Calendar of Letter-Books of the City of London: K, Henry VI. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1911.
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"This indenture made betwene Geffrey Feldyng Mair of the Citee of London and the Cominaltie of the same Citee on that one partie and John Fray Richard Riche John Middeltone Thomas Walsyngham John Burtone and 'Rogier' Byrkes Executors of the testament of Sir William Estfeld knyght late Alderman of the same Citee on that other partye Witnesseth that where the said Maire and Cominalte arne possessed and seased of a Conduyt hede wyth diverse Springes of water gedered and conveyed in to the same in the paryshe of Padyngton (fn. 1) in the shire of Midd' and from the whiche conduyt hede the water therof is conveied by pipes of lede toward London unto a place called Tyburne in the same Shire and no ferther as yette and there it hath leyn the space of vj yeere and more and yette doth the water of the which conduyt the forsaid John Fray Richard Riche John Middeltone Thomas Walsyngham John Burtone and Roger Byrkes to the worship of godde and wele of the Cominaltie of the said Citee of theire owne free will be in full purpose by the grace of god wyth the goodes of the said Sir William Estfeld wyth the good help and supportac'on of the said Maire and Cominaltie and here Successours to conveye and brynge by pypes of leede in to a pipe of leede which is bygoune and leyde beside the grete conduyt hede at Maryburne in the same Shire and so streccheth from thens unto the sesperalle (fn. 2) late made and sett ayenst the chapell of Seint Mary of Rouncevale beside Charynge Crosse and no ferther and from thens the said executours with the goodes of the said Sir William Estfeld wolle conveye the said water by pipes of lede into the forsaid Citee and there make Resceit or Resceites Sespirall or sespiralles vente or ventes for the said water and dispose the said water in certain place or places wythynne the same Citee aftre their discrecioun unto the co'ne wele and profite of the Cominalte of the said Citee if the said Executours mowen have the good wille helpe and supportacioun of the said Maire and Cominalte and their Successours in these premisses Wherfore the said Maire and Cominaltie consideryng the good wille and purpose of the forsaid executours gyffe and graunten unto the said John Fray Richard Riche John Middeltone Thomas Walsyngham John Burtone and 'Rogier' Birkes alle the said water and conduit and every parte therof for to be by theim conveyed made disposed and sette in manere and fourme as above is declared and also the forsaid Maire and Cominaltie for hem and her Successours graunten to the said John Fray Richard Riche John Middeltone Thomas Walsyngham John Burtone and 'Rogier' Birkes Executours aforesaid by this indenture that they nor here Successours shall not chaunge turne nor conveye the said water and Conduite nor no parcell therof in or to other place but onely suffre the said water and conduite to abide and continue in suche place or places as by the said Executours or eny of hem shall be made conveyed sette and disposed in the fourme aforesaid And to all these covenauntes grauntes and condic'ons above rehersed and everich of them on the partie of the said Maire and Cominalte and of their Successours well and trewely to be holden fulfilled and kept the same Maire and Cominalte bynde hem and here Successours unto the said John Fray Richard Riche John Middeltone Thomas Walsyngham John Burtone and Roger Birkes in M (fn. 3) li sterling In witnesse of which thinges to the one partie of this Indenture remaynyng towards the said John Fray Richard Riche John Middeltone Thomas Walsyngham John Burtone and Roger Birkes the said Maire and Cominaltie of one assent and will have sette their comune seall (fn. 3) And to the other partie of the said indenture towards the said Maire and Co'ialte remaynyng the said John Fray Richard Riche John Middeltone Thomas Walsyngham John Burtone and Roger Birkes have sette their seales Yovene at London in the vigile of the Apposteles Simon and Jude [28 Oct.] In the yeer of the reign of Kyng Henry the Sixte after the conquest xxxijt" (fn. 4) [A.D. 1453].
Folio 271 b-272 *.
From time immemorial the custom of Pesage had always existed in the City whereby every freeman baker was bound to deliver his corn by weight to the miller to be ground, and also to see that the flour produced therefrom corresponded in weight, paying to the Mayor or Warden of the City for the time being the sum of one halfpenny for every quarter of corn and a farthing for every half quarter, and to the miller for grinding three pence a quarter, &c. (fn. 5)
King Edward I. directed a writ to the Mayor and Sheriffs, dated 28 Nov., in the tenth year of his reign [A.D. 1281], commanding that corn sent to millers and flour produced therefrom should correspond in weight. (fn. 6) Thereupon it was decreed by the Mayor and the Sheriffs with the assent of the Commonalty that weights and balances for weighing corn and flour should be provided thenceforth by the Mayor, and houses hired for weighing therein, as well as men appointed for making "pesage," and that every freeman baker should pay the Mayor a halfpenny for weighing a quarter of corn and a farthing a half quarter to defray expenses. (fn. 7)
The above confirmed by letters patent dated 20 March, 1 Edward III. [A.D. 1326-7], and ordinances to similar effect were passed by the Common Council held on Tuesday, the 16th Jan., 31 Henry VI. [A.D. 1452-3], (fn. 8) and 8 Oct., 32 Henry VI. [A.D. 1453]. (fn. 9) Afterwards, viz., on the 4th Sept., 32 Henry VI. [A.D. 1453], (fn. 10) proceedings were taken by Geoffrey Feldyng, the Mayor, in the Court of the lord the King held at the Guildhall, before Richard Lee, one of the Sheriffs, against John "Barkeby," baker, for refusing to pay the dues for weighing, contrary to the ordinance. A jury found for the plaintiff for sum claimed with damages.
In similar manner the said Mayor took proceedings on the same day against John "Mabewe," Thomas Fuller, John Wyndesore, William Hebold, Arnold Horn, Richard Blythe, John Hayne, William Bird, Edmund Stonard, and Thomas Alford, bakers. In the course of the proceedings the above John Barkby produced in Court the King's writ to the Sheriffs, dated 16 Oct. [A.D. 1453], bidding them to bring up into the Chancery the said John Barkby, and also Richard Blythe, John Heyne, William Bird, Edmund Stonard, and Thomas Alford, bakers, together with particulars of their arrest and detention. Thereupon the said Richard Lee, Sheriff, Thomas Billyng the Recorder, Thomas Ursewik the Common Serjeant, and Thomas Burgoyne and Roger Birkes, Under Sheriffs, appeared in Chancery, when the matter was referred for trial before the King's Justices and the Custos Rotulorum on the eve of All Saints [1 Nov.] next.
Accordingly, on that day there appeared John Norman, the Mayor, (fn. 11) Stephen Broun, Simon Eyre, John Hathirle, William Gregory, Geoffrey Feldyng, Robert Horn, Stephen Forster, John Derby, William Abraham, William "Marwe," William Hulyn, Christopher Warter, Richard "Alle," Richard Lee, Matthew Philip, Aldermen, and John Walden and Thomas Cook, the Sheriffs, together with counsel on behalf of both parties, before John Fortescu, Knt., Chief Justice of the King's Bench, John Prisot, Chief Justice of Common Pleas, John Markham, William Yelverton, and Robert Danvers, Justices, and Master John Kyrkeby, the Custos Rotulorum, in the Exchequer Chamber, and both parties having been heard, judgment was given in favour of the Mayor, &c., (fn. 12) and on the 12th Dec. following the said bakers, as also Richard Botiller, John Bythewater, Symon Staresmore, Robert Bradowe, John Short, William Lewes, Richard White, John Totewell, David Breknok, Henry Norbury, William Copeland, William Chestre, Henry Pikeman, Robert Bird, Thomas Fuller, John Brok, Richard Clarence, Robert George, and Johanna Page, widow, bakers, came into the Court of the Chamber before the Mayor and Aldermen and made submission, (fn. 13) &c. [ends abruptly].
[Folios. 272 * b blank.]
Folio 273-273 b.
Whereas Roger Niger, formerly Bishop of London, had ordained that every parishioner of the City should make an offering on specified days in his parish church, according to the value of his house, for the maintenance of the clergy, (fn. 14) and this ordinance had long been observed both by Rectors and Curates, and also by the citizens, until certain curates, dissatisfied with the liberal provision made for them, as is their custom (quatenus in eis est), obtained further concessions from Thomas Arundel, late Archbishop of Canterbury, confirmed by Pope Innocent [VII.], whereby citizens were greatly prejudiced, an attempt was made by John Norman, the Mayor, the Aldermen, and citizens, to effect a compromise, and for a time peace was restored. Now, however, certain curates having declared that they had received an apostolic letter from the Court of Rome (fn. 15) prejudicial to the Mayor, Aldermen, and parishioners of the City, the said Mayor and Aldermen, with the assent of the citizens in Common Council assembled on the 12th March, anno 32 Henry VI. [A.D. 1453-4], agreed to visit the Bishop of London (fn. 16) and consult him on the matter. They accordingly saw him on the morrow at St. Paul's, when Thomas Billyng, the Recorder, on behalf of the Mayor and Aldermen, laid the whole matter before him, and asked to be furnished with a copy of the alleged apostolic letter. The Bishop readily gave his approval, but no such copy had been obtainable in spite of every effort. At length the Bishop, hoping to deceive the Mayor, sent a servant asking him to attend in the afternoon at St. Paul's to talk over the matter. The Mayor accordingly, with joyful heart, went to the church, and in a little chapel near the Consistory Court to the south of the church was met by the Bishop, who said to the Mayor, "Sir Mayor (domine Maior), (fn. 17) certain citizens have often been to me and asked to have a copy of a certain Papal bill lately obtained by the Curates of the City and I know not" [ends abruptly].
The Feast of St. Matthew [21 Sept.], 32 Henry VI. [A.D. 1453], in the presence of Geoffrey "Fildyng," the Mayor, Thomas Billyng the Recorder, John Atherlee, Simon Eyre, John Olney, Nicholas Wifold, William Gregory, John Norman, Stephen Forster, Thomas Canynges, John Derby, William Abraham, William Hulyn, Christopher Warter, Richard Alley, Richard Lee, Thomas Scot, and William Dere, Aldermen, and very many Commoners summoned to the Guildhall for the election of Sheriffs for the year ensuing, John Walden, grocer, was elected one of the Sheriffs of London and Middlesex by the Mayor, and Thomas Cook, junior, draper, was elected the other Sheriff by the Commonalty.
The same day John Sturgeon, mercer, was elected Chamberlain; Thomas Cook, senior, and Thomas Davy, tailor, were elected Wardens of London Bridge; Richard Lee, Thomas Scot, Aldermen, Ralph Verney, William Chattok, John Maldone, and William Latoner, Commoners, were elected Auditors of the accounts of the said Chamberlain and Wardens.
Afterwards, viz., on the eve of St. Michael [29 Sept.], the said Sheriffs were sworn at the Guildhall, and on the morrow of the said Feast were presented, admitted, and accepted, &c., before the Barons of the Exchequer.
The Feast of the Translation of St. Edward [13 Oct.], the same year, in the presence of Geoffrey Felding, the Mayor, Thomas Billyng the Recorder, the Prior of Christchurch, Henry Frowik, Stephen Broun, John Hatherle, John Olney, Simon Eyre, Nicholas Wifold, William Gregory, John Norman, Robert Horn, Stephen Forster, John Derby, Thomas Canynges, Thomas Scot, William Cantelowe, William Abraham, William Marowe, William Hulyn, Matthew Philip, Christopher Warter, William Dere, Richard Alley, Geoffrey Boleyn, Aldermen, and an immense Commonalty summoned to the Guildhall for the election of a Mayor for the year ensuing, John Norman was elected. Afterwards, viz., on the Feast of SS. Simon and Jude [28 Oct.], he was sworn at the Guildhall, and on the morrow was presented, admitted, and accepted before the Barons of the Exchequer.
Folio 274 b.
The Feast of St. Matthew [21 Sept.], 33 Henry VI. [A.D. 1454], a proposal by John Derby, Alderman, to be discharged from his Aldermanry, (fn. 18) on payment of £50, considered by the Common Council, and further consideration adjourned. On the 19th Oct. following, his proposal was accepted, with great regret, and it was resolved that he might continue to wear his gown, not as a judge (judex) nor as an Alderman, but for the purpose of keeping him warm in severe weather, and that every token of respect should continue to be shown to him.
Inspeximus charter of Henry VI. to the town of "Maudone." (fn. 19) Dated Westminster, 8 April, anno 32 [A.D. 1454]. It inspects (inter alia) a charter granted to the same town by King Henry II. at the instance of W[illiam] de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, and dated at Pembroke, 7 Oct. [s.a.]. (fn. 20)
Folio 275 b.
"Forasmuche as amonges oþer many full commodiouse and notable franchieses and free libertees graunted unto þe Mair and Citeseins of þis Cite of London and to their successours for ev'more by þe noble progenitours of þe King our sovereigne lord þat nowe is and by hym graciously confermed, and aswele by auctorite of many and sundry parlementz accepted approved Ratefied and confermed it is conteygned þat no maner persone enfranchiesed in þe said Cite shuld emplete nor pursue any maner acc'on ayenst any oþer persone enfranchiesed of þe same without þe liberte þerof Whiles or if he myght have þerof any right or lawe herewithin, Wherunto every suche persone enfranchiesed was sworn in especial when he was first admytted into franchise and liberte aforseid. And eke how among othir of þe saide franchises & libertees it is conteyned þt what maner persone so enfranchiesed of þe said Cite go or do ayenst the state þerof or ayenst þe othe þat he made when he was admytted into þe Franchiese of þe same Citee he shall forfaite & leese his liberte forseid And by asmuche as diverse suche persones now adayes so enfranchiesed in þe same Citee not havyng considerac'on unto þe premisses nor duely regarding their othe made in þis behalf þe more pitee is, enforcen them fro day to daye to pursue and emplete oþer Conciteseins of þe saide Cite withoute þe liberte therof for suche maters and causes of acc'on wherof þey myght have þeir right & lawe herewithin, in emblemysshing and breche of þe seid libertees & franchieses & in comon hurt of þe same Cite in sondry wises. Therfore John Norman Mair and thaldermen with þe full assent of þe Comons of þe saide Citee in their comon counsell holden in þe Guildehall of London þe ix daie of August the xxxiith yeer of þe reigne of King Herry the sexth [A.D. 1454] in conservac'on of þe seid libertees and franchieses have provided establisshed and ordeyned þat if any suche persone enfranchiesed in þe saide Cite from hensforth Do emplete or sue oute of þe liberte of þe same Cite any acc'on or acc'ons ayenst any oþer persone so beyng enfraunchiesed in þe same Cite Wherof he may have lawe and right herewithin and þe same suter at þe complaynte of þe partie so sued be comaunded by þe Mair of this Cite for þe tyme beyng to relinquisshe and withdrawe any suche sute or acc'on taken or hangyng and do not, that then he forfaite and leese his saide franchise and over þat satisfie þe partie so sued of his costes and damages born susteyned & hadde by enchesoun of þe seid foreyn sute or acc'on And neverthelesse to make a fyne unto þe Chamber for þe contempt according to þe discrecc'on of þe Mair and thaldermen of þe seid Cite for þe tyme beyng."
The King's letters of protection for William Dekene, "armorer," who was in the retinue of Gervase Clyftone, Knt., Treasurer of the town of Calais. Witness the King at Westminster, 11 Feb., 33 Henry VI. [A.D. 1454-5].
Folio 276 b.
24 Feb., 33 Henry VI. [A.D. 1454-5], came the Wardens and good men of the Mistery of Horners into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, before Stephen Forster, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, and presented the following petition:-
"To the right honurable and good lord the Mair and worshipfull soveraignes thaldermen of the Citee of London Besechen in right humble wise the good Folkes of the mistier of horners enfraunchised of this Citee that your good graces will ordeign and graunte that the pointes and articles hereafter folowyng in writyng may be affermed establisshed and enrolled afore you to remayne of Record perpetuelly for the grete wele and proffite of your said besechers and for the honeste of the said mistier
" First in asmoche as the makyng of hornes and other werke perteignyng unto their said mistier beth not profitely hadd nor conned in eny Region or place of the world except in this land onely which causeth the people of other londes and places to resorte and repaire unto this Citee for hornes yeerly unto the grete proffite and worshipe of the same Citee, where as yef suche people of straunge londes myght clierly and profitely understonde the konnyng and fete of makyng of suche englisshe hornes wold not hider repaire yeerly to bye suche englisshe chaffar'. In considerac'on wherof it like youre sadd wisdoms to ordeign and graunte that no manere of persone of the said craft wythin this Citee or the libertees of the same from hensforth do make nor werke eny werke belongyng to the said craft to eny other persone to give him knoweleche and lernyng of the fete and science of the same craft but yef he have beene apprentice and freman made by apprenticialite of the same craft withine this Citee before tyme upone peyne to forfaite and paye unto the Chaumber of the yeldhalle xiijs. iiijd. and to the forsaid craft vjs. viijd. as oft tymes as he may be founde doyng the contrarie therof
"Item in eschuyng of the grete and corrupt stenche and grevous noyance of neyghbours before tymes caused in this Citee by bying and cuttyng of grene hornes oute of hides within this Citee to ordeign and graunte that no manere persone of the seide mistier from hensforth take upon him to kutte or do kutte eny hornes from such hides in eny of the bocheries or elles where wtin the libertee of this Citee nor bye or do bye eny suche hornes in the bones nor oute of the bones of eny bocher or bochers man or elles where within the liberte of this Citee but yef they be oute of the bones upone peyne aforesaid
"Item for the conservac'on of the good peas accord and unite betwix the people of the said craft hereafter It can please you also to ordeign and graunte that no manere persone of the said craft do revile or rebuke or utter eny vilonious wordes or dishonest and unsittyng [sic] langage to eny other persone of the said craft upon peyne to forfaite and paye unto the said Chaumber iijs. iiijd. and xxd. unto the said craft as oft tymes as eny suche persone shall be lawefully convict of doyng the contrarie."
The above articles approved subject to amendment. (fn. 21)
[Fos. 277, 277 b blank.]
31 Oct., A.D. 1454, adjudication made by Thomas Tyrell, Knt., and Thomas Billyng, Serjeant-at-law, acting as arbitrators in a dispute between the City of London and merchants of Genoa touching the payment of "Scawage," to the effect that all merchants of Genoa should pay in respect of such custom a yearly sum of £28 for their merchandise brought to the City from Southampton.
This adjudication was laid before the Lords of the Council on the 3rd December and ordered to be placed on record; and the same was approved by the Mayor, Sheriffs, and Commonalty under the Common Seal of the City on the 20th February, A.D. 1454.
Folio 278 b.
Saturday the Feast of St. Matthew [21 Sept.], 33 Henry VI. [A.D. 1454], in the presence of John Norman, the Mayor, Thomas Billyng the Recorder, the Prior of Christchurch, Henry Frowik, Stephen Broun, John Hatherle, William Gregory, Simon Eyre, John Olney, Geoffrey "Fildyng," Robert Horn, Stephen Forster, Thomas Scot, Thomas Canynges, William Cantelowe, William Hulyn, William Marowe, William Abraham, Richard Alley, William Dere, Geoffrey Boleyn, Matthew Philip, Richard Lee, and John Derby, Aldermen, and very many Commoners summoned to the Guildhall for the election of Sheriffs for the year ensuing, William Taillour, grocer, was elected one of the Sheriffs of London and Middlesex by the Mayor, and John Feld, fishmonger, was elected the other Sheriff by the Commonalty.
The same day Thomas Thorntone, draper, was elected Chamberlain; Thomas Cook, senior, draper, and Thomas Davy, tailor, were elected Wardens of London Bridge; William Hulyn, Richard Lee, Aldermen, Ralph Verney, William Chattok, Thomas Wynslowe, and John Plummer, Commoners, were elected Auditors of the accounts in arrear of the Chamberlain and Wardens.
Afterwards, viz., on the eve of St. Michael [29 Sept.], the said Sheriffs were sworn at the Guildhall, and on the morrow of the said Feast were presented, admitted, and accepted before the Barons of the Exchequer.
Acquittance by Stephen Forster, Mayor, and William Taillour and John Feld, the Sheriffs, to certain merchants of Janua for the sum of £14 in part payment of a yearly sum of £28 due to the City by merchants of Genoa for the custom on goods passing to the City from the port of Southampton called "Scawage." Dated 3 March, 33 Henry VI. [A.D. 1454-5].
The Feast of Translation of St. Edward [13 Oct.], 33 Henry VI. [A.D. 1454], in the presence of John Norman, the Mayor, Thomas Billyng the Recorder, the Prior of Christchurch, Henry Frowik, Stephen Broun, John Hatherlee, Simon Eyre, John Olney, William Gregory, Geoffrey Feldyng, Robert Horne, Stephen Forster, Thomas Canynges, Thomas Scot, William Cantelowe, William Abraham, William Marowe, William Hulyn, Matthew Philip, Christopher Warter, William Dere, Richard Alley, and Richard Lee, Aldermen, and an immense Commonalty summoned to the Guildhall for the election of a Mayor for the year ensuing, Stephen Forster was by the grace of the Holy Spirit elected. Afterwards, viz., on the Feast of SS. Simon and Jude [28 Oct.], he was sworn at the Guildhall, and on the morrow was presented, admitted, and accepted, &c., before the Barons of the Exchequer.
Folio 279 b.
28 Jan., 33 Henry VI. [A.D. 1454-5], came Richard Brid or Bridde, draper, Ralph Josselyn, draper, Thomas Ryles, draper, and William Baldewyn, "sherman," into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, before Stephen Forster, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, and entered into bond with Thomas Thorntone, the Chamberlain, in the sum of £20, the same to be void on condition the said Richard Brid pays a like sum to the Chamberlain as soon as William, son of John Dommere, who had been bound apprentice to the said Richard, and to whom the money belongs, shall have come of age.
3 March, 33 Henry VI. [A.D. 1454-5], came Henry Belle, salter, Robert Basset, salter, Andrew Kebelle, "gentilman," William Rose, "irmonger," and Peter Draper, "irmonger," into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, before Stephen Forster, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, and entered into bond with Thomas Thorntone, the Chamberlain, in the sum of £10 [condition of bond not recorded].
6 March, the same year, came William Sevester, John Seymour, John Shilley, and John Chambre, mercers, into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, and entered into bond with Thomas Thorntone, the Chamberlain, in the sum of £10, the same to be void on condition the said William Sevester, who married Elizabeth, late wife of Roger Hawardyn, late draper, pays a like sum in Court to the Chamberlain as soon as Johanna, daughter of the said Roger, shall have come of age, the money being her patrimony.
Folio 280 b.
Monday, 10 March, 30 [sic] (fn. 22) Henry VI., came Nicholas Broke, "wodemonger," John Sturgeon, mercer, Thomas Rykes, mercer, Richard Everle, mercer, and William Elmet, dyer, into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, before Stephen Forster, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, and entered into bond with Thomas Thorntone, the Chamberlain, in the sum of 80 marks, for the payment of the like sum by the said Nicholas Broke to the Chamberlain for the time being, when William, son of William Broke, late "waxchaundeler," shall have come of age, the money being the orphan's patrimony. (fn. 23)
Folio 280 b-281.
Letters patent commissioning the Keepers of the peace and Sheriffs of the City to search for and make a return of all foreigners liable to the alien tax granted by the Parliament held at Reading on the 6th March, 31 Henry VI. [A.D. 1452-3], to the King for life. (fn. 24) Witness the King at Westminster, 12 Nov., 33 Henry VI. [A.D. 1454].
Folio 281 b.
Mandamus to the Mayor and Sheriffs to bring up the body of John "Mabywe," baker, detained in prison, and certify the cause of his detention. Witness the King at Saltwode, 8 Sept., 34 Henry VI. [A.D. 1455].
Return made to the above to the effect that the said John "Mabywe" had been committed to prison for refusing to pay "pesage" for grinding and weighing his corn and flour, (fn. 25) and for using opprobrious language, but that his body should be brought up pursuant to the King's writ.