
"Henry Sacheverell, Esq. and Anne, daughter of Sir John Cooke, Knt. and principal Secretary of State (fn. 151), married Nov. 20, 1638." Sir John Coke lived at Tottenham, in the house which had been the residence of the Hynninghams, then the property of Mr. Gerard Gore (fn. 152).
Family of Walpole.
"Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Walpole, Esq. (fn. 153), of Houghton in Norfolk, buried June 23, 1642; Jeanne Walpole, Mar. 30, 1643."
Sir Abraham Reynardson.
"Abigail, daughter of Abraham Reynardson, late alderman of London, by Helen his wife, baptized March 23, 1649–50." This worthy citizen distinguished himself by many brave and loyal actions, during the troubles in the last century. It happened, that the list of his fellow-citizens who had voted against the treaty of 1648, between the King and the Parliament, fell into his hands: by destroying it, he saved the fortunes, if not the lives, of many (fn. 154). In the autumn of 1648, he was chosen Lord Mayor. When a petition for bringing the King to trial was brought forwards in the Common Council, he opposed it in spite of tumults within and without doors; and at last, after a debate of 12 hours, took up the city sword, and withdrew at the hazard of his life, having entered the proceedings on the records of the court. After the King's death, being called upon to proclaim the abolition of Kingly power, he peremptorily refused, for which he was fined 2000l., imprisoned for a short time in the Tower, and deprived both of his office of Lord Mayor and alderman (fn. 155). After the Restoration, he had the honour of knighthood. Sir Abraham Reynardson resided at Tottenham, in a house upon the Green (now occupied as a school by Mr. William Foster), which he had purchased in the year 1639, of George Pryor, Esq. (fn. 156) It appears to have been repaired and fitted up in 1647, which date, with the arms of Reynardson (fn. 157), are over the chimney-piece of the hall. Sir Abraham Reynardson died at his house at Tottenham, Oct. 4, 1661 (fn. 158), and was buried on the 17th in the church of St. Martin Outwich. "Richard Onslow (fn. 159) and Abigail Reynardson, married Aug. 18, 1670; Eleanor, daughter of Abraham Reynardson, buried Sep. 1, 1651."
Swinnerton Dyer, Bart.
"Lady Thomasine Swinnerton died Aug. 9, 1650, buried in Aldermanbury:"—Relict of the famous Sir John Swinnerton, Lord Mayor of London, whose grand-daughter, Thomasine, married William Dyer, Esq. of Tottenham, created a baronet in 1678, ancestor of the present Sir John Swinnerton Dyer.
"Richard, son of Sir Thomas Halton, Bart. and Elizabeth, his Lady, buried July 19, 1686; Alexander, Sept. 11, 1689."
Family of Smithson.
"Hester, daughter of Hugh Smithson and Madam Hester (fn. 160), bap. Mar. 9, 1692–3." Sir Hugh Smithson, grandfather of this Hugh, died at Tottenham High-Cross in 1670. His second son Anthony, who was of Armine in Yorkshire, and of Tottenham, married Susanna, daughter of Sir Edward Barkham, Bart. by whom he had an only son, Hugh, here mentioned, representative for the county of Middlesex in five parliaments. "Anne Mary, buried Oct. 5, 1694; Susanna, baptized Jan. 7, 1694–5; Anthony, baptized Jan. 10, 1696–7, buried Ap. 4, 1722; Hester Anne, baptized Oct. 16, 1698; Hugh, buried July 20, 1704; Michael Godfrey Smithson, Esq. Ap. 18, 1717; the Hon. Constantia Smithson (fn. 161), Ap. 28, 1726; Hugh Smithson, Esq. Sep. 12, 1740." Mr. Smithson having survived all his children, bequeathed his estates to his cousin Sir Hugh Smithson, Bart. afterwards Duke of Northumberland. The house belonging to the Smithsons at Tottenham was formerly the residence of the Hynninghams (fn. 162).
"Benjamin, son of Benjamin Whichcote (fn. 163) and Anne, baptized May 12, 1696.
"John, son of Mr. William Baxter, schoolmaster, and Sarah, baptized Dec. 23, 1697." This eminent scholar and antiquary was nephew of the celebrated Richard Baxter. He was born in the county of Salop, anno 1650. His education had been so much neglected in his early years, that when he had arrived at the age of 18, he had not yet learned to read (fn. 164). When put to school, at length, his rapid progress in literature showed what a valuable mind had been left uncultivated. Mr. Baxter was several years master of the free school at Tottenham, and afterwards of the Mercers' school in London. He published a Grammar, an edition of Anacreon, and an edition of Horace, both, particularly the latter, held in high esteem; a Glossary of British Antiquities; a Glossary of Roman Antiquities he left unfinished, a fragment of it was published after his death. Mr. Baxter was engaged also in the English translation of Plutarch, and wrote some papers in the Philosophical Transactions. Some of his letters are printed in the first volume of the Archæologia. He left his own life in MS. a copy of which was in the library of Mr. Tutet. Mr. Baxter died in 1723 (fn. 165).
Family of Hare Lord Colerane.
Henry Lord Colerane.
"The Rt Hon. Lady Lucy Colerane (fn. 166), buried Feb. 9, 1681–2; Mr. Hugh Hare, brother to the Right Hon. Henry Ld Colerane, buried June 19, 1683; Katherine (fn. 167), widow of Hugh Hare, May 4, 1704; Edward Hare, infant, Aug. 26, 1689; Madam Lydia (fn. 168), wife of Hugh Hare, Esq. May 22, 1704; Hugh Hare, Esq. March 1, 1706–7." Father of the last Lord Colerane. He published a charge delivered at the quarter sessions for Surrey in 1693, and a translation of the history of Count Fieske's conspiracy at Genoa. "The Right Hon. Henry Lord Colerane, buried July 15, 1708." Lord Colerane published "A Scale of Devotions, musical and gradual, or Descants on the 15 Psalms of Degrees;" he wrote also a history of Tottenham (fn. 169), which he left behind him in MS. It has been printed in the appendix to a history of this place, published by H. G. Oldfield and R.R. Dyson, in 1790. "The Right Hon. Lady Dowager Colerane (fn. 170), aged 90 years, buried Jan. 19, 1731–2; the Right Hon. Henry Lord Colerane died Aug. 10, buried the 24th, 1749." The last Lord Colerane of this family. He was much connected with literary men: during three tours into Italy, he made a very valuable collection of prints and drawings, which he bequeathed to Corpus Christi College at Oxford. His numerous prints and drawings relating to English antiquities, he left to the Society of Antiquaries, of which he was a member. "Honble Hugh Hare, buried June 14, 1720; Hon. Madam Constantia, Dec. 30, 1721."
"Oct. 22, 1711, Robert Smith was touched for the evil by her gracious Majesty Queen Anne."
"Sir Thomas Ambrose died in this parish, carried to Aldgate to be buried, Feb. 27, 1725–6; Lady Ambrose, carried away Dec. 22, 1728."
"Sir George Rivers, Bart. (fn. 171), buried Aug. 9, 1734."
Family of Beauchamp Proctor, Bart.
"Mary Beauchamp Proctor, buried July 21, 1755; William, son of Sir William Beauchamp Proctor, Bart. May 2, 1759; Jane Lady Beauchamp Proctor, aged 37, buried May 20, 1761."
"The Rev. Samuel Hardy, buried Dec. 17, 1793, aged 73 years." Mr. Hardy, who had been formerly of Emanuel College in Cambridge, resided many years at Enfield, where he was lecturer and master of the free school, both which places he resigned about two years before his death (his salary being continued out of a regard to his merits and long service), and retired to a house at Tottenham High-Cross. Mr. Hardy was author of an answer to Mr. Chubb's essay concerning redemption; the indispensible necessity of constantly celebrating the Christian sacrifice; a sermon on the Eucharist; a volume of discourses. on the principal prophecies of the Old and New Testament; a paraphrase on the Epistle to the Hebrews, and a vindication of subscription to the 39 articles (fn. 172).
Instances of Longevity.
"Jane Gassett, from Sanchez's alms-houses, aged 94, buried Jan. 16, 1772; Elizabeth Strangeways, aged 99, July 31, 1772; Ruth Dennis, 91, May 22, 1774; Catherine Leach, 91, Dec. 19, 1776; Stephen Petts, 98, Aug. 15, 1778; Amey Westcote, of Hackney, 93, Dec. 9, 1779; Laurence Lomax, 91, Nov. 28, 1780; Jane Binfield, 94, Dec. 19, 1780; Eve Shuttleworth, of Ch. Ch. Spitalfields, 92, Feb. 9, 1781; Thomas Hackett, 90, Nov. 13, 1785; Thomas Booth, 97, June 8, 1785; Randall Trunley, 99, Ap. 25, 1786; Susanna Reynardson, of Hoddesdon, 90, Ap. 5, 1787; Mary Collins, 91, Oct. 2, 1790; Nathaniel Magee, 90, Feb. 10, 1793."
William Cowrteman, previously to the Reformation, gave to the parish of Tottenham two tenements and six acres of land (valued in 1547 at 46s. 8d. per annum), for a paschal light, and for the relief of the poor (fn. 173). These lands and tenements having been forfeited to the crown in the reign of Edward VI. as having been appropriated in part to superstitious uses, were sold to Thomas Bocher and Henry Jenner (fn. 174).
An ancient Spital-house in this parish is mentioned in the court rolls as early as the year 1416.
Bedwell speaks of an alms-house for three poor people, built on the east side of the church-land by Mr. Phesaunt; but, as it appears, not endowed (fn. 175), it is probable that it was built by Jasper Phesaunt, Esq. lord of the manor of Willoughby in this parish and Edmonton, pursuant to an intention of his father-in-law George Hynningham, Esq. who is said in his epitaph to have founded such an alms-house for three poor widows. Phesaunt's wife being one of the heirs of Hynningham (fn. 176), he obtained the above-mentioned manor and other estates by that marriage. These tenements, which had from time to time been inhabited by poor families placed in them by the parish, were taken down in the year 1744, and four others erected in their stead by the highway side, near the pound.
Balthasar (or as he wrote his own name Baltasar) Sanchez, "a Spanyard, borne (but a free denyzen of the realme of England (fn. 177) ) the first confectioner, or comsit-maker, and grand master of all that professe that trade in this kingdom," as Bedwell styles him (fn. 178), founded in his life-time "eight almes-houses for four poor men and four women (fn. 179), which almes-houses being of bricke worke, all under one roose in Tottenham-streete, were newe erected, fullie finished, and sett up on Monday the 25 day of August 1600," when the pensioners were admitted, and the keys delivered to them by the founder (fn. 180), who charged his farm, called Stone-lease or Stone-leys in Tottenham, with the payment of 16l. to the pensioners, besides a gown of frieze to each once in two years, and 20s. to the vicar, churchwardens, and four more, for an annual recreation when they should visit the alms-houses, to see that they were kept in good repair, which the proprietors of the said estate were bound also to do. This alms-house stands on the east side of Tottenham-street. In the front are the founder's arms (fn. 181).
Nicholas Reynardson, Esq. (son of Sir Abraham) by his will, bearing date 1685, bequeathed the sum of 2000l., with a part of which he directed that an alms-house for six poor aged men and six women, with a chapel, should be built; and that the residue should be laid out in lands (fn. 182), to be charged with the repairs of the house, and the sum of 4l. to each pensioner, besides a gown of black frieze of 20s. value, once in two years. This alms-house stands on the east side of the road at Tottenham High-Cross. Over the chapel door are the arms of the founder, and an inscription, by which it appears that the alms-house was not built till 1736.
Mr. Reynardson directed also that a salary of 20l. per annum should be allowed out of the lands to be purchased as above-mentioned, to a schoolmaster for teaching 20 poor children to read and write, which master should officiate also as chaplain at the almshouse. The residue of the rents (fn. 183) to be distributed among the poor, except 30s. allowed to the trustees (who are to be 12 in number, the vicar being always one) for a dinner.
Sarah Duchess Dowager of Somerset, by her will, dated 1686 (being then the wife of Henry Lord Colerane), bequeathed the sum of 250l. to enlarge the school-house, and the farther sum of 1100l. for the purpose of extending its benefits to all children of such inhabitants of the parish of Tottenham as were not possessed of an estate either freehold or copyhold of 20l. per annum. This sum of 1100l. was laid out, pursuant to the Duchess's will, in the purchase of lands; out of the profits of which the sum of 10l. per annum is allowed to the usher, the remainder being appropriated to the master, he keeping the school-house in repair, and paying the taxes. The Duchess of Somerset gave also, by her will, some handsome temporary benefactions (fn. 184), and some valuable ornaments for the church. Henry Sperling, Esq. bequeathed the sum of 150l. to the free school; Philip Delahaize, Esq. anno 1769, 100l. Edward Page, Esq. 50l.
A charity-school for girls was established in this parish about the year 1735, to which the following benefactions have been given: Mrs. Barbara Skinner, 100l.; Edward Page, Esq. 20l.; John March, Esq. 200l.; Owen Humphrey, 20l.; and Mrs. Mary Magdalen Alavoine, anno 1774, 20l. In this school, which is aided by vo luntary contributions and collections at an annual charity sermon, 30 girls are clothed and educated.
A Sunday-school for boys, and a school of industry for girls, was established at Tottenham in the year 1790. In the latter, which is supported by subscriptions, about 30 girls are educated and partly clothed. The school-house was built by voluntary contributions in 1792.
Benefactions for bread.
Balthasar Sanchez, before-mentioned, gave by will (1602) the sum of 100l. as a stock to buy bread for the poor; this money, with 30l. given by Lady Woodhouse, and 50l. by the Countess Dowager of Dorset, was laid out in the purchase of some lands and tenements near Marsh-lane, Tottenham, now let at 103l. 14s. per annum (fn. 185). Thomas Wheeler, Esq. by his will, 1611, gave 2l. 12s. per annum for bread. The table of benefactions in the church gives Sir Edward Barkham credit for a like donation (fn. 186); Mr. Richard Toll, who died in 1767, gave the interest of 100l. 3 per cents. for bread; Mrs. Barbara Skinner, 200l. (which produces 7l. per annum); Mr. William Wood (1769), 100l. 3 per cent.; and John Ardesoif, Esq. 1789, the same sum.
Various benefactions to the poor.
Mary Lady Woodhouse, anno 1609, gave 30l. to the poors' stock; Anne Countess Dowager of Dorset, anno 1618, 50l. (both laid out in lands as before-mentioned); Mr. Humphrey Westwood, who died in 1622, gave, by his will, 40s. per annum to the poor, charged on the parsonage during his interest in the lease, which expired in the year 1665. Sir Abraham Reynardson, who died in 1661, gave the sum of 100l. to be laid out in lands for the benefit of the poor. His son's residuary bequest to the poor has been already mentioned. Lady Lucy Colerane, anno 1682, gave the sum of 100l. either to be laid out in land, or kept as a stock. Henry Lord Colerane, who died in 1708, left the sum of 100l. to be laid out in land for the repair of the vestry built by him, the overplus to be given to the poor. His widow, Elizabeth Lady Colerane, adding 40l. a piece of land called Drayner's Grove (fn. 187), was purchased. Mrs. Jane Barkham, who died in 1724, bequeathed three tenements (now let at 4l. per annum), the rent to be given to the poor. Philip Delahaize, Esq. who died in 1769, bequeathed the interest of 100l. to the poor. Edward Page, Esq. bequeathed 10l.
Bedwell mentions a ternary (fn. 188) of proverbs, or three proverbs relating to this place:
1. "Tottenham is turned French," arising, as Fuller supposes, from the great number of French mechanics who came over to Eng land in the reign of Henry VIII. and settled in London, and all the villages for four or five miles round.
2. "When Tottenham wood is all on fire,
Then Tottenham street is nought but mire."
Meaning, that the foggy mist hanging over the wood was a sign of rain; and, as Tottenham-street lies, as Bedwell observes, very low, the natural consequence of rain is mire.
3. "You shall as easily remove Tottenham wood,—spoken of things impossible, or not likely to be effected (fn. 189)."