A Survey of Documentary Sources For Property Holding in London Before the Great Fire London Record Society, 22. Originally published by London Record Society, London, 1985.
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Religious houses and bishoprics (Alnwick-Canterbury)
a. PRO, SC11/985: rental, c. 1540 (2, 35, 38, 49, 54, 81, 91, 108, 117, 142, 148). PRO, LR2/262, f. 16v: rental, 1546 (4 (vicarage of), 81, unspec.). PRO, SC6/Hen 8/964–70: a/cs, 1539–46 (5, 42, 81, 117, 137, 142).
In 1291 and 1331 the bishop had temporalities in 8, 46, and 129, but may have lost them soon after the latter date: The Register of Ralph of Shrewsbury, bishop of Bath and Wells, 1329–1363, ed. T. S. Holmes (Somerset Rec. Soc. 9–10, 1896), 82. In 1217×19 the bishop acquired a property in Bishopsgate and Broad Street (probably in 64 and 148), but no later record of this has been found, unless the property was associated with that in 32 disposed of by the bishop in 1539. In 1539 the bishop exchanged his residence in the Strand for property in 68 (C. L. Kingsford, 'Bath Inn or Arundel House', Archaeologia 72 (1921–2), 243–77). Records of some of the bishop's properties are preserved among the manuscripts of the dean and chapter of Wells: not seen, but calendared in Calendar [of the Manuscripts of the Dean and Chapter of Wells (2 vols., HMC, 1907–14)]. The Somerset Record Office reports (November, 1983) that the diocesan records in its care contain nothing relating to property or estate management in London. See also 246, 462b.
a. Registers at Wells. 'Liber Albus i' (Davis no. 1003): 13C register; f. 17, copy deed concerning Bishopsgate and Broad Street (Calendar i, 16). Ledger Book D, etc., is a series of dean and chapter registers of leases beginning in 1535 and incl. confirmations of episcopal leases of property in 68 and the grant of 1539 concerning 32 (eg. Calendar ii, 251–3, 255).
In 1291 the estate lay in: 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 19, 21, 35, 39, 42, 44, 48, 49, 51, 53, 54, 56, 61, 67, 71, 74, 75, 80, 83, 87, 89, 90, 93, 94, 96, 98, 103, 104, 108, 112, 114, 118, 120, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 131, 134, 135, 136, 137, 144, 145, 151, 152, 156, 157, 158, 159; there were also pensions from the churches of 20, 85.
b. PRO, SC12/37/7, LR2/262: rentals, 1546 (properties not specified). PRO, SC6/1107/11: a/c during vacancy, 1418, rents and arrears (1, 4, 10, 14, 21, 39, 44, 48, 49, 51, 53, 56, 67, 71, 74, 80, 83, 85, 87, 90, 93, 98, 103, 104, 108, 112, 118, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 131, 135, 136, 137, 145, 151, 152, 156, 159). PRO, SC6/Hen 8/3464–8: a/cs, 1539–46 (20, 83, 85, London unspec.).
The priory acquired a property in 105 in 1291: HR 20(70), 47(41), 56(125). Rents from this and from 60 were transferred to Waltham Abbey in 1532: L & P Henry VIII v, no. 766 (2); grant recited in PRO, E135/3/ 44, bishop of London's confirmation of the same. See 241, below.
a. Lambeth MS 1212 (Davis, no. 159): cartulary, 13C–14C, of see of Canterbury (133); ff. 107v–108, copy grants, bef. 1193 to Boxley, 1193×9 Boxley to Canterbury (land on Thames, probably 116; see Cal. Chart. R. 1257–1300, pp. 8, 354).
a. BL, MS Loans 30 (Davis, no. 91): 13C cartulary, with later additions; f. 147, copy plea, 14C. Burton Library, Burton upon Trent, deposited by Marquess of Anglesey (Davis, no. 92): fragment (42 ff.) of 13C cartulary; not examined, but probably contains no London material.
a. CUL, MS Mm. 4. 19, 'Nigrum Registrum de Vestiario' (Davis, no. 118): cartulary, comp. late 12C to 14C; London refs. on ff. 45, 113, 142, 154, 169, 228 (estate above). PRO, DL42/5 (Davis, no. 108): cartulary of cellarer's lands, comp. 13C to 14C; see f. 113r-v (100). BL, MS Harl. 638, 'Registrum Werketone' (Davis, no. 106): cartulary, comp. 13C to 15C; London refs. on ff. 124–138 (125, Cornhill, London unspec.). BL, MS Harl. 645, 'Registrum Kempe' (Davis, no. 124): register, comp. 13C to 15C; ff. 200v–201, 240v, 249v, rentals, temp. Edw. I (London unspec.). BL, Add. MS 14847, 'Registrum Album' (Davis, no. 96): cartulary, late 13C; London refs. on ff. 22, 28v, 47, 65v (66 or 78, 100). BL, MS Harl. 743, 'Registrum J. de Lakynghethe' (Davis, no. 97): collection of evidences, comp. after 1327; London refs. on ff. 29, 37, 151–2, 260 (66 or 78, 100). CUL, MS Ee. 3. 60, 'Registrum W. Pynchebek' (Davis, no. 119; The Pinchbeck Register, ed. Lord Francis Hervey, 1925): 14C register of pleas etc., incl. (f. 191v) ref. to 78. BL, MS Harl. 3977 (Davis, no. 126): register of custumaries, 14C; f. 50v, rental of sacrist (London unspec.). CUL, MS Ff. 2. 33 (Davis, no. 117): register of sacrist, comp. 14C to 15C; London refs. on ff. 34r-v, 54r-v, 81v (estate above). BL, MS Lansd. 416, 'Registrum T. Ikworthe' (Davis, no. 115): register of infirmarer, comp. c. 1425; f. 63, ref. to church of St. Mary and St. Bartholomew in London (? 100, 31). BL, Add. MS 7096, 'Registrum Curteys' (Davis, no. 130): once contained London material (see f. 219v) but pages now missing. CUL, Add. MS 4220 (Davis, no. 110): cellarer's register (part), comp. later 15C: London refs. on ff. 95v–97 (estate above). CUL, MS Ff. 2. 29, 'Registrum Rubeum Vestiarii' (Davis, no. 120): 15C register incl. (f. 5) plea, as in CUL, MS Ee. 3. 60 (78). BL, MS Harl. 308, 'Registrum Reeve' (Davis, no. 134): 16C lease bk.; see f. 85v (66 or 78).
a. Bodl, MS Tanner 90, ff. 24–67 (Davis, no. 140; The Register or Chronicle of Butley Priory, Suffolk, 1510–35, ed. A. G. Dickens, 1951): 18C transcript of lost 16C register; p. 67, ref. to pension from 155.
Fd. 598, 997; refd. for dean and chapter 1540. London prop. 1392, 1535. Unless otherwise stated the records are in Canterbury Cathedral Archives. There are significant collections at Lambeth (Jane Sayers, Estate Documents at Lambeth Palace Library (1965); M. R. James, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of Lambeth Palace (3 vols. 1930–2), for MSS. 242–3) and in BL, and other items in Bodl and CUL. See also 462b.
Many of the surviving records were damaged in 1670 by the fire in the cathedral Audit House. Some records were destroyed and the order of others disturbed by an air raid in 1942. The best overall guide to the records at Canterbury is provided by the three MS 'Schedules' compiled at the beginning of the 19C by C. R. Bunce. Bunce's schedules contain many valuable later additions and annotations. A substantial body of the records takes the form of a series of volumes known as 'Registers' (referred to here as Reg A, etc.). Registers A–R (formerly identified as Regs A–Q and as Regs 1–18) are an artificial series including cartularies, letter books, rentals, accounts, custumals, and other records (for subsequent registers in the series, see below, 128 and 131). For a guide to the contents of Regs A–V, see the MS 'Index' in 3 vols. compiled by J. B. Sheppard and summarized in HMC (7) Eighth Report part I (1881) Appendix, 315–55 and HMC (8) Ninth Report part I (1883), 72–129; see also HMC (55) Report on Manuscripts in Various Collections I (1901), 208–13. There are numerous more recent MS and TS lists in the Cathedral Archives, most of them numbered in the 'MS Cat' series. For other printed guides of value, see: HMC (4) Fifth Report part I (1876), 427–62 (deeds, cf. below, 127); C. E. Woodruff, A catalogue of manuscript books in the library of Christ Church, Canterbury (1911); R. A. L Smith, 'The Central Financial System of Christ Church, Canterbury, 1186–1512', EHR 55 (1940), 353–69; idem, Canterbury Cathedral Priory (1943).
Most London deeds and some leases, dating from the 12C to the 17C, are to be found in the Chartae Antiquae series and may be identified from the MS calendar in Bunce's Schedule 1 (in 3 vols.; the London deeds are described in vol. 2: 5, 9, 19, 32, 53, 73, 80, 81, 83, 87, 92, 100, 103, 104, 105, 111, 120, 124, 125, 126, 159, 162; for 125, see Chartae Antiquae L 119, where there are also refs. to 29, 96); see also 'Conveyances made during Commonwealth' (listed in MS Cat 73: Eastcheap only).
Leases of cathedral tenements (Bunce's Schedule 3 lists the leases that survived in early 19C): 14C to 17C leases (32, 83, 87, 104, 124; these were transferred to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and some of them have since been returned to Canterbury, where they are in the Church Com Dep series); 15C to 17C leases (32, 87, 104; the typescript list provided by the Church Commissioners covers more leases than were actually returned). See also the London leases in 'Box in Basement 100' (listed in MS Cat 70: one lease earlier than 1700 concerns 104).
a. Cartularies etc. Reg I incl. a late 13C cartulary (Davis, no. 165) with deeds concerning 53 and 120, and other matter concerning 73, 100, 104, 124, 126, 159. Reg E is a late 13C cartulary (Davis, no. 168) cont. London deeds as in Reg B, below. Regs A–D form a late 13C to 15C cartulary (Davis, nos. 169–72), where London deeds are to be found in Reg A (9, 19, 53, 83, 103, 128) and in Reg B (5, 9, 32, 44, 49, 53, 85, 87, 100, 103, 104, 111, 120, 124, 125, 126, 127, 159). BL, MS Cotton Galba E iv (Davis, no. 182): early 14C memoranda book incl. list of new building work in London 1286–1318 (also in Reg K). Reg J: incl. 15C copies of enrolled deeds and pleas (36, 104, 105, 123, 145). Reg K: incl. copies of pleas and memoranda (103, 104). Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 298 (Davis, no. 189): incl. 16C memoranda (32, 83, 87, 142; estate B).
b. Registers of priory acts and letters. CUL, MS Ee. 5. 31 (Davis, no. 181): incl. presentations to London churches (as in estate B) and grants concerning property (9, 104, 105), 1285–1331. Bodl, MS Ashmole 794, ff. 207–22, parts of Reg H, and Reg L: fragments of the same mid 14C register, incl. presentations to London churches and letters concerning the London estate in general (specific reference to property in 104); some letters from Reg L are printed in Literae Cantuarienses, ed. J. B. Sheppard (Rolls Ser. 1887–9). The intact series of priory registers, covering the period 1390–1540, comprises Regs S, T1, and T2 (Regs S and T1 incl. valuable 18C indexes: London refs. are to be found under parishes, names of properties, and the heading 'Quit-Rents') and incl. presentations to London churches, leases, bonds, etc. concerning quitrents, appointments of officials and some sede vacante business (cf. d, below); cover much of estates A and B.
c. Registers of dean and chapter acts. Regs U, V, V1, V3–7, W–Z, and 27, covering the period 1541–1667, with gaps (especially 1607–60): many of these registers are damaged by fire and there are many disordered loose leaves from damaged registers of this period still surviving (not examined); the more complete vols. incl. 18C indexes similar to those for Regs S and T1. For the contents of Regs V1 and V3, see MS Cat 60; the contents of these vols. are similar to those of Regs S, T1, and T2, above, and in addition incl. confirmations by the dean and chapter of archiepiscopal confirmations of leases by parish churches of which the archbishop was patron.
d. Records of the priory's sede vacante jurisdiction. These cover all matters normally the concern of the archbishop, incl. London churches and wills, late 13C to mid 16C. The principal registers of acts are to be found in Regs F, G, N, Q, R, and V2, in CUL, MS Ee. 5. 31, and in Bodl, MS Ashmole 794 (for details, see David M. Smith, Guide to Bishops' Registers of England and Wales (RHS, 1981)), but some acts sede vacante are recorded in the priory's registers of its own business (e.g. Reg S); see also 'Sede Vacante Scrapbooks', 3 vols. (vol. 2 contains index to vols. 1 and 2 and to detached items in Chartae Antiquae series; an index to vol. 3 is in MS Cat 64). For London institutions, see Calendar of Institutions by the Chapter of Canterbury Sede Vacante, ed. C. E. Woodruff and I. J. Churchill (Kent Arch. Soc. Records Branch 8, 1923); for wills, see 529.
BL, MS Cotton Faust. B vi, f. 101r-v (also in Reg B, f. 263r-v): list of London possessions 1098×1108 (see B. W. Kissan, 'An early list of London properties', Trans LMAS n.s. 8 (1938–40), 57–69). Literary MS 14, ff. 15v–18, and Literary MS 15, ff. 14v–17: almost identical copies of a London rental of c. 1200 or earlier (the Canterbury portion of the same rental has been dated c. 1180: W. Urry, Canterbury under the Angevin Kings (1967), 2, 15–17). Literary MS 16, ff. 2–6, is a copy of a rental containing virtually the same list of tenants as MSS 14 and 15, but, since the total of rent is higher, perhaps of a slightly later date; these 3 rentals are arranged by the terms at which the rent was due and contain hardly any topographical information, but the estate appears to have been identical with that covered by the rental in Reg K, below. Reg K, ff. 66v– 9: rental of c. 1220 arranged topographically and referring to the tenants in the rentals of c. 1200 (5, 9, 49, 51, 53, 56, 58, 73, 80, 81, 83, 85, 87, 100, 103, 104, 105, 111, 116, 120, 125, 126, 127, 145, 152, 159, 162). Reg J, pp. 330–9: 14C copy of composite mid 13C and later rental which refers to tenants in rentals of c. 1200 (9, 49, 56, 58, 80, 81, 83, 85, 87, 92, 100, 103, 104, 105, 116, 120, 125, 126, 127, 152; also ref. to 37). Extracts from a rental similar to the mid 13C exemplar on which the rental in Reg J is based were copied into a 13C London municipal collection (BL, Add. MS 14252, ff. 88v–9: printed in EHR 17 (1902), 483–4). The rentals in Regs K and J are conflated in Reg B, ff. 248–61. BL, MS Cotton Galba E iv (Davis, no. 182), f. 34: early 14C list of pensions (estate B). Reg B, ff. 264–5: extracts from assessment by wards of 3s. in the pound rent, 1321– 2, apparently incl. full details of all the assessments on rents for tenements in which the priory had an interest (no other record of this assessment appears to survive, but for a similar assessment of 1324–5, see WAM 12339: 249). Reg B. ff. 261v–3: late 14C rental of quit-rents (9, 49, 53, 81, 83, 85, 100, 104, 105, 116, 120, 125, 127). Reg H, f. 152v: rental of 1420 (estate B, 104, and totals for other properties). Church Com Dep 70445 incl. rentals of 1539 (32, 87), 1582 (estate C; 9, 19, 81, 83, 92, 100, 104, 120, 126), 1614 (estate as for 1582 rental, plus 67, 85, 123), and a damaged mid 16C rental. Church Com Dep 70446 incl. rentals of 1541 (9, 19, 32, 80, 83, 85, 87, 92, 100, 104, 105, 120, 123, 124, 125, 127), rentals of 1560 and 1561 (estate as for 1541 rental), and a damaged mid 16C rental.
For the a/cs at Canterbury, see the file of MS and TS lists in the Cathedral Library. The a/cs are best discussed in two groups: those of the Old Foundation (to 1540) and those of the New Foundation (from 1540).
Accounts of rent collectors in London. Box of 45 uncatalogued 'Bedels' Rolls, London' for 1274–1513; Chartae Antiquae, L 108a, a/c for 1495–6; Lambeth, ED 608, a/c for 1510–11: these vary widely in coverage and amount of detail and many provide only totals for quit-rents; tenements let at farm were in 104 up to c. 1400 and thereafter in 32, 83, 87, 104, 124. Treasurers' accounts. Miscellaneous Accounts 1 and 2, for 1207–1336 and 1371–84, and part of BL, MS Harl. 1006, for 14C: a/cs of receipt and expenditure in book form incl. total receipts from London and some expenditure there. Rolls 8–22 in the uncatalogued box 'Treasurers' Accounts', for 1407–84 and undated; Lambeth, ED 80–90, ED 2013, and MS 951/1, nos. 30–1, for 1406–1519 and undated; and 15C fragments in Miscellaneous Accounts and box of 'Uncatalogued Accounts': a/cs of receipt and expenditure in roll form incl. totals of quit-rents and details of pensions and farms with expenditure on building as in rent collectors' a/cs, above. The box of 'Uncatalogued Accounts' also incl. similar a/cs in book form, 1511–12, 1520–1. Miscellaneous Accounts 21–5, possibly the damaged ibid. 26, but not subsequent vols. in the same series, incl. annual lists of rents (totals for quit-rents, details of pensions and farms) subordinate to the main series of treasurers' a/cs, 1374–1433 and possibly later. Lambeth, MSS 242–3, for 1257–1391, expenditure a/cs in book form incl. building in London (104).
Sacrists' accounts (pensions from 53, 100). BL, Add. MS 6160 (Davis, no. 184), ff. 90–1: copy of a/c, 1299. 70 annual rolls in the 'Accounts of Priory' series, 1361–1501 (see C. E. Woodruff, 'The Sacrist's rolls of Christ Church, Canterbury', Archaeologia Cantiana 48 (1936), 38–80). Lambeth, ED 75–9, 1442, 1458, 2059–61: a/cs and rentals, 1430–1534. Miscellaneous Accounts 5, 9–16, 30: incl. a/cs in book form 1462–1534.
Assisae Scaccarii. 21 annual rolls in 'Accounts of Priory' series (1224– 1340 and 13C undated) and Reg H, ff. 172–217 (copies of late 13C a/cs): summaries of a/cs of monastic officials incl. treasurer and sacrist, and occasionally the London rent collector, sometimes preserving evidence which does not survive elsewhere.
Accounts of London rent collectors. Miscellaneous Accounts 17: details of rents and farms, 1541–4. Ibid. 18: tabular a/c, 1551–5. Ibid. 19: registers of a/cs, 1599–1624, 1630–3, incl. totals and allowances.
Chapter Act Books, 4 vols. 1561–1628, each with a later index: records of chapter meetings incl. decisions concerning grants of leases and livings, confirmation of leases granted by incumbents of chapter livings, and management of estate. For the extent of the estate in this period, see 129.
Collections of letters concerning the affairs of the priory and the Dean and Chapter (the London references concern presentation to livings): 'Eastry Correspondence', mostly late 13C and early 14C, calendar and index in Schedule 1, pp. 186–218; 'Christchurch Letters', 3 vols. (for some letters from vol. 1, see Christ Church Letters, ed. J. B. Sheppard (Camden Soc. n.s. 19, 1877); the letters in vol. 2 are calendared in MS Cat 67; vol. 3 contains no London material); 'Canterbury Letters', 2 vols., 15C to 18C. 'Inventories' no. 23 is a London inventory of 1313. 'Surveys of Estates', vol. 23, f. 92, is a parliamentary survey of London quit-rents, 1654 (9, 19, 100, 120).
In the late 9C the archbishop probably acquired land which later lay in 114, 116, 127 and 136 (T. Dyson, 'Two Saxon land grants for Queenhithe' in Collectanea Londiniensia . . ., ed. J. Bird, H. Chapman and J. Clark (LMAS special paper 2, 1978), 200–15), and his soke on what seems to be part of the same site is mentioned c. 1200 and in the 13C (Cal. Ancient Deeds, A1803; London Eyre 1244, no. 262). Properties in the city formed part of the archbishop's manor of Mortlake in or before 1086 (DB i, f. 30v) and his soke in London is mentioned c. 1120 (EHR 14 (1899), p. 428). At the end of the 12C, the archbishop acquired land in London beside the Thames, probably in 116 (see 120) or possibly in 53, where his soke is recorded shortly afterwards (The Cartulary of Holy Trinity Aldgate, ed. G. A. J. Hodgett (LRS 7, 1971), no. 223); see also 155. In the early 13C he also had a substantial holding in 120. By 1291 his estate appears to have been reduced to holdings in 5 and 125. During the 13C–14C he acquired the advowsons of a number of churches (incl. 53), which had previously belonged to Canterbury Cathedral Priory (cf. 127–32). By the 16C he appears to have possessed no more in the city than these churches, for which see the archiepiscopal registers and the records of sede vacante jurisdiction (128d). See also 462b.
a. Cartularies. Lambeth Palace, MS 1212 (Davis, no. 159): 13C–14C cartulary incl. copies of ? 9C grant (see above) and 12C–13C deeds concerning London (120, and probably 116). Bodl, MS Tanner 223 (Davis, no. 160): 16C register incl. copies of some material from Lambeth, MS 1212, and 17C memoranda on the archbishop's London churches (taken from 'the Great Register that is now unbound').
a. BL, MS Cotton Faust. A i, 'Black Book' (Davis, no. 194; The Register of St. Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury, ed. G. J. Turner and H. E. Salter, 1915, 1924): register, late 13C, incl. rentals (53, 85, 90, 132) and copy deeds (53, 132). BL, MS Cotton Claud. D x, ff. 9–319, 'Red Book' (Davis, no. 193): cartulary, 13C to 14C; London refs. on ff. 238–243v, 318 (51, 53, 85, 132; also rubrics ref. to 14, 149). BL, MS Cotton Julius D ii (Davis, no. 192): register, 13C to 14C; ff. 107, 128, deeds (53, 132); f. 143, rental, 13C (London unspec.). Canterbury, Lit MS E 23 (Davis, no. 206): reg. of leases, 1521–2 (51).
b. BL, MS Arundel 310 (Davis, no. 202): register, c. 1330, incl. (f. 146) rental (London, total only). Lambeth, ED 299: valor, 1523–4 (London unspec.). PRO, LR2/262, f. 21; SC12/37/7: rentals, 1546 (132).