The Environs of London: Volume 4, Counties of Herts, Essex and Kent. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1796.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
The name of this place, in old records, is written Bereching, Bereking, Berkyng, &c. now almost universally Barking. Morant derives it from the Saxon words Beorce and ing, signifying a meadow planted with birch-trees; but other antiquaries (fn. 1) are of opinion, that it is to be derived from Burgh-ing—the fortification in the meadow, some considerable entrenchments being still visible not far from the town (fn. 2).
Barking lies in the hundred of Becontree, at the distance of nearly eight miles from London. The parish is about 30 miles in circumference (fn. 3); and is bounded by Eastham, Little Ilford, Wansted, Woodford, Chigwell, and Dagenham in Essex, and by Woolwich in Kent; a great part of the marsh-lands belonging to the last-mentioned parish, lying on the Essex side of the river.
The parish of Barking contains about 7850 acres of cultivated land; of which about 1980 are marsh-land; about 300 cropped with potatoes (fn. 4); 100 with cabbages, &c.; 250 upland meadow; 50 wood; the remainder, excepting a few small closes, arable. The soil is various; clay, gravel, and loam.
A considerable part (viz. about 1500 acres) of Hainault Forest, being parcel of the Forest of Waltham, is in this parish; within the limits of which stands a remarkable tree, well known by the name of Fairlop Oak. The stem, which is rough and sluted, measures, at three feet from the ground, about thirty-six feet in girth. The boughs extend about 300 feet in circumference. Under their shade is held a fair on the first Friday in July. It is said to have originated from a man of singular character going there annually to dine with his friends. The tree is now fenced round with a close paling about five feet high, and Mr. Forsyth's composition has been applied to its decayed branches to preserve it as much as possible from future injury. The Hainault Foresters, one of the societies formed a few years ago for the purpose of enjoying the amusement of archery, held their meetings near Fairlop Oak.
The parish of Barking is divided into four wards, each of which has its separate officers. Barking-town ward has two churchwardens (one appointed by the vicar and the other by the parish) and an overseer. Ilford ward has a churchwarden and overseer. There is only one churchwarden for the wards of Ripple and Chadwell; but there is an overseer for each.
Barking had a weekly market on Saturdays, but it has long fallen into disuse; there is an annual fair on St. Ethelburgh's day, the 22d of October. In the year 1616, Samuel and John Jones had a grant from the crown of the market-place at Barking, with the markethouse, built by Queen Elizabeth (fn. 5). The same year, they conveyed the premises to Thomas Fanshaw and others (fn. 6). In 1679, Sir Thomas Fanshaw gave the profits of the market and fair to the poor of this parish. Since the decline of the market, it is become of little value, the tolls of both being let for 10l. per annum.
In the fields adjoining to a farm called Uphall, about a quarter of a mile to the north of Barking-town, is a very remarkable ancient entrenchment: its form is not regular, but tending to a square; the circumference is 1792 yards, (i. e. one mile and 32 yards,) inclosing an area of forty-eight acres, one rood, and thirty-four perches. On the north, east, and south sides it is single trenched: on the north and east sides the ground is dry and level, (being arable land,) and the trench from frequent ploughing almost filled up: on the south side is a deep morass: on the west side, which runs parallel with the river Roding, and at a short distance from it, is a double trench and bank: at the north west corner was an outlet to a very fine spring of water, which was guarded by an inner work, and a high keep or mound of earth. Mr. Lethieullier thinks that this entrenchment was too large for a camp: his opinion therefore is, that it was the site of a Roman town. He confesses that no traces of buildings have been found on that spot, which he accounts for on the supposition that the materials were used for building Barking Abbey, and for repairing it after it was burnt by the Danes. As a confirmation of this opinion, he relates, that upon viewing the ruins of the Abbeychurch in 1750, he found the foundations of one of the great pillars composed in part of Roman bricks. A coin of Magnentius was found also among the ruins (fn. 7).
Barking Abbey, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is said to have been the first monastery for women established in this kingdom. It was founded about the year 670, (in the reign of Sebbi and Sighere, kings of the East Saxons,) by St. Erkenwald, Bishop of London, in compliance with the earnest desire of his sister Ethelburgh, who was appointed the first abbess. The founder was nearly allied to the Saxon monarchs, being great grandson of Uffa the first king, and second son of Anna the seventh king of the East Angles: he was the first bishop who sat in the see of London after the building of St. Paul's church by King Ethelbert. The monastic writers speak in very high terms of his piety and zeal in the discharge of his episcopal functions; and tell us that, when he was grown weak through age and infirmities, he was carried about in a litter from place to place throughout his diocese, constantly teaching and instructing the people till his death, which happened about the year 685, whilst he was on a visit to his sister Ethelburgh at Barking. After his death, great disputes arose (as we are informed by the Monkish annalists) between the nuns of Barking, the convent of Chertsey, of which he was both founder and abbot, and the citizens of London, about the interment of his body, each claiming an exclusive right to the bones of the venerable prelate. Nor was the dispute determined without the intervention of a miracle which declared in favour of the Londoners, who, having got possession of the body, bore it off in triumph; on their road they were stopped at Ilford and Stratford by the floods: upon this occasion the historians record another miracle, by which a safe and easy passage was procured for the corpse of the holy man and its attendants. It is almost needless to add, that the bishop was canonized, and that frequent miracles were said to be wrought at his tomb. A magnificent shrine was erected against the east wall of St. Paul's cathedral in the reign of King Stephen, into which St. Erkenwald's bones were translated with great solemnity, in the year 1148: vast sums of money were expended from time to time in adorning it with gold, silver, and precious stones.
It is not known what was the original endowment of Barking Abbey. The charter attributed to Erkenwald is not supposed to be authentic. The charter of Hodelred, father of King Sebbi, coeval with the foundation of the abbey, and undoubtedly genuine, is still extant among the Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum, and is one of the most ancient records of that nature. The annexed copy, which is a fac simile, was engraved at the expence of Mr. Lethieullier, and is now in the possession of Edward Hulse, Esq. of Portmansquare, to whom I am indebted for the use of it. Most of the places named in this grant are now unknown, viz. Ricincahaam, Budenhaam, Angenlabeshaam, and Widmundesfelt (fn. 8); Deccanhaam is certainly Dagenham, though that place is not mentioned among the possessions of Barking Abbey in the survey of Doomsday (fn. 9). King William the Conqueror confirmed the possessions of this convent, as did his successors Henry the First and King Stephen. The latter restored to the abbess and convent some woods which Henry had taken into the forest; he gave them also the hundreds of Becontree and Barnstaple, and granted them various privileges and immunities. His last charter was executed at Barking, by the ceremony of laying his knife upon the altar of the Virgin Mary and St. Ethelburgh (fn. 10). King Stephen confirmed also a grant of three hides of land in Ulfemeston, (Woolston in the parish of Chigwell,) given by Edward, a servant of Queen Matilda. Henry the Second confirmed all former grants. Richard I. anno 1198 released an annual rent of 60s. payable by the convent out of the hundred of Becontree. Most of the succeeding monarchs till the reign of Henry VII. confirmed the charters of their ancestors. Richard II. granted a return of writs within the hundred of Becontree, together with the profits of all waters, whether sea or river, that overflowed their lands. Henry IV. added some new privileges. References to these, and various other records relating to the abbey, will be found in the notes (fn. 11), together with a schedule of the estates which they held when the convent was dissolved (fn. 12); at which time the whole of their possessions was valued according to Dugdale at 862l. 12s. 5¾d. per annum; according to Speed at 1084l. 6s. 2¾d.
I shall now give a brief history of this convent, with some particulars relating to the abbesses, most of whom were of high rank, and several of them of the blood Royal. Ethelburgh the founder's sister was, as has been before observed, the first abbess. The time of her death is uncertain. She was buried at Barking, and received the honour of canonization. Her successor was Hildelitha, who had been sent for by the founder out of France to instruct his sister Ethelburgh in the duties of her new station. She also obtained a place among the Romish saints. After her, several abbesses of the Royal blood succeeded.—Oswyth, daughter of Edifrith, King of Northumberland; Queen Ethelburgh, wife to Ina, King of the West Saxons, who was canonized; and Cuthburgh, (sister of King Ina,) who had been a nun at Barking in the time of St. Hildelitha. She died about the middle of the eighth century. Nothing more is known of this monastery till the year 870, when it was burnt to the ground by the Danes, and the nuns either slain or dispersed. It lay desolate about 100 years, being within the territories which were ceded by Alfred to Gormund the Danish King. About the middle of the tenth century, it was rebuilt by King Edgar, as an atonement for having violated the chastity of Wulfhilda, a beautiful nun at Wilton, whom he appointed abbess; restoring the monastery to its former splendour, and endowing it with large revenues. After Wulfhilda had presided over the convent many years, some dissensions arose between her and the priests of Barking, who referred their cause to Elfrida, the widow of King Edgar and mother of Ethelred, whom they requested to eject Wulfhilda, and to take the government of the monastery upon herself, a proposal to which she readily assented. Wulfhilda retired to a religious house which she had founded at Horton in Dorsetshire. The Queen then put herself at the head of the monastery, and continued to preside over it, as the historians inform us, twenty years; at the end of which time a violent sickness seizing her at Barking, she repented of the injury she had done to Wulfhilda, and reinstated her in her former situation. Wulfhilda having lived seven years after her restoration, died at London, whither she had retired to avoid the Danish army then invading England. After her death, she was enrolled among the Romish saints, being the fifth abbess of this convent who had received the honour of canonization. At the time of the Norman Conquest, Alfgiva, a Saxon lady, who had been appointed by Edward the Confessor, was abbefs. Some historians (fn. 13) relate, that William the Conqueror, soon after his arrival in England, retired to Barking Abbey, and there continued till the fortress he had begun in London was completed. Hither, they say, whilst preparations were making for his coronation, repaired to him Edwin Earl of Mercia, Morcar Earl of Northumberland, and many others of the nobility and great men of the land, who swore fealty to him, and were reinstated in their possessions. Others (fn. 14) say, that Berkhampsted was the place of the King's abode; but there are strong circumstances in favour of the former opinion. As Berkhampsted castle was soon afterwards built by Earl Morton, to whom the Conqueror had given the manor, it is probable that there was then no mansion upon it fit for a Royal residence; and, admitting that there might have been, the proximity of Barking to London rendered that place a more convenient station for the new Monarch.
After the death of Alfgiva, Queen Maud, wife of Henry I. took
the government of the monastery into her own hands. It is not
improbable, that this connection with Barking induced her the more
readily to build the bridge at Bow, as mentioned in Vol. III. of this
work (fn. 15). Maud, wife of King Stephen, followed the example of her
aunt on the death of Agnes, the abbess, in 1136; but she soon
resigned the government of the convent, to which Adeliza, sister of
Pain Fitz-john, (a baron of considerable note, who was slain in a
battle near Cardigan,) was appointed. During her government,
King Stephen, with his Queen and the whole court, were entertained
for several days at the abbey (fn. 16). This abbess founded and endowed
the hospital at Ilford. To her succeeded Mary, sister to Thomas à
Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. Her appointment is said to have
been intended by Henry II. as an atonement for the injustice he had
done her family, who were all banished the kingdom, as a punishment for the Prelate's insolence. The succeeding abbesses were as
Maud, (natural daughter of Henry II.)
Christina de Valoniis.
Sarah de Walebar, 1214.
Mabilia de Boseham, 1215.
Maud, (natural daughter of King John,) 1247.
Christiana de Boseham, 1252.
Maud Loveland, 1259.
Alice de Merton, 1276.
Isabella de Basinges, 1291.
Matilda Grey, 1295.
Anna de Vere, 1295.
Eleanor de Weston, 1318.
Jolenta de Sutton, 1329.
Matilda de Montacute (fn. 17), 1341.
Isabella de Montacute (fn. 17), 1352.
Katherine Sutton, 1358.
Matilda de Montacute (fn. 18), 1376.
Sibilla de Felton (fn. 19), 1394.
Margaret Swinford (fn. 20), 1419.
Catherine de la Pole (fn. 21), 1433.
Elizabeth Laxham, 1473.
Elizabeth Shuldham, 1479.
Elizabeth Green, 1500.
Dorothy Barley, 1528.
An ancient writing, in the possession of the Rev. Peter Rashleigh, vicar of Barking, describes the place of burial of most of the abbesses, and others for whom anniversaries were kept (fn. 22).
From the time of Mary à Becket, there are few remarkable occurrences connected with the history of this abbey. The most material, as it affected the interests of the convent, was a terrible inundation, which happened about the year 1376, and broke down the banks of the Thames at Dagenham. It is first mentioned in a record of the ensuing year, when the convent petitioned that they might be excused from contributing an aid to the King, at the time of a threatened invasion, on account of the expences they had been at in endeavouring to repair their damages. As there is no petition of this kind, or any complaint of poverty of an earlier date, though many occur afterwards, it is to be presumed that no inundation, at least such as had injured the banks in any great degree, had happened before. The plea was allowed, and the same reasons were generally pleaded with success as an exemption from future contributions of a like nature. In 1380 and 1382, the abbess and convent state that their income was then diminished 400 marks per annum by inundations, and that they had scarcely sufficient left to maintain them. In 1409, they state that they had expended 2000l. to no purpose in endeavouring to repair their banks. The next year it was set forth, that the revenues of the convent were sunk so low, that none of the ladies had more than fourteen shillings per annum for clothes and necessaries. In consequence of these several petitions, they obtained frequent exemptions from taxes and other burdens; writs to impress labourers to work at the banks, and licence to appropriate certain churches to the use of the convent (fn. 23). It is well known, that a breach equally destructive happened in the year 1707, which, through the interference of parliament, was stopped by Capt. John Perry, at the expence of 25,000l. after the land-owners had given up the attempt as impracticable.
Eleanor Duchess of Gloucester retired to Barking-abbey after the murder of her husband in 1397. She died there in 1399, having, as some say, prosessed herself a nun. During the time of Catherine de la Pole, Edmund and Jasper Tudor (fn. 24), sons of Catherine, the Queen Dowager by Owen Tudor, were sent to be educated at this abbey, a certain salary being allowed the abbess for their maintenance (fn. 25).
The above account of the convent of Barking and its abbesses is abridged from Mr. Lethieullier's MSS. (fn. 26)
The nuns of Barking were of the Benedictine order. The abbess was appointed by the King till about the year 1200; when, by the interference of the Pope, the election was vested in the convent, and confirmed by the royal authority. The abbess of Barking was one of the four (fn. 27) who were baronesses in right of their station: for, being possessed of thirteen knights' fees and a half, she held her lands of the King by a barony; and though her sex prevented her from having a seat in parliament or attending the King in the wars, yet she always furnished her quota of men, and had precedency over other abbesses. In her convent she always lived in great state; her household consisted of "chaplains, an esquire, gentlemen, gentlewomen, yeomen, grooms, a clerk, a yeoman-cook, a groom-cook, a pudding-wife, &c. (fn. 28)."
The second station in the convent was that of the prioress, under whom were two sub-prioresses: there were also a chantress; a high cellaress; an under-cellaress; a chamberlain; a kitchener; two freytoresses (fn. 29); a pensioneress (fn. 30); a firmaress (fn. 31); a parlaress, and a sacrist. The prioress's office was for life, and during the absence of the abbess she had the sole management of the convent. The other offices were annual. The prioress had a double portion of provisions, and the cellaresses and the kitchener during their year of office. There were certain lands also annexed to most of these offices. The office of cellaress was a place of considerable power and profit, nearly corresponding to that of bursar of a college. She was to receive certain sums from the farmers and rent-gatherers of all the estates belonging to the convent, to buy the provisions, and to distribute the portions or "lyveries" to the several nuns. Among the Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum (fn. 32) is one entitled "The charge longynge to the office of cellaress of Barkyng;" in which is stated fully the sums she was to collect, with the nature and quantity of the provisions she was to lay in, and the manner and proportion in which they were to be distributed. Among other things she was to provide "russeaulx (fn. 33) in Lenton, and to bake with elys on SchereThursday (fn. 34); a pece of whete and three gallons of milk for frimete on St Alburgh's day; three gallons of gude ale for besons; marybones to make white wortys; cripsis and crum-kakes at Shrostyde; conies for the convent at Shrostyde; twelve stubbeeles and nine schaft-eles to bake on Shere-Thursday; one potel tyre for the abbess the same day, and two gallons of red wyne for the convent; half a goose for each of the nuns on the feast of the Assumption, and the same on St Alburgh's day; for every lady a lyverey of sowse at Martinmas, a whole hog's sowse (fn. 35) to serve three ladies. She was to pay to every lady in the convent 9d a year for ruschew-silver (fn. 36); 2d for her cripsis and crumkakes at Shrovetide; 1½ a week for eysilver (fn. 37) from Michaelmas to Allhallows day; from that day till Easter 1¾ a week, and from Easter to "Michaelmas 1½." The whole is printed in Dugdale's Monasticon (fn. 38).
The seal represents three niches, in which are St. Erkenwald the founder between St. Ethelburgh, (commonly called St. Alburgh,) and another female saint, probably St. Hildelitha; beneath is the figure of a Lady Abbess, and over them the Virgin Mary as Regina Cœli, with the infant Jesus in her arms; on one side of her is St. Peter, and on the other St. Paul.
Barking Abbey was surrendered to King Henry VIII. on the 14th of November 1539 (fn. 39), when a pension of 200 marks per annum was granted to Dorothy Barley the last abbess, and various pensions (some as low as 2l. 13s. 4d.) to the nuns, who were then thirty in number. The abbess was living, and received her pension in 1548 (fn. 40).
The site of the monastery with the conventual house and the demesne lands, which had been leased by Henry VIII. to Sir Thomas Dennye, was granted by Edward VI. on the 16th of November 1551, to Edward Fynes, Lord Clinton (fn. 41), who conveyed it the next day to Sir Richard Sackville (fn. 42). In the year 1565, this estate appears to have been aliened by John Stonard to William Avery (fn. 43); in 1585, by George Harvey to Peter Palmer (fn. 44). It became vested in the crown again before the year 1605, when it was granted by King James to Augustin Steward (fn. 45), who died seised of it in 1628, leaving Martin his son and heir (fn. 46). After this I have not been able to learn any thing farther of it till the year 1747, when it was purchased of Crispe Gascoyne, Alderman of London, by Joseph Keeling, Esq. (fn. 47), whose widow is the present proprietor.
There is scarcely a vestige now remaining of the once magnisicent abbey of Barking, nor have any of the buildings been standing within the memory of man. Mr. Lethieullier, by employing persons to dig among the ruins, procured a ground-plan of the conventual church, which was built in the time of Mabilia de Boseham (fn. 48). Its site may be seen just without the north wall of the church-yard.
In digging among the ruins of the abbey, a stone (measuring about thirteen inches by nine) was found with this inscription: "THOMAS BEWFORD DUX DE EƗR, ƘS, AN: ƙ MCCCCXXXX." It seems to have been the key-stone of an arch. On the fragment of another stone was MR HARRI BEWFORD - - - - - ȀHR. It is probable that both the Duke of Exeter and his brother, Cardinal Beaufort, (Bishop of Winchester,) were benefactors to the monastery. An ancient sibula (fn. 49) was found there also; and a gold ring, on which was engraven the salutation of the Virgin Mary and the letters I. M. (fn. 50) It is probable that it belonged to Isabel Montague, one of the abbesses.
At the entrance of Barking church-yard stands an ancient gateway, over which is "the chapel of the holy rood loste atte gate edified" (as is expressed in an old record (fn. 51),) "to the honor of Almighty God and of the holy rood, that is there of right great devocion, as it sheweth by great indulgens graunted to the same chapel and place by divers of our holy faders, Popes of Rome." The representation of the holy rood or the crucifixion of our Saviour is still to be seen in alto relievo against the wall in this chapel. Salmon says that this gateway was called in his time Fire-bell Gate. It is not improbable that the bell mentioned in the note beneath was used as a curfew-bell.
The abbess and convent of Barking had formerly a conduit near Cranbrook, from which pipes were laid (through lands belonging to the lord of the manor of Cranbrook, the abbot and convent of Stratford-Langthorn, and others) to Barking Abbey. In the year 1462, John Rigby, who had married Joan Malmeynes, whose family were lords of Cranbrook, dug up and broke the pipes in several places, so that no water could come to the convent, "to the right "great hurt and unease of the abbess and nuns;" till they consented to pay to the said Rigby, Joan his wife, and their heirs, an annual rent of 24s. or eight yards of cloth of the same value. But Catherine de la Pole then abbess, finding that this agreement did not afford them sufficient security, caused a search to be made upon their own estates for a new spring, which being found at a place called Newberry, (being 1020 rods distant from the convent,) she had all the pipes which led to the old conduit taken up, and with them made a watercourse from the new spring to the monastery entirely through her own lands, by way of Dunshall, Cricklewood, Loxford-Bridge, &c. Its course is very particularly described in the register of Catherine de la Pole, whence it was copied by Mr. Lethieullier.
The manor of Barking (fn. 52), which is paramount over all the manors in the hundred of Becontree, was the property of the abbess and convent of St. Mary at this place long before the Norman Conquest, and formed, it is probable, a part of its original endowment. After the dissolution of religious houses (fn. 53), it remained in the crown (fn. 54) till the year 1628, when Charles I. fold it to Sir Thomas Fanshaw for the sum of 2000l. reserving to the crown a see-farm rent of 160l. (fn. 55) His descendant, Sir Thomas Fanshaw, who died in 1705, bequeathed this manor to Thomas Fanshaw, Esq. of Parsloes; but his will having been set aside for want of being executed in due form, it came to Susanna, his only daughter and heir, who married the Hon. Baptist Noel (son of Baptist Viscount Campden) (fn. 56). Her daughter Susan, who inherited this manor under her mother's will, sold it in the year 1717 to Sir William Humsreys, Bart. (fn. 57) His son Sir Orlando leaving no male issue, his estates descended to his daughters Mary and Ellen Wintour. The manor of Barking was purchased, in the year 1754, (of Thomas Gore, Esq. third husband of Mary Humfreys, and Charles Gore, Esq. his nephew, husband of Ellen Wintour,) by Smart Lethieullier, Esq. (fn. 58) It is now the property of Edward Hulse, Esq. (eldest son of Sir Edward Hulse, Bart.) in right of his wife Mary, only daughter and heir of Charles Lethieullier, Esq. brother of Smart Lethieullier, who died without issue. The fee-farm rent issuing out of this manor is now payable to the Earl of Sandwich.
In the Harleian Collection at the British Museum there is an ancient survey of the manor of Barking (without date, and imperfect). In this survey, the services due from the inferior tenants to the abbess and convent are stated at large. One of them (Robert Gerard) was, among other services, to gather a full measure of nuts, called a pybot, four of which should make a bushel; to go a long journey on foot once a year to Colchester, Chelmsford, Ely, or the like distances, on the business of the convent, carrying a pack; and other shorter journeys, such as to Brentford, &c. maintaining himself upon the road. He was to pay a fine for the marriage of his daughter, if she married beyond the limits of the manor, otherwise to make his peace with the abbess as well as he could; if his daughter should have a bastard child, he was to make the best terms that he could with the abbess for the fine called kyldwyte. It appears also that he could not sell his ox, fed by himself, without the abbess's permission. Some of the tenants were obliged to watch and guard thieves in the abbess's prison.
The manor of Jenkins, in the parishes of Barking and Dagenham, was, in the reign of King John, the property of Ralph Fitzstephen (fn. 59). In 1496, it was held under the abbess of Barking by Sir Hugh Bryce and Elizabeth his wife (fn. 60). Their grandson Hugh left an only daughter, married to Robert Amadas, who was in possession of this manor in the year 1540 (fn. 61). About the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign, it was vested in Sir William Hewett, Lord Mayor of London (fn. 62), whose daughter and heir married Edward Osborne, ancestor of the Duke of Leeds. Mr. Osborne sold it to Martin Bowes, Esq. who, in the year 1567, conveyed it to Henry Fanshaw, Esq. (fn. 63) It continued in the Fanshaw family till the sale of the principal manor, and has since that time passed through the same hands, being now the property of Edward Hulse, Esq.
In the chapel of the old mansion belonging to this estate, (which was considered during the time of the Fanshaws as the manor-house of Barking,) there was in one of the windows the figure of an abbess in stained glass (fn. 64). The house was pulled down and rebuilt by Sir William Humfreys soon after his purchase of the manor. This house also has been taken down, and a farm-house built on the site (which is moated) by Mr. Hulse.
The manor of Wangay, or Wangey, (parcel of the possessions of Barking Abbey,) was on lease, when that monastery was dissolved, to John Humphreys. King Edward VI. granted it, in 1551, to Edward Lord Clinton (fn. 65). It was sold by him the same year to Thomas Baron, or Barnes (fn. 66), who died seised of it in 1573 (fn. 67). Soon afterwards it reverted to the crown. Queen Elizabeth granted it, in 1601, to Joseph Heynes (fn. 68), whose son Simon sold it, anno 1623, to Francis Fuller, Esq. (fn. 69) After his death, which happened in 1636, it was inherited by his nephew, Francis Osbaldeston, or Osbaston, Esq. son of his sister Barbara (fn. 70). Francis Osbaston, nephew of the last-mentioned Francis, left two daughters coheirs, who, in the year 1694, sold this manor to John Lethieullier, Esq. (fn. 71), from whom it descended to Mary, wife of Edward Hulse, Esq. the present proprietor. The manor-house stands on the south side of Chadwell-heath, and is in the occupation of Mr. Burley.
The manor of Fulkys (parcel of the possessions of the dissolved monastery of Barking) was granted, anno 1540, to Sir Thomas Audley (fn. 72), who sold it, in 1542, to William Severne (fn. 73). In 1543, Severne aliened a moiety of it to Stephen Close and Ralph Marshall (fn. 74). The whole came afterwards to Martin Bowes, and was sold by him with the manor of Jenkins, in the year 1567, to Henry Fanshaw, Esq. (fn. 75) It has since passed through the same hands as the manor of Barking, being now the property of Edward Hulse, Esq. The manor-house which stood in the town has been pulled down.
The manor or manor-farm of Loxford was granted, after the dissolution of the monastery at Barking, to Thomas Powle (fn. 76), who, in 1562, aliened it to Thomas Pouncett (fn. 77). Henry his son sold it to Francis Fuller, Esq. (fn. 78) It has since passed through the same hands as the manor of Wangey, and is now the property of Edward Hulse, Esq.
The farm and capital messuage called Malmeynes, Molmans, or Mammons, took its name from the family of Malmeynes, who were lords of the manor of Cranbrook for several generations. This estate was, in 1577, the property of Joanna Lady Laxton, who had then lately purchased it of Thomas Barker, Esq. Her heir was Nicholas Lodge, Esq. Sir Thomas Lodge died seised of it in 1583 (fn. 79). It was purchased of that family, in the year 1625, by the Fanshaws (fn. 80), and has since had the same proprietors as the manor of Barking.
The manor or manor-farm of Eastbury, with a portion of tithes, (parcel of the possessions of the dissolved monastery of Barking,) was granted, anno 1545, to Sir William Denham, whose daughter and sole heir Margery married William Abbot. In 1557, John Keele bought this estate of Abbot, and sold it the same year to Clement Sisley. Thomas Sisley aliened it to Augustin Steward before the year 1608. In 1628, Martin Steward, Esq. sold it to Jacob Price; and George Price (anno 1646) to William Knightley, whose widow conveyed it, in 1650, to Sir Thomas Vyner, Alderman of London. In 1714, his representatives sold it to William Browne, whose nephew William Sedgwick aliened it, in 1740, to John Weldale, Esq.; Mrs. Anne Weldale, (sole surviving heir of the said John,) by her will, bearing date 1773, devised it to Mary, wife of the Rev. Wasey Sterry, with remainder to her issue. It is now the joint property of Wasey Sterry, Esq. of Rumford, and his brothers, Messrs. Thomas and Henry Sterry, sons of Mrs. Mary Sterry above mentioned (fn. 81).
Eastbury-house, an ancient and very spacious brick edifice, of which a view is annexed, stands about a mile west of the town, on the road to Dagenham; and is now in the occupation of Mr. Brushfield. There is a tradition relating to this house, either, as some say, that the conspirators who concerted the gunpowder plot held their meetings there, or as others, that it was the residence of Lord Monteagle, when he received the letter which led to its discovery; both, perhaps, equally destitute of foundation (fn. 82). It is probable that Sir Thomas Vyner made this house his country residence, before he purchased the old mansion near the church at Hackney. Some of the rooms at Eastbury are painted in fresco; in one of them is a coat of arms (fn. 83).
The manor or farm of Westbury, (with a portion of tithes,) parcel also of the possessions of the dissolved monastery of Barking, was granted to Sir William Denham in 1545 (fn. 84). His son-in-law William Abbot sold it to Clement Sisley in 1557 (fn. 85). Edward Breame, Esq. died seised of it in 1560 (fn. 86). His brother Arthur sold it, in 1574, to Thomas Fanshaw, Esq. in whose family it continued many years (fn. 87). In the early part of this century it was the property of Blackbourne Poulton, whose son of the same name died in 1749, having sold the reversion of this estate, after the death of Poulton Allen, (who had a life-interest in it under his father's will,) to Crisp Gascoyne, Alderman of London; who, in 1747, (two years before the death of Blackbourne Poulton the younger,) sold his interest in the site of the manor to Joseph Keeling, Esq. (fn. 88), whose widow is the present proprietor, and resides in the manor-house (a little to the east of the town).
The manor or farm of Withfield, or Wyfields, (parcel of the possessions of the dissolved monastery of Barking (fn. 89),) was granted, anno 1540, to Sir Thomas Audley (fn. 90), who, in 1542, sold the demesne lands to Robert Cowper (fn. 91). In 1544, this manor was vested in William Grey, who sold it to Richard Stansfield (fn. 92). In 1552, Edward Randall, Gent. purchased it of Stansfield Cooke and Edward Cooke (fn. 93). Vincent Randall, son of Edward, sold it, in 1598, to John Tedcastle (fn. 94), who, in 1604, conveyed it to John Aston (fn. 95). The latter conveyed it to Sir Nicholas Coote, whose widow was in possession of it anno 1636 (fn. 96). Before the year 1651, it was purchased by John Brewster, Esq. (fn. 97) whose descendant of the same name sold it to John Bamber, M. D. The late Bamber Gascoyne, Esq. (son of Sir Crisp Gascoyne by the daughter and heir of Dr. Bamber,) sold it (pursuant to an act of parliament obtained for that purpose) to Charles Raymond, Esq. (afterwards created a baronet,) who aliened it to Andrew Moffat, Esq. It is now the property of Andrew Moffat Mills, Esq. son of Sir Thomas Mills by the eldest daughter of the said Andrew Moffat. The manor-house stands about half a mile north of Ilford, and is in the occupation of Mr. Jones.
Uphall, a capital messuage and farm, (parcel of the possessions of the dissolved monastery of Barking,) was granted, in the year 1541, (being then on lease to Milo Bowdish, at the rent of 7l. per annum,) to Morgan Philips, alias Wolfe (fn. 98). In the year 1596, it was the property of Thomas Burre, who sold it to Wessel Weblinge. His cousin and godson, of the same name, (to whom he had devised it by will,) sold it, in 1633, to John Powell; who, the next year, aliened it to Bernard Hyde, Esq. In 1657, Bernard Hyde, his son, conveyed it to Edward Midwinter. Mr. Midwinter's widow, in 1676, sold it to William Billingsley; after whose death it was sold by his coheirs to Thomas Seabroke, whose descendant of the same name aliened it, in 1760, to Richard Eastland, Esq. It is now, under the will of Mr. Eastland, the property of his great nephew John Nixon, Esq. (fn. 99) The farm-house stands north of the church, a little to the west of the road between Barking and Ilford. The entrenchment, described p. 57, is upon this estate.
The manor-farm of Newberry, lying between the London road and Aldborough-hatch, was, at the dissolution of Barking Abbey, (to which it had belonged,) on lease to Lawrence Grey, at the rent of 61. per annum. It was granted by Henry VIII. to Sir Richard Gresham (fn. 100). Bartholomew Baron, or Barnes, died seised of it in 1548 (fn. 101). Thomas Barnes, his son, sold it, in 1566, to Thomas Yale and Joan his wife; who, surviving her husband, aliened it, in 1578, to Joseph Heynes, Esq.; whose son and heir Simon conveyed it, in 1625, to Thomas Stych, Esq.; from him it descended to Sir William Stych, Bart.; who mortgaged it, and having suffered a foreclosure, his brother and heir Sir Richard sold it, under a decree in chancery, (anno 1698,) to Thomas Webster of the Middle Temple, Gent. (afterwards created a baronet); who, in 1747, aliened it to the late Richard Benyon, Esq. Governor of Fort St. George, in the East Indies: it is now the property of his son Richard Benyon, Esq. M. P. (fn. 102)
Dunshall, a farm formerly belonging to the monastery of Barking, appears to have been vested in the same proprietors as the last-mentioned estate till the death of Joseph Heynes in 1621 (fn. 103). In 1668, Dunshall was the property of John Hyde, Esq. of Sundridge; in whose family it continued till 1730, when it was purchased by Mr. John Dagge of Rotherhithe, whose niece and devisee Mary Cherinton married Mr. Moore. It was sold by her son Dagge Moore, in the year 1776, to the late Mr. Edmonds, an eminent gardener at Deptford, and is now (under his will) the property of his second son (fn. 104).
Gayseham's-hall in the forest was, in the year 1360, the property of Thomas de Sandwich, proveditor of the household to the Black Prince, who held it under the abbess and convent of Barking, together with about 160 acres of land (fn. 105). In the reign of Edward the Fourth, this estate appears to have been vested in the convent, and the mansion to have been used as a country-house by the abbess (fn. 106). In 1545, being then on lease to Ralph Tracy, it was granted, with the lands thereto belonging, and a portion of tithes, to Sir William Denham (fn. 107). His son-in-law William Abbot sold it, anno 1557, to Clement Sisley (fn. 108). In 1571, Arthur Breame (who is supposed to have purchased it of Sisley about the year 1569) aliened it to Vincent Randall (fn. 109). Edward Randall died seised of it in 1577 (fn. 110). In 1604, it was sold by the Randalls to Hugh Hare, Esq. (fn. 111), who, in 1609, aliened it to Gabriel Wight, Esq. (fn. 112) From him it descended to Henry Wight, Esq. who died without issue in 1793, having devised a moiety of his estates in Essex and Surrey (after the death of his sister Elizabeth, relict of Sir James Harrington, Bart. and wife of the Rev. John Chaunler; and of Mrs. Elizabeth White, widow; both now deceased;) to John Wight, Esq. of Brabeufhouse near Guildford, for life, with remainder to his right heirs; the other moiety to William Martin the younger, son of William Martin of Blacksmiths-hall, and the heirs of his body.
The manor of Clayhall was held under the abbess and convent of Barking by a quit-rent of 15s. 3d. and the following services, viz. that the tenant should come in person to the Abbey-church of Barking, on the vigil of St. Ethelburgh the virgin, and there attend, and guard the high altar from the first hour of vespers till nine o'clock the next morning; and that he should be ready at all times, with a horse and man, to attend the abbess and her steward, when going upon the business of the convent, any where within the four seas; and lastly, that the abbess should have, by way of heriot, upon the death of every tenant, his best horse and accoutrements (fn. 113). Joan, relict of Thomas Colte, Esq. and wife of Sir William Parre, died seised of the manor of Clayhall in 1475 (fn. 114), when it descended to John Colte, her son by her first husband. Sir Henry Colte, his descendant, was in possession of it, anno 1623. In 1628, it came into the possession of James Cambell, Esq. (fn. 115), in whose family it continued many years. Sir Harry Cambell, Bart. who died in 1699, left one daughter Anne married to Thomas Price, Esq. whose son Cambell Price sold it, in 1742, to Peter Eaton, Esq. On Mr. Eaton's death, in 1769, it descended to Mrs. Hannah Markland, who devised it, by will, to John Monins, Esq. the present proprietor. The old mansion belonging to this manor stood about a mile from Woodford-bridge, and about four miles to the north of Barking church. It had a chapel built by Sir Christopher Hatton (fn. 116), in 1616, and consecrated by Thomas Morton, Bishop of Chester, by virtue of a commission from John King, Bishop of London (fn. 117). This mansion was pulled down many years ago, and a farm-house built on the site.
The manor of Stonehall, which was held under the abbess and convent of Barking by a quit-rent of 1l. 18s. 6d. was given by Sir John Raynsforth, in the year 1545, to Henry VIII. (fn. 118) The King soon afterwards granted it to Sir William Denham (fn. 119), who sold it the same year to Richard Breame, Esq. (fn. 120) Arthur Breame sold it, in 1578, to John Bales (fn. 121), who, in 1579, conveyed it to Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex (fn. 122). It has since passed through the same hands as the manor of Wansted (fn. 123), and is now vested in Sir James Tylney Long, Bart. (an infant).
The manor or farm of Porters was held under the abbess and convent of Barking by a quit-rent of 1l. 9s. 1½d. Richard Pygot died seised of it in 1483 (fn. 124); John Lucas, Esq. in 1556; Sir Thomas Lucas, in 1611 (fn. 125). In 1635, it was the property of Thomas Fanshaw, Esq. From this period I have not been able to learn any thing of its proprietors till 1701 (fn. 126), when it was vested in Godfrey Woodward, Esq. whose daughter Mary Anne married Walter Vane, Esq. William Walter Vane, Esq. son of Godfrey Woodward Vane, and grandson of Walter Vane above mentioned, sold it, anno 1790, to Abraham Newman, Esq. the present proprietor.
The manor of Beringers belonged to the abbot and convent of Stratford-Langthorne; since the dissolution of which monastery, it has passed through the same hands as that of Ilford Parva (fn. 127). This manor is situated in and near the town of Barking (fn. 128), where was formerly a lane called Beringers Lane (fn. 129).
The manor-farm and mansion-house of Cranbrook, lying on the north side of the London road, about half a mile from Ilford, were held, anno 1347, by John Malmeynes, of the abbess and convent of Barking, by a quit-rent of 2 s. per annum (fn. 130) : his ancestors had lived in the parish of Barking for several generations, and, it is probable, were owners of this estate. Joan, daughter and heir of John Malmeynes, brought it, in marriage, to John Rigby, in the reign of Henry VI. (fn. 131) Sir Henry Palavicini died seised of it in 1615 (fn. 132). His brother and heir Sir Toby squandered away the whole of his inheritance, and was obliged to sell all his estates (fn. 133). It is probable that the purchaser of this manor was Sir Charles Montagu, who died seised of it, 1625, leaving three daughters, coheirs (fn. 134). From this period I have not been able to learn any thing relating to its proprietors till the year 1670, when it was vested in Thomas Young, whose widow Margaret married Sir William Boreman, and had a life interest in it. The inheritance was sold by Mary, widow of Theobald Townson, (daughter of Thomas Young, and his heir after the death of her brother James,) to John Lethieullier, Esq. in the year 1720. In 1757, Smart Lethieullier, Esq. sold it to Charles Raymond, Esq. (afterwards a baronet,) who, in 1762, aliened it to Samuel Hough, Esq. by whom it was conveyed, the next year, to Andrew Moffat, Esq. It is now the property of Andrew Moffat Mills, Esq. son of Sir Thomas Mills by the eldest daughter of Mr. Moffat (fn. 135).
Clayberry, a capital messuage, situated in the north-east side of the parish, near Woodford-bridge, was (with certain lands adjoining) the property of Sir Ralph Warren, who died seised of it in 1553 (fn. 136). His widow married Sir Thomas White, Alderman of London, and founder of St. John's College in Oxford; in whose occupation it was, anno 1560 (fn. 137). Richard Warren, son of Sir Ralph, had it afterwards (fn. 138). In 1686, it was the property of John Fowke, Esq. (the liberal benefactor to Christ's and Bethlem Hospitals,) whose trustees sold it, pursuant to his will, in 1693. The purchaser was John Goodere, Esq. of Wansted, whose grandson of the same name conveyed it to Eliab Harvey, Esq. Mr. Harvey's daughter (who was eventually his sole heir) married Mountague Burgoyne, Esq.; and jointly with her husband, sold this estate, in 1789, to James Hatch, Esq. the present proprietor (fn. 139); who resides at Clayberry during the summer.
Aldbury, Aldborough, or Albro' Hatch, a capital mansion, (with lands,) situated in the forest, about three miles north-east from the church, was the property of Bartholomew Barons, or Barnes, who died in 1548 (fn. 140) : his grandson Thomas died seised of it in 1626 (fn. 141). John Lockey, Esq. was the proprietor of this estate about the beginning of the present century: he died in 1713; when a moiety of the estate was sold to Richard Guise, Esq. (fn. 142), and still remains in his family. On this part of the estate is a good house, now in the occupation of Richard Brome, Esq. The other moiety came into the possession of Col. Jory, who died in 1725, and left it to his niece Frances (fn. 143); who married Martin Bladen, Esq. one of the Lords of Trade. Mr. Bladen (of whom some account has been given in vol. iii. of this Work (fn. 144) ) built the present mansion, at the expence of 14,000l. (fn. 145) His widow left it to her cousin Ann Hodges; who, in 1737, had been married to her second husband John Lambert Middleton, Esq. brother of Sir William Middleton, Bart. (fn. 146) This house, which is still the property of the Middleton family, was lately in the occupation of William Raikes, Esq. and since of Robert Henshaw, Esq.
Mrs. Frances Bladen above mentioned, by her will, bearing date 1746, endowed the chapel in this house with 20l. per annum for ever, charged upon the estate, and gave the sacramental plate (fn. 147). The present chaplain is the Rev. Herbert Jeffries, B. A.
Valentines, a large mansion in the forest, to the north of Ilford, was built by James Chadwick, Esq. son-in-law of Archbishop Tillotson (fn. 148), upon a spot where before stood a small cottage (fn. 149). The next possessor was George Finch, Esq. William Finch sold it to Robert Surman, Esq.; who enlarged and improved the house and gardens (fn. 150). Of him it was purchased by Charles Raymond, Esq. who was created a baronet in 1774. After the death of Sir Charles Raymond, it was sold by his coheirs to Donald Cameron, Esq. the present proprietor.
There are some valuable pictures at Valentines, particularly the original of Hogarth's Southwark Fair; and some fine carving by Gibbons. In the hot-house is a very remarkable vine-tree, of the black Hamburgh sort, which was planted in April 1758: the branches extend 200 feet, and the stem is about 14 inches in girth. This vine never produces less than three hundred weight of fruit in a year; and has been known to bear four hundred weight and a quarter (fn. 151). In the garden is a tulip-tree, four feet three inches in girth, and 77 feet in height.
A stone coffin, in which was a human skeleton, was found in the fields behind Valentines, in 1724: it lay north and south, was circular at the feet, and square at the head; but the same width at both. In the same field was discovered, in 1746, an urn of coarse earth, filled with burnt bones (fn. 152).
Highlands, near Valentines, was built by Sir Charles Raymond, whose heirs sold it to Earl Tylney. It is now the property of Sir James Tylney Long, (an infant,) and in the occupation of Isaac Currie, Esq. The mausoleum, (near Highlands,) which forms a conspicuous object for some miles round, was built, in the year 1765, by Sir Charles Raymond, who intended it as a burial-place for his family; but it was never put to that use.
Fullwell Hatch, an old mansion which took its name from Adam Fullwell, who was owner of it in the time of Dorothy Barley, the last abbess of Barking, was, in 1617, the seat of Sir Edward Wilde (fn. 153).
Great Geries, a house so called from a family of that name, who held it under the abbess of Barking, is situated in the forest. In 1617, it was the seat of William Finch, Esq. (fn. 154) It was lately inhabited by Mr. Ibbetson, and now by the proprietor Capt. Vandeburgh, who has pulled down a great part of it.
Beehive, now a farm-house in the forest, was for many years the seat of the Fullers and Osbastons. Alice, widow of Francis Osbaston, held it in jointure, and resided there with her second husband the Hon. Robert Bertie. It was sold to John Lethieullier, Esq. with the manors of Loxford and Wangay, in 1694 (fn. 155).
Bifrons, the seat of the late Bamber Gascoyne, Esq. adjoins to the town of Barking: it was built by Dr. Bamber, and was enlarged and improved by his son-in-law Mr. Gascoyne. It is now the property of Bamber Gascoyne, Esq. late M. P. for Liverpool, and is in the occupation of Samuel Ibbetson, Esq.
The parish-church, dedicated to St. Margaret, consists of a chancel, nave, a south aisle, and two north aisles running parallel to each other the whole length of the building. At the west end is a square stone tower, embattled.
On the north wall of the chancel is the monument of Francis Fuller, Esq. (fn. 156) of Beehive, clerk of the estreats. He died in 1636, and was buried in St. Dionis's church in London. On the south wall is the monument of Sir Charles Montagu (fn. 157), brother of the first Earl of Manchester, who died at Cranbrook in 1625, aged 61. A figure of the deceased is represented in basso relievo, sitting in a tent; his elbow reclining upon a desk, on which are placed his helmet and gauntlets: his sword and shield hang at the back of the tent: two centinels guard the door, near which stands a page with his horse; in the back ground are several other tents. On the same wall are the monuments of Elizabeth, relict of M. Hobart, Esq. of Norfolk, and wife of Stephen Powle, Esq. (fn. 158) 1590; Alice, daughter of —Bernard, Esq. of Northamptonshire, and wife of the Hon. Robert Bertie (fn. 159), fifth son of Robert Earl of Lindsey, (by Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Lord Montagu,) ob. 1677; and Robert Bertie, her husband, who died in 1701, aged 84. On the east wall is that of Elizabeth his second wife, daughter of Sir Thomas Bennet, Bart. (fn. 160), 1712. The last-mentioned monument was put up at the expence of Catherine, daughter of Sir Harry Fetherston, Bart. (niece of the deceased).
On the chancel-floor are the tombs of Elizabeth, daughter of William Mey, LL. D. and wife of John Tedcastle, (by whom she had nine sons and seven daughters,) ob. 1596. (This tomb has figures in brass of the deceased and her husband.) Mary, daughter of Sir William Dunche of Long Wittenham, and wife of Thomas Kirton of Thorp Mandeville in Northamptonshire, 1638. Francis Osbaston, Esq. (fn. 161), of Beehive, 1648; John Brewster, Esq. of Wyfields, (fourth son of Francis Brewster, Esq. of Wrentham-hall, Suffolk,) 1677; Augustin Brewster, 1708; Abraham Wilmer, Gent. 1710; Sarah, daughter of William Leigh, Esq. of Adlestrop (Glouc.), and wife of Henry Wight, Esq. of Little Ilford, 1727; Henry Wight, Esq. (no date); Henry Wight, Esq. (his son) of Gaeshams; Thomas Wight, Esq. 1747; Thomas Beacon, Esq. 1737; John Noyes, Gent. 1759; Elizabeth, wife of Christopher Hobson, Gent. of Clifford's-Inn, 1780; and Christopher Musgrave, D. D. vicar, 1780. In the chancel are also two figures (in brass) of priests; the inscriptions have been removed.
On a pillar at the north-east corner of the nave is a monument to the memory of Robert Meadows of Westbury, 1679, and his daughter Sarah, wife of Mr. Thomas Fleming of Loxford (fn. 162), 1715. Mr. Fleming died in 1722. On the floor of the nave are the tombs of Thomas Broke, 1493, and his wife Alice; Christopher Merell, 1593, and his sister Anne Yardlye, widow, 1579; Thomas Stych, Esq. of Newberry-house, 1656; Sarah, daughter of John Hubbard, and wife of Capt. John Harward, 1735; John Hubbard, Esq. 1738; and Mr. William Harris, 1742.
At the east end of the north aisle is a small chapel (with an ascent of steps), under which is the vault of the Cambell family; near the foot of the steps is a marble slab, (removed, it is probable, from the conventual church,) with the following mutilated inscription: - - - - AURICH ȁ LUNDONENSIS ALFGIVE AȂ BE - - - Mr. Lethieullier supposes it to be the tomb of Mauritius, who was made Bishop of London in the year 1087. It is certainly of that age; and if the name of Mauritius alone was to be found on it, there could be little doubt of its being that bishop's tomb: but as Alsgiva the abbess is mentioned, is it not probable that the inscription was "Orate pro animabus Mauricii Episcopi Londonensis, "Alfgivæ Abbatissæ - - - - - - - (adding the name of the person there interred)? Not far from this stone stands an altar tomb, erected to the memory of William Pownset, Esq. who died in 1553. It was repaired at the expence of All Souls College in Oxford, anno 1784 (fn. 163). On the north wall of the aisle are monuments in memory of Capt. John Bennet of Pool (fn. 164), 1706; Capt. John Bennet, his only son, 1716; Susanna, daughter of Capt. Jonathan Collett, and wife of Edmund Pytts, Esq. 1742; Capt. Thomas Collett, 1743; Capt. Jonathan Collett, 1746; Susanna, his wife, 1745; Susanna, daughter of Thomas Collett, and wife of — Court, 1757; Capt. John Pelly, 1762; Grisel, his wife, daughter of Thomas Collett, 1750; John Bamber, M. D. (fn. 165), 1753; Mary, his wife, 1736; Sir Crisp Gascoyne (fn. 166), 1761; and Anna Maria, wife of Thomas Newte, Esq. and daughter of Sir Charles Raymond, Bart. (fn. 167), 1783. In the south-west corner of this aisle is the monument of Capt. John Banaster, commander of the Charlotte yacht, 1738; on the floor are the tombs of Paul Stevens, Gent. 1675; Judith, his wife, daughter of Bullen Reymes, Esq. 1697; Thomas Darling, Gent. 1679; John, son of John Lockey, Esq. of Alborough Hatch, 1697; Margaret, wife of John, 1721; William Lockey, Esq. 1736; John Neale, Esq. of Bedfordshire, 1698; Elizabeth, wife of John Upney, 1726; Susanna, wife of Mr. Peter Furzer, 1728; Mr. Charles Rayment, 1729; Thomasine, wife of Robert Surman of Valentines, 1734; Thomasine, daughter of Robert Surman, and wife of the Hon. John Boscawen, 1750; Robert Surman, Esq. 1759; Mrs. Priscilla Vere, sister of Capt. John Banaster, 1748; Sarah Bullock, aged 92, 1778, and Richard Holford, Esq. 1793.
At the west end of the smaller north aisle, which is next to the nave, are the monuments of Mr. George Eyres, 1755; Mrs. Sarah Norton, widow, 1778; and Sir Charles Raymond, Bart. (son of John Raymond, Esq. of Marpool in Devonshire,) 1788; Sarah, his wife, daughter of Thomas Webster, Esq. of Bromley in Kent, died in 1778. Sir Charles Raymond's monument was put up at the expence of his surviving daughters and coheirs, Sophia Lady Burrell and Mrs. Juliana Boulton. Near it are the remains of what was, probably, a large piscina, with a canopy of rich Gothic tracery. On the floor of this aisle are the tombs of Capt. John Hubbard, 1669; Capt. Nathaniel Hubbard, 1731; and Mr. Daniel Shirley, 1776.
On the east wall of the south aisle is the monument of John Fanshaw, Esq. of Parsloes (fn. 168), who died in 1699: he was son of John Fanshaw of the same place, by Alice, daughter of Thomas Fanshaw, Esq. of Jenkins, and grandson of Thomas Fanshaw, Esq. of Warepark. He married Mary, daughter of John Coke, Esq. of Derby, by whom he had three sons and one daughter. On the south wall at the west end is a monument, (with a bust of the deceased in white marble,) to the memory of Sir Orlando Humsreys, Bart. (fn. 169), who died in 1737. He married Ellen, only child of Col. Robert Lanca shire (fn. 170). On the same wall is the monument of William Stephens, LL. D. (fn. 171), vicar of Barking, 1751; and Mary, his brother's wife, daughter of ——Simpson of Ravensworth in Yorkshire. On the floor are the tombs of John Fanshaw, Esq. 1689; Sir Timothy de Faria, Knight of the order of Christ in Portugal, and servant to Catherine Queen of England, 1715; (he married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Goddard, Gent.;) Frances Margaret, wife of John Browning, Esq. of Somerset-house, 1750.
Weever mentions the tombs of Richard Cheyne, 1514; and John Scot, 1519 (in Barking church). Those of the following persons, (the memorials of whom have been either removed or covered by pews,) are described in Mr. Lethieullier's MSS.—Bertrobe Lukin, Gent. 1613; (he married Mary daughter of Nicholas Archbolde, Gent.); Joseph Heynes, Esq. 1621; Richard Taylor, clerk, 1697; Richard Taylor, Esq. 1704; Mr. John Taylor, 1707, and Mrs. Christian Cogan, 1710.
Against the north wall of the church, on the outside, are the monuments of Mr. William Casson, 1705; Ruth, his daughter, wife of Henry Hinde of Westham, 1742; and Charlotte Anne, wife of Walter Jones, Esq. 1760.
In the church-yard are the monuments of Nicholas Coulburn, Gent. 1739; Elizabeth, wife of Robert Gayer, Esq. (son of Sir Robert Gayer, Knt.), 1742; James Brittan, Esq. 1746; Mr. Ralph Guise, 1750; Richard Guise, Esq. 1752; Richard Stone, Esq. 1763; John Cocking, surgeon, 1769; the Rev. Benjamin Symonds, 1781; Mrs. Rebecca Newman of Eastbury, aged 93, 1790; Richard Tebb, Esq. 1792; Joseph Keeling, Esq. 1792; and Anne, wife of Samuel Bray, surgeon, 1793.
The church of this parish (which is in the diocese of London, and gives name to a deanery) was appropriated to the monastery of Barking, to which the tithes of the whole parish belonged, except those of certain lands with which the hospital at Ilford was endowed. These were granted by Queen Elizabeth, with the site of the hospital, to Thomas Fanshaw, Esq. (fn. 172); and still continue annexed to it, except the tithes of Westbury, which were bequeathed by Sir Crisp Gascoyne to his younger son Joseph Gascoyne, Esq.
The rectory of Barking, which had been leased to Mary Blackenhall for 10l. per annum, in 1541, and consisted of all such tithes as had not been previously leased or granted to other persons (fn. 173), was sold by the crown, (together with the advowson of the vicarage,) for the sum of 214l. 13s. 4d. to Robert Thomas, and Andrew Salter: this grant bears date the 1st of March 1550: the grantees, a few days afterwards, sold it to Thomas Baron, or Barnes. In the year 1557, Sir William Petre, William Cook, and Edward Napper, executors of the will of William Pownsett of Loxford, (who had been steward to the last abbess of Barking,) being desirous of bestowing the residue of his fortune (after discharging debts and legacies) on charitable uses, purchased of Thomas Barnes the said rectory and advowson; and by an indenture, bearing date that year, granted them to the warden and fellows of All Souls College in Oxford, on the following conditions: That they should suffer the vicar, and his successors, (presented by them,) to enjoy all the profits of the rectory and vicarage; the vicars to pray every Sunday for the soul of William Pownsett, his parents and benefactors, and all Christian souls; to keep a yearly obit on the 8th of March, when they were to pray as above mentioned, and for the souls of Pown sett's executors, distributing 6s. 8d. among the poor; and to pay the sum of 61. 13s. 4d. yearly to the warden and fellows, (5l. 8s. 8d. part of the said sum, being for the better support of two poor scholars, who should say masses for the souls of the persons above mentioned). All these conditions were confirmed by Bishop Bonner (fn. 174).
The great tithes of this parish are now divided in certain portions between the proprietors of Ilford Hospital (fn. 175), Eastburyhouse, Newberry, Gaysehams-hall, and the vicar; who, under Sir William Petre's grant, enjoys all the tithes that had not been before separated from the rectory.
Previously to the year 1328, there had been two vicarages in the church of Barking, distinguished by the names of St. Margaret on the North, and St. Margaret on the South: they were consolidated before the year 1398 (fn. 176). In the year 1452, after several disputes between Catherine de la Pole, abbess of Barking, and Sir John Greening, then vicar, an award was made to the following effect; that instead of a hog, a goose, a cheese, and a lamb, which the vicar had heretofore received of the lady abbess, he and his successors should have three yards of good cloth, two ells broad, provision every day in the convent for himself and his servant, so long as he should not be of a litigious or contentious disposition, he sitting at the chaplain's table, and his servant with the domestics of the convent; but if the said vicar should, without licence from the lady abbess or her deputy, have any familiarity or discourse with any one or two of the nuns, he should, for the first offence, (after proper admonition,) lose his diet for a week; after a second admonition, forfeit a month's diet; and if he should offend a third time, he should be excluded the convent during life, unless restored by the lady abbess's special grace and favour. In all other respects he was to be satisfied with the profits of the vicarage (being valued at 27l. 5s. 2d. per annum (fn. 177) ). It was not then endowed with any of the great tithes.
In the year 1536, an agreement took place between Dorothy Barley the last abbess of Barking, and John Gregill then vicar, by which a pension of 10l. per annum was allowed to the vicar and his successors in lieu of diet. The agreement states that "the vicar, beinge in execution of his office amonge his parishioners accordinge to his bounden dutie in that behalfe, could not alwaies repair to the monasterie at the tymes appointed for meales or refections, by reason whereof he was often disappoynted of his meales; and that it was tedious and sumptuous for the abbess and convent to cause meates, drinks, and other sustenances to be prepared, provided, and admynystered to the vicar and his servante, at such extraordinarie tymes or seasons, as they should be dryven of necessity to demand the same (fn. 178)." The above-mentioned pension of 10l. is now paid to the vicar out of the Exchequer.
The first vacancy that occurred, after the grant to All Souls College, was in 1560, when, the Protestant religion having been re-established, the Queen disputed the validity of the grant, on account of the superstitious conditions annexed. During the dispute, the living lapsed to the crown, and Edward Edgworth was presented, who was ejected for recusancy in 1587. The college, mean time, had established their right by a suit at law against the crown; but, for the better assurance of it, Sir John Petre, (heir of Sir William Petre, the surviving executor of Pownsett,) by a deed bearing date 1594, confirmed the former grant, omitting the superstitious observances, and increasing the sum payable by the vicar to the college from 6l. 13s. 4d. to 7l. 6s. 8d. besides 13s. 4d. to be distributed to the poor, annually, on the 24th of December (fn. 179).
The report of the commissioners appointed to inquire into the state of ecclesiastical benesices, anno 1650, states, that the vicarage of Barking was then 100l. per annum; that William Amys, the vicar, was an able, godly, preaching minister; that, about the year 1647, the inhabitants of Great Ilford, by a petition to the committee of plundered ministers, had obtained out of the sequestered tithes between 40 and 50l. per annum, for an afternoon sermon at the hospital: the jurors recommended, that Great Ilford should be made a parish, and that a third parish should be formed in the forest, to the intent that all the inhabitants might have the word of God preached to them, of which great numbers could seldom partake, by reason of their distance from the parish-church of Barking (fn. 180). In the year 1653, an acre of ground in the forest was assigned, by parliament, to the inhabitants of Barking, that they might build a church there (fn. 181). The church was built accordingly, but was no sooner finished than it began to fall to decay: for after the Restoration, a dispute arising between the crown, the Bishop of London, and Sir Thomas Fanshaw, lord of the manor, about the patronage; although the church had been consecreated, no incumbent was ever presented (fn. 182). The evil complained of in the commissioners' report has been, in a great measure, remedied by the endowment of a chapel at Alborough Hatch. The vicarage of Barking is rated in the King's books at 19l. per annum.
Dr. Ralph Freeman, fellow of All Souls College, having bequeathed the sum of 2000l. for the purpose of repairing or rebuilding the vicarage-house at this place, Dr. Musgrave, the late vicar, expended a part of it in repairs; a part of the remainder was employed in the purchase of a new site, pursuant to an act of parliament obtained for the purpose by the present vicar, Mr. Rashleigh, by whom a new vicarage-house was built in the year 1794 (fn. 183).
There were three chantries in the church of Barking; one at the altar of the Resurrection, one at the altar of King Edward, and the third at that of St. Ethelburgh or St. Alburgh. One of these chantries was founded for the soul of Adam de Blakeney; the other two were consolidated: the sounders were John de Cambridge, and Godwin Duck (fn. 184).
There was a chapel in this parish, called St. Anne's chapel, which, with Cockerell's Grove, was granted to Richard Robson in 1572 (fn. 185). Its site is not known.
Benjamin Way, who had been instituted to this vicarage in 1654 (fn. 186), was ejected by the Bartholomew act. His successor was Thomas Cartwright, who was made Bishop of Chester in 1686, by James the Second. He followed that monarch in his exile, and was translated by him, after his abdication, to the see of Salisbury (fn. 187). Bishop Cartwright died at Dublin in 1689. He published several single sermons. In the parish register at Barking is a memorandum, that Mr. Chisenhale was turned out of the curacy, June 17, 1688, by Bishop Cartwright, and Mr. Hall appointed to succeed him. In the February following appears this note, "Exit Mr. Hall, restaurato Johanne Chisenhale."
|Average of Baptisms.||Average of Burials.|
|1630–9||88 1/10||99 7/10|
This parish has increased in population nearly two-thirds within the last hundred years; the principal increase has been at Great Ilford, where, in 1650, there were only 60 houses (fn. 188). The return of the King's surveyor of houses and windows, in 1762 (fn. 189), states, that there were then 563 houses in this parish, of which 283 were mansions, and 280 cottages; there were then 36 alehouses. The present number of houses in the parish of Barking (fn. 190) is 752; that of inhabitants, as numbered in the month of February 1796, 4123 (fn. 191).
"Elizabeth, daughter of Sr Christopher Hatton, baptized March 31, 1604; Christopher, July 11, 1605; Alice, Apl 26, 1606 (buried Apl 6, 1608); Jane, baptized June 22, 1609 (buried March 5, 1613–4); John, baptized July 6, 1610; Robert, baptized Aug. 12, 1612 (buried June 14, 1614); Thomas, buried May 19, 1618." This Sir Christopher Hatton (who married Alice, daughter of Thomas Fanshaw, Esq.) lived at Clayhall; he was cousin, and at length heir, to Sir Christopher Hatton, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal to Queen Elizabeth. His son Christopher, born at Clayhall, in 1605, was created Baron Hatton by Charles I. in 1643. He was a great patron of Sir William Dugdale; and was himself an author, having written a book called Pious Meditations on the Psalms." He married Elizabeth, one of the coheirs of Sir Charles Mountagu. Lord Hatton died in 1670, being then governor of Guernsey (fn. 192). The title is extinct.
"William, son of Sir William Parker, Knt. Lord Monteagle (fn. 193), baptized Dec. 3, 1607."
"Anne, daughter of Sr William Fytche, Knt. baptized Dec. 26, 1612; Dorothy, Sep. 17, 1613; Frances, Mar. 7, 1616–7; Elizabeth, baptized Dec. 10, 1620, buried Mar. 30, 1622; Anne, buried June 11, 1626; Charles, baptized Oct. 3, 1626; William, Sep. 24, 1627."
"Anne, wife of Sr Charles Cornwallis (fn. 194), Knt. buried March 30, 1617."
"Barbarie, daughter of Sr Henry Colt (fn. 195), baptized Sep. 2, 1624, buried Feb. 16, 1624–5; Margaret, his daughter, buried May 27, 1627."
"Frances, daughter of Dudley North (fn. 196), Knt. buried Dec. 19, 1634."
"The Lady Fanshaw (fn. 197), buried Oct. 1, 1638; Margaret (fn. 198), wife of Sr Thomas Fanshaw, Knt. buried Nov. 6, 1674; the Honble Anne Fanshaw, May 15, 1714; the Honble Lady Elizabeth Fanshaw (fn. 199), Dec. 29. 1729."
Sir John Cambell, Bart. (fn. 200), son of James Cambell of Woodford, Esq. buried May 21, 1662; Harry, son of Sir Thomas Cambell, Bart. (fn. 201), born Nov. 14, 1663 (in the parish of St. Andrew, Holborn); Sir Thomas Cambell, buried Sept. 2, 1665; Jane, daughter of Robert Sheffield (fn. 202), Esq. and the Lady Cambell, baptized Mar. 17, 1669–70; Edmund, born July 25, 1676; Triphena, Feb. 24, 1679–80; the wife of Sir Harry Cambell, Bart, buried Jan. 21. 1691–2; a daughter of the Hon. Robert Sheffield, buried Feb. 21, 1694–5; the Hon. Lady Cambell, Dec. 1, 1701.
"Frances Isabella, daughter of Capt. Edward Hawke (fn. 203), buried Septr 13, 1739; another daughter, April 3, 1740."
"The Honble Maj. Genl John Boscawen, buried June 5, 1767." Uncle to the present Viscount Falmouth. He was Master of the Horse, and one of the Grooms of the Bedchamber to the Duke of Cumberland, and M. P. for Truro.
Sir James Cambell, who died in the year 1641, gave, by will, the sum of 666l. 13s. 4d. towards sounding and maintaining a free school in this parish, for teaching poor children reading, grammar, &c. With this sum a school-house was provided, and an annual rent-charge of 20l. on lands in Yorkshire procured for the master's salary, but no provision made for repairs. Under the act of parliament for regulating the poor of Barking (fn. 204), the school-house, which was become ruinous, has been pulled down, and the site is now occupied by a part of the workhouse. The said sum of 20l. per annum is, by the above-mentioned act, vested in the directors of the poor, and applied towards providing a schoolmaster and schoolmistress to teach the children of the poor, in apartments appropriated to that purpose within the workhouse. There are now twenty boys and twenty girls in the school.
Besides those already mentioned, some considerable benefactions of a more temporary nature have been given to this parish (fn. 205).
A very large and commodious workhouse was built at Barking in the year 1787, under the powers of an act of parliament passed the preceding year. This act vests the government of the poor in certain persons, called Directors (fn. 206); under whom four guardians are chosen annually, (one out of each ward,) from among such of the inhabitants as are rated 30l. per annum to the relief of the poor. The guardians have the immediate management (under the directors) of the poor of the workhouse, of which they are alternately visitors. The directors have the disposal of all the money collected upon rates, except such as is disbursed by the overseers of each ward for casual relief: they have the disposal also of all donations now payable, or which shall hereafter become payable, to the use of the poor, except such as are appropriated to specific purposes. They are invested also with various other powers, as is fully set forth in the act, together with some regulations relating to the wharf at Barking creek. The river Roding was formerly navigable only to this place, but, about the year 1730, was made navigable to Ilford, and supplies the neighbourhood with coals, timber, &c. There is no manufacture in this parish; the fishing trade, which is carried on here to a very considerable extent, furnishes employment for many of the inhabitants. Near the wharf (on the Roding) is a very large flour-mill, the property of Edward Hulse, Esq. and in the occupation of Messrs. William Smith and Co. This mill belonged to Barking Abbey, and was valued, in the reign of Henry VIII. at 20l. per annum. There was formerly a mill at Ilford.
The hospital at this place, dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St. Thomas the Martyr, was founded by Adeliza, abbess of Barking, in the reign of King Stephen, for a prior, a warden or master, two priests, and thirteen poor infirm brethren or lepers. She endowed it with 120 acres of assart land (fn. 207) in Estholt, two hides of land in Upminster and Aveley, and some other lands; a mill at Ilford, half the profits of the parish-church of Barking, the tithe of all her mills in this parish, and some other tithes in Barking and Warley (fn. 208). This charter was confirmed by King Stephen, and by Maud, Adeliza's successor. Maud's confirmation was on condition that the prior and brethren should maintain a priest, and pay him 10s. per annum for performing divine service in the chapel of the hospital, and saying mass for the said Maud after her death. In 1219, certain disputes having arisen relating to the endowment of the hospital, an instrument was drawn up, wherein, among other things, it was agreed, that the brethren of the hospital should receive 40s. per annum of the vicar of Barking; that on the death of a prior the brethren should elect three out of their body, one of whom the abbess of Barking should nominate; he might be either a layman or an ecclesiastic; that the lepers should be chosen out of houses belong ing to the abbey (if such could be found); that they should swear obedience to the abbess; that the hospital should nominate a priest for the daily service of the chapel, and the abbess another to say mass for the deceased. The tithes of Wyfields, Clayberry, Jenkins, and some other lands, were granted to the brethren of the hospital by this agreement, in addition to what they before enjoyed (fn. 209). In 1346, a set of statutes was drawn up for this hospital by Ralph Stratford, Bishop of London. Among other things it was ordained, that the original number of thirteen lepers should inviolably be kept up; that upon vacancies the new brethren should be nominated alternately by the abbess of Barking and the master of the hospital (with the abbess's consent); that they should be chosen out of the abbess's demesnes, but, in default of proper objects there, elsewhere in the parish of Barking, or from any other parish rather than that the number should be diminished (fn. 210); that no married man should be admitted into the hospital, unless his wife would vow perpetual chastity; that no woman should enter the gates under any pretence, excepting the abbess of Barking, and such nuns as should accompany her; the near relations of the brethren or chaplains, (when sick,) and the laundress; and these to go in and out in the open day, and not to make such stay as to leave room for scandal: to take away all excuse from the lepers for quitting the hospital on any occasion, (since their mixing in society might be the means of spreading infection,) the bishop invests the chaplains with power to confess and absolve, even in such cases as were usually reserved for himself alone. Every leper on his admission was obliged to take an oath of chastity, of obedience to the abbess and convent of Barking, not to possess any thing in propriety, (that is, to his own use,) and to observe all the statutes of the hospital. It appears that at this time there were two masters, the one elected from among the lepers, and called magister leprosus, and the other magister secularis, a kind of steward to manage the secular concerns of the hospital (fn. 211). One of these, I suppose, was originally called the Prior.
The patronage of the hospital at Ilford was confirmed to the abbess of Barking by Richard II. and Henry IV. (fn. 212)
In the year 1504, this hospital was possessed of the tithes of Eastbury, Westbury, and Loxford; a portion of the tithes of Warley; a portion of the tithes of Jenkins, Clayberry, Wyfields, and some other estates in Barking; besides lands, houses, and quit-rents to a considerable amount principally in this parish (fn. 213). At the dissolution of religious houses its revenues were valued at 16l. 1s. 6½d. clear of all deductions, after paying the pensions of the paupers, of whom there were then only two. The hospital and its revenues having been seized by the crown, Queen Elizabeth, in the year 1572, granted the site, with the lands and tithes thereto belonging, to Thomas Fanshaw, Esq. remembrancer of the Exchequer, his heirs and assigns, on condition that they should appoint a master who should keep the chapel in repair, together with apartments for six paupers, each of whom should receive a pension of 2l. 5s. per annum; and that he should nominate and maintain a chaplain to perform divine service in the chapel. The hospital estate, thus charged, descended to Thomas Fanshaw, Visc. Dromore, who, in 1668, granted a lease of it for 1000 years to Thomas Allen, Gent. Mr. Allen bequeathed this estate, anno 1676, to James Clement, who conveyed it, in 1690, to Francis Stone, Gent. William Stone, in 1700, aliened it to William Riggs; from whom, in 1702, it passed to Terry Sturgeon; from him to William Houghton; and from the latter, the same year, to John Thrale, whose widow Margaret, in 1705, sold it to her son-in-law Christopher Waldron. It was purchased of the Waldrons, in 1739, by Crisp Gascoyne, Alderman of London, grandfather of Bamber Gascoyne, Esq. the present proprietor (fn. 214), and master of the hospital.
It was determined by a decree of the court of Exchequer (anno 1711), that there were 1200 acres of land in Barking which should pay tithe to the hospital; that there was a quit-rent of 1l. 13s. 4d. due to it out of Clayberry, 2l. per annum out of Barking mills, and 2l. out of the vicarage (fn. 215). Since this decree, the tithes of Westbury have been separated from the hospital, having been left by Sir Crisp Gascoyne to his younger son Joseph Gascoyne, Esq.
The hospital stands on the north side of the road, in the town of Ilford. It occupies three sides of a small quadrangle. On the east and west sides are apartments for the pensioners, which are small and neat. On the south side is the chapel, which (though it has undergone many alterations and repairs) bears evident marks of having been built as early as the 15th century. It is about 100 feet in length, and little more than 20 in width. In the east window are several coats of arms, in stained glass (fn. 216). On the floor, near the east end, are the tombs of Mrs. Sarah Westcoat, 1717; Sarah, her daughter, wife of the Rev. Thomas Shortland, 1718; the Rev. Robert Addison, preacher at Ilford chapel, 1736; and the Rev. George Downing, M. A. (the late chaplain), 1778.
In a register of baptisms, burials, and marriages, in Ilford chapel, was the following entry (fn. 217) :
"Sr Ferdinando Fairfax, and Mrs. Mary Sheffield, daughter to my Ld Sheffield, were married in this chapel, in Nov. 1608, by Mr. Coke, Ld Sheffield's Chaplain; Mr. Crawshaw, his other chaplain, preached; they had a licence from the Court of Faculties, subscribed by Dr Newman, to be married in this chapel, without asking the banns."