Calendar of Letter-Books of the City of London: H, 1375-1399. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1907.
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Extract from the will of John Croydone, fishmonger, (fn. 1) appointing (inter alia) his wife Elena to be guardian of Elena his daughter, and devising to them property in the parish of St Magnus and elsewhere in the City.
Wednesday the morrow of the Exaltation of H Cross [14 Sept.], 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], a grant was made, with the assent of the Mayor, Aldermen, and good men of divers misteries of the City summoned as a Common Council, to William Wircestre and Philip Waleworthe, Serjeants of the Chamber, of all houses and buildings over the gate of Ludgate, together with the custody of the said gate so long as they remained in office, one condition of the grant being to the effect that if the gate became a free prison (fn. 2) (liberam prisonam) the Chamberlain for the time being should provide manacles, chains, and other necessary implements at the City's expense.
Folio xci b.
Writ to the Sheriffs for the election of four citizens to attend a Parliament to be held at Gloucester on Wednesday after the Feast of St. Luke [18 Oct.]. (fn. 3) No Sheriff of London or any other Sheriff of the realm to be returned. (fn. 4) Witness the King at Westminster, 3 Sept., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378].
Saturday the Feast of St. Bartholomew [24 Aug.], 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], came good men of the mistery of Fishmongers and others and informed Nicholas Brembre, the Mayor, that no small affray had arisen in the street within Ludgate, at the hour of Mass, for that certain misdoers, viz., William Leyke, "principal," Henry Lincoln, Henry Cleme, John Mendone, William Sporle, Hugh Plomer, John Salesbury, "pelter," and William Man, had broken into the house of a fishmonger called Clement Lavender and forcibly expelled him, and would not allow him nor his wife nor family to enter. Thereupon the Mayor visited the scene and committed the offenders to Neugate.
Afterwards it was adjudged by the said Mayor, and William Walworth, Adam Stable, John Phelippot, John Hadlee, John Organ, Andrew Pykeman, John Vyne, William Badby, Thomas Reynham, John Kyrketone, and John Estone, Aldermen, that the above William Leyke should be committed to Neugate. The sentence was afterwards commuted to one of forty days, the same sentence being passed on the rest of the offenders At the end of the term they came and gave surety for good behaviour, John Salesbury being mainprised by Thomas Sergeant and Andrew Willy.
Writ to the Mayor and Sheriffs to make proclamation for the due observance of an agreement made between the King and Louis, Count of Flanders, to the effect that Flemish merchants may traffic freely with England, provided they do not surreptitiously load their ships with French or Spanish merchandise Witness the King at Westminster, 1 Aug., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378].
Record of proceedings againSt. Nicholas Twyford, one of the Sheriffs, for rebelling againSt. Nicholas Brembre, the Mayor, in a matter arising out of an affray between certain Goldsmiths and Pepperers in Westchepe on Sunday the Feast of SS. Perpetua and Felicitas [7 March], 1 Richard II. [A.D. 1377-8]. (fn. 5)
Folio xcii b.
John Chichestre, Robert Lucas, Robert Launde, John Coraunt, Adam Bamme, and John Fraunceys become sureties for Nicholas Twyford, who also entered into a bond in the sum of 500 marks with William Eynesham, the Chamberlain, for future good behaviour in his office, &c.
Afterwards, viz., on the 5th March, 5 Richard II. [A.D. 1381-2], in consequence of the good behaviour of the said Nicholas, it was agreed by John de Norhamptone, the Mayor, William Waleworth, Nicholas Brembre, and John Phelipot, Knts, William Cheyne, the Recorder, Thomas Cornwaleys, John Bosham, and other Aldermen [not named], and divers Commoners of the misteries summoned as a Common Council, that the above recognizance should be annulled.
Be it remembered that in a congregation of the Common Council of the City of London held on Thursday before the Feast of St. Michael [29 Sept.], 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], a book of ordinances (liber de ordinacionibus) was read, and because it appeared that certain articles required fuller explanation the said Common Council elected John Hoo, John Estone, and Robert Launde, Aldermen, Henry Herburi, William Culham, Matthew Passelewe, John Dony, and William Houghtone, Commoners, to confer about the same with the thirty-six persons previously elected by the Common Council, whose names appear supra on fo. lxxvii of this book, (fn. 6) and to amend the ordinances contained in the book, and this was done so that they unanimously agreed to the articles as written in the book.
The same day William Cheyne, the Recorder, complained to the Common Council, as he had often done before, that whereas on his appointment to the office of Recorder the enrolments of deeds and wills were promised to be of the yearly value of £10 at least, they scarcely amounted to that sum; he therefore prayed that compensation might be made to him from some other quarter, in order that he might live as became his position, more especially as an ordinance had been recently (noviter) made since he entered office to the effect that no Recorder should receive any fee or robes from any strange lord (forinseco domino) or otherwise, whereby the profits of the office had been diminished. (fn. 7) The Common Council thereupon referred his petition to those who had previously been elected to consider the above ordinances, and they decreed that besides the fee of £40 per annum and clothing, as mentioned in the book of ordinances, the Recorder should receive yearly 40 marks from the Chamber in lieu of fees for enrolments, and that fees for enrolments in Hustings (in Hustengis) should thenceforth remain to the use of the Commonalty.
Letter complaining of merchants of Almaine having been deprived of their accustomed privileges in England and of being molested by citizens of London, and desiring the City to use its good offices with the King to secure better treatment, otherwise it will behove the said merchants to cease to visit England. Dated at Dantzic, Saturday the Feast of Corpus Christi [17 June], A.D. 1378.
Letter under the seal of the Mayoralty of the City in reply to the above, setting forth (inter alia) that the privileges of the merchants of Almaine had been suspended by order of the Parliament at Westminster (fn. 8) on account of injuries inflicted by them on the King's subjects at "Scone" and elsewhere in their dominions Dated 13 Aug., A.D. 1378.
Folio xciii b.
Another letter addressed "by the Consuls of the common sea-board cities, your humble servants, assembled for pleas at Stralessund on the date hereof," to the Mayor, "Consuls," and Commonalty of the City, complaining of ill-treatment of merchants of Almaine, and praying their good offices with the King. Dated at "Stralessund," Sunday before Pentecost [6 June].
1 Sept., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], Richard Spink and Thomas Halywell, skinners, and Thomas Lacford and William Horscroft, surveyors of the mistery of Skinners, made a presentment before Nicholas Brembre, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, to the effect that they had discovered in the cellar of Henry Hydynghous, of the Company of Teutonics of the Hanse, certain bellies of "Bievre" which were deceitfully mixed with false bellies, for whereas according to custom such skins for sale should be entire and not cut, and bellies without backs, the said Henry had offered for sale in his cellar in "la Roperie" certain bundles in which half-bellies (medii ventres) were mixed with whole bellies, to the deceit of the purchasers The bundles examined before the Mayor and Aldermen and the offender questioned, with the result that the half-bellies (dimidii ventres) were confiscated, and the rest were delivered up to the said Henry, who was spared imprisonment, inasmuch as he had confessed that the purchasers of the bellies knew as well as he did that they consisted of half-bellies mixed with whole bellies.
Tuesday the Feast of St. Matthew [21 Sept.], 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], in the presence of Nicholas Brembre, the Mayor, William Cheyne, the Recorder, William Walworth, John Haddele, Robert Launde, Adam St. Yve, Geoffrey Neutone, William Badby, John Hoo, Andrew Pykeman, Nicholas Twyford, John Organ, John Estone, John Kyrketone, Thomas Reynham, John Vyne, William (John ?) Clyvele, William Knyghtcote, Robert Warbultone, and John Rote, Aldermen, and an immense Commonalty summoned to the Guildhall for the election of Sheriffs, John Boseham and Thomas Cornewaleys were elected Sheriffs for the year ensuing, viz., John Boseham by the Mayor, and Thomas Cornewaleys by the Commonalty.
The same day [viz., 21 Sept.] Robert Warbultone and Adam "de" St. Ive, Aldermen, and William Baret, William Kyng, Thomas Welford, and William More, "vynter," Commoners, were elected auditors of the Chamber and of the Wardens of London Bridge.
The same day John Salesbury, John Cherche, Richard Waldene, Thomas Stowe, and Walter Godard, Serjeants of the Sheriffs, sworn into office; and on Saturday after the Feast of SS. Simon and Jude [28 Oct.] Henry Traynell and Thomas Purlee, Serjeants of the Sheriffs, likewise sworn.
Folio xciv b.
On the 20th Jan., 1 Richard II. [A.D. 1377-8], the said William, the late Chamberlain, received from the executors of Peter Whappelode, "taillour" and "draper," the sum of 40 marks in trust for Peter, son of the aforesaid Peter, which sum he likewise delivered to his successor.
On the 31st July, 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], the said William, the late Chamberlain, received from the executors of William Stodeye the sum of £58 and 15 pence in trust for Agnes, daughter of the said William Stodeye, which sum he likewise delivered to his successor.
On the 12th Oct., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], William, the late Chamberlain, delivered to his successor a sum of money and certain jewels belonging to Alice, daughter of John Reyner, as appears supra, fo. xxi [b]; also a sum of money in trust for the children of Thomas Skynnere, as appears supra, fo. xviii; also a sum of money which William Hubert bequeathed for the fabric of a "barbican" without Aldersgate, as appears supra, fo. xxxiii [b]. Touching the sum of 10 marks received by the said William Eynesham belonging to the children of Robert Berewyk, it is delivered to the aforesaid John Ussher, the present Chamberlain, as appears supra, fo. lmo.
Be it remembered that on Thursday before the Feast of St. Matthew [21 Sept.], 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], in a congregation of the Mayor and Aldermen, John Usshere was elected Chamberlain of the City loco William Eynesham, late Chamberlain, and on the eve of St. Michael [29 Sept.] was sworn into office.
20 Oct., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], came Michael, one of the sons of Richard de Westm[inster ?], marshal (marescallus), before the Mayor and Aldermen, and, being of full age, claimed a moiety of his father's property, the other moiety having been left to John his brother The said brother being now dead, and the father's property having been apportioned by Richard Knouseleghe, John le Fourbour, John Walsam, Richard Walwayn, and Robert de York, the said Michael further claimed a moiety of his deceased brother's property in accordance with the terms of the said father's will. The property delivered by Edmund [Wymondeswolde], Rector of the church of St. John the Evangelist, and one of the executors of Richard [de] Westm[inster].
Saturday after the Feast of SS. Simon and Jude [28 Oct.], 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], it was ordained by John Phelipot, the Mayor, the Aldermen, and the Common Council, that John Maynard, "wexchaundeler," and others, who had offended the Earl of Buk[enham] and his servants, for which offence Nicholas Brembre, then Mayor, had been impeached before the Parliament at Gloucester, and had paid the said Earl a large sum of money, (fn. 9) should be arrested and detained until compensation be made. (fn. 10)
Wednesday the Feast of Translation of St. Edward [13 Oct.], 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], in the presence of Nicholas Brembre, the Mayor, William Cheyne, the Recorder, William Walworth, John Haddele, Andrew Pykeman, Adam de St. Ive, John Organ, William Knyghtcote, Robert Warbultone, John Estone, William Badby, Geoffrey Neutone, John Rote, John "Kyrtone," John Clyvelee, John Vyne, John Hoo, Robert Launde, and Thomas Reynham, Aldermen, John Boseham and Thomas Cornewaleys, the Sheriffs, and an immense Commonalty summoned for the election of a Mayor for the year ensuing, John Phelippot was elected Mayor, and on the morrow of SS. Simon and Jude [28 Oct.] was presented, admitted, and sworn before the Treasurer and Barons of the Exchequer.
Grant by Gilbert de Lesnes, goldbeater, and John de Dallyngge, junior, mercer, executors of Agnes, widow of Alan de Brauncestre, late mercer (her will being proved and enrolled in the Husting on Monday the morrow of St Martin, anno 7 Edward II. (fn. 11) ), to John de Dallyngge, senior, mercer, of a certain messuage in Chepe, in the parish of St. Vedast, which the said Alan and Agnes had acquired from the executors of Thomas de Brauncestre, goldbeater, the said tenement being situate near tenements belonging to Richard de Annesbery, Hugh atte More, Nicholas le Convers, Robert le Convers, and Reginald de Cauntebrigge. Witnesses, Stephen de Abindone, Mayor, Ralph le Balauncer and William de Caustone, Sheriffs, Nicholas de Farendone, Alderman of the Ward, Henry de Gloucestre, William de Bodelee, Robert de Pipehurst, Simon de Parys, Hugh de Gartone, Roger de Lintone, Henry de Seccheford, Richard de Shordiche, Ralph de Blythe, Roger the Clerk, and others [not named]. Dated Tuesday after the Feast of St. Luke [18 Oct.], 10 Edward II. [A.D. 1316].
The above deed was produced in evidence on the 15th Oct., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], in a suit before Nicholas Brembre, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, between John Loveye, mercer, and Robert Lucas, goldsmith, in the presence of the said Mayor, William Cheyne, the Recorder, William Walworth, Adam Stable, John Haddele, John Organ, Adam de St. Ive, Robert Warbultone, Thomas Reynham, Nicholas Twyford, William Knyghtcote, John Rote, John "Kyrtone," John Hoo, William Badby, John Estone, John Clyvele, Aldermen, and was here recorded by request.
Folio xcv b.
Acquittance by Nicholas Brembre, the Mayor, the Aldermen, and the rest of the citizens, to William Eynesham, the late Chamberlain, on his account rendered for one year from Michaelmas, 1 Richard II. Dated in the Chamber of the Guildhall, 16 Oct., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378].
26 Oct., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], the guardianship of John, son of Richard atte Boure, late draper, aged eight years, and of Johanna, daughter of the same, aged seven years, together with a portion of their property, committed by John Phelipot, the Mayor, and John Ussher, the Chamberlain, to John Shalyngford, draper. Sureties, viz., Geoffrey Walderne, draper, and Robert de Louthe, "joynour".
Afterwards, viz., on the 22nd Oct., 4 Richard II. [A.D. 1380], the sum of £9 of the residue of the goods of Johanna, mother of the above children, was delivered to their guardian by John Hadle, the Mayor, and Richard Odyham, the Chamberlain. Sureties, viz., Robert Lyndeseye and Thomas Bridlyngtone.
Precept to the Aldermen that they ride to Westminster in parti-coloured clothing with the Mayor on the morrow of SS. Simon and Jude [28 Oct.], on which day he is to take his charge there, under penalty.
At a Common Council of the City held on Thursday before the Feast of St. Michael [29 Sept.], 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], the following custom was formally approved, viz., that when a freeman devises lands, tenements, and rents for the purpose of a chantry or other pious uses, the devise is good although at the time of the devise or at the testator's death there might be difficulties in carrying out its object owing to vagueness, &c., and although there be no clause of distress in case of nonexecution, &c.; but the intention of the testator is to be carried out according to sound reason. (fn. 12)
Letters patent appointing John de Cavendisshe, Robert Belknap, John Philipot, the Mayor, William Haldene, and William Cheyne, or any four, three, or two of them (the Mayor being one), to be Justices for gaol-delivery of Neugate. Witness the King at Westminster, 25 Nov., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378].
Folio xcvi b.
Articules given in charge to White-bakers (Pestours blanks) and "Tourtes" (fn. 13) which they are bound on oath to keep, viz. :—
First that every baker swear to charge his servants to boult their meal twice, that is to say (with) a large boulter and a smaller one, and that he will use his diligence to make his servants work well in "knedyng" as well as to keep the proper time for so doing (garder lour seisoun de la fesure).
Also that they bake not with water from the fountains, (fn. 14) under penalty ordained.
Also that no baker sell to Hucksters more than thirteen loaves for twelve, without gift or other "curtesye". (fn. 15)
Also that no horse bread be made except of pure beans and peas, without mixture of other grain or bran, under heavy penalty (sur peine vylein). (fn. 16)
Precept to the several Aldermen to inquire into the misdoings of bakers, brewers, hostelers, masons, carpenters, tilers, daubers, and other labourers in their Wards contrary to statute and ordinances, and to make a return of the same to the Chamberlain within eight days Dated 31 Jan., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378-9].
Be it remembered that on the 8th Nov., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], Thomas Knapet, Clerk of the Church of St. Peter the Less near Pouleswharf, was arrested by the Mayor and John Boseham, one of the Sheriffs, for having used abusive words touching the Duke of Lancaster in the house of John Shepeye and in the presence of Thomas Hiltone and other servants of the said John, and was thereupon committed to Neugate until he could purchase the Duke's favour and that of the City. He was afterwards released on surety. (fn. 17)
Proclamation made on Friday, the 19th Nov., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], regulating the making of bread under the superintendence of John Groos, fixing the price of divers kinds of wine, of lambs, charcoal, &c., and ordering the closing of butchers' shops at dusk. (fn. 18)
24 Nov., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], at a Common Council held in the Upper Chamber of the Guildhall touching certain matters moved in the last Parliament held at Gloucester, (fn. 19) there were elected John Phelipot, the Mayor, William Walworth, Adam Stable, Nicholas Brembre, John Hadlee, John Boseham, Adam de St. Ive, John Hoo, Richard Prestone, Robert Launde, John Organ, Nicholas Twyford, Robert Warbultone [Aldermen], Simon Aylesham, mercer, Richard Ayllesbury, grocer, John Norhampton, draper, Thomas Welford, fishmonger, Thomas Rolf, skinner, Thomas Medlane, vintner, Adam Bamme, goldsmith, John Furneux, "taillour," John Longe, senior, cordwainer, Reginald Colman, "ismonger," John Walsyngham, armourer, Thomas Mordone, chandler, and John Pountfreyt, saddler [Commoners]-for the purpose of considering the best means of carrying out the following measures, viz.: (1) the repair of the conduit in Chepe and carrying it up to the cross-ways on the top of Cornhulle, for which purpose the executors of Adam Fraunceys had promised to contribute the sum of 500 marks; (2) the repair of the City's walls, ditches, and gates, (3) the cleansing of the Thames; (4) the repair of the water-course from the Moor by Walbroke; (5) the providing of places where Rakyers and carters may deposit rubbish and filth; and (6) to consider the expenses of those elected to the Parliament at Gloucester and the discharge of other debts of the Commonalty. (fn. 20)
Folio xcvii b.
15 Sept., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], a motion made in the Common Council held in the accustomed Chamber of the Guildhall, to the effect that whereas Hugh Hosyere, otherwise called "Curteys," had been fraudulently admitted to the freedom of the City in the mistery of Fishmongers, contrary to the ordinance made by the Common Council itself forbidding any stranger known to be rich and powerful (cognitus pro viro divite et potente) to be admitted to the freedom of the City without the assent of the said Council; (fn. 21) and whereas the said Hugh had obtained the freedom by changing his name from "Hosyer" to "Curteys"—he be removed from the freedom. Thereupon Nicholas Brembre, then Mayor, declared that the said Hugh and another named John Sybile had come before him and the Aldermen in the Chamber, with six good men, Aldermen and Commoners, of the mistery of Fishmongers, who certified as to their character, (fn. 22) and asked that they might be admitted to the freedom on a reasonable fine, that he (the Mayor) was altogether ignorant of their wealth, and they were admitted on payment of a fine such as seemed reasonable to the Mayor, Aldermen, and Chamberlain; (fn. 23) that as to the alleged ordinance by the Common Council he knew nothing of it, but he recollected that some such matter was once introduced, but was allowed to drop (permansit indiscussa), although he (the Mayor) of his own accord publicly promised that during his term of office no stranger known to him to be powerful and wealthy should be admitted by him to the freedom without the assent of the Common Council. He asked whether a personal promise thus made and not reduced to writing was to be treated as an ordinance. After debate the question was put by the Common Serjeant to each of the Aldermen, who said that it ought not to be regarded as an ordinance, and with them thirty-one misteries who were present agreed, whilst ten misteries dissented. Thereupon it was adjudged that the said Hugh Hosyere should continue to enjoy the freedom.
8 Oct. [Nov ?], 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378], John Bakere de Ryslep attached to answer a charge of having sold to John, son of William Burle, "massoun,' a putrid partridge, near the church of St. Nicholas Shambles, on Sunday after the Feast of All Saints [1 Nov.], the year aforesaid. The said John Bakere being brought before John Phelipot, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, denied having sold the bird, but upon a jury being summoned confessed the sale. Adjudged to stand half an hour in the pillory, the bird to be burnt under him.
A proclamation of various ordinances for the government of the City and the regulation of divers trades and crafts. Ablebodied persons are not to counterfeit poor beggars. Lepers are forbidden the City, &c. At the end there is a schedule of prices to be paid for all kinds of poultry. (fn. 24)
Ordinance by the Mayor and Aldermen as to prices to be charged by Cooks for divers meat and poultry as well roasted as in pasties. (fn. 25)
Folio xcix b.
Proclamation of the amount of wages fixed by the Mayor and Aldermen to be paid to divers labourers who continued to make excessive charges for their work, notwithstanding the price of victuals and other necessaries of life having for a long time remained the same.
Acquittance by John, son of Ralph Halstede, (fn. 26) late woolmonger, and executor of the same, to Edmund Halstede, merchant, for the sum of £140 left by the said Ralph for providing chantries in the new chapel he had built in the Sanctuary of the Hospital of St. Thomas de Suthwerk. Dated 12 Feb., 2 Richard II. [A.D. 1378-9].