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Appendix 1: Persons Referred to in the Diary

Pages 176-213

The Apprenticeship of a Mountaineer: Edward Whymper's London Diary, 1855-1859. Originally published by London Record Society, London, 2008.

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Citation:

Appendix 1 Persons referred to in the diary

Aberdeen, George Hamilton-Gordon, fourth Earl of (1784–1860) Peelite Prime Minister in a coalition with the Whigs, from December 1852 until January 1855.

Agar, Edward (c. 1825–aft. 1857) Responsible for stealing £12,000 worth of gold bullion from the South Eastern Railway in May 1855, Agar was sentenced to transportation for life for forgery, and turned evidence against his accomplices in the bullion robbery.

Aldis, John (1808 – 1907) Baptist minister at Maze Pond from 1837 until 1855, when he moved to Reading. He was President of the Baptist Union in 1866.

Anderson, John Henry (1814 – 1874) Popular conjuror and magician, who originated the trick of pulling a rabbit from a top hat.

Anelay, Henry (1817 – 1883) Draughtsman and landscape painter who lived at Eyre Cottage, Blackheath; an unsuccessful candidate for the NWCS.

Angus, Joseph (1816 – 1902) Baptist biblical scholar, and president of Stepney Baptist College (which moved to Regent's Park in 1856).

Armstrong, William King (1822 – 1896) Baptist minister in Ashton under Lyne, Lancashire. Born in Scotland, Armstrong finished his career in Sussex.

Ashmead, George (c. 1803 – 1883) Baptist minister, born in Gloucestershire.

Ashwell, Samuel (c.1799 – 1857) Physician.

Aske, William Henry (c. 1825 – 1863) Wood engraver, a neighbour of the Whympers at 10 Barkham Terrace, Lambeth Road.

Bailey, Eliza (c. 1812 – 1856) Wife of George Bailey (c. 1815 – ?) a haberdasher, of High Street, Southwark. The Baileys were members of Maze Pond chapel, although their name is usually spelt 'Bayley' in the MPMB, where Eliza Bayley's death is recorded on 29 February 1856.

Baker, George (fl. 1855) George Baker and Sons were builders in Lambeth, next to the Archbishop's Palace

Barlow, James (c.1824 – 1887) Ironmonger in King William Street, who later moved to Leatherhead.

Barry, Sir Charles (1795 – 1860) Architect who won the competition, held after the fire in 1834, to design the new Houses of Parliament.

Barton, James (fl. 1858) Iron founder at 370 Oxford Street.

Bates, Robert Makin (fl. 1841 – 1857) Partner in the bank of Strahan, Paul and Bates, sentenced to fourteen years' transportation.

Baxter, George (1804 – 1867) Wood engraver who developed and patented a process of colour printing, using oils. Harrison Weir was a pupil of Baxter's.

Beatson, William Fergusson (1804 – 1872) Army officer experienced in working with irregulars, he offered his services to the Turks during the Crimean War, but after some conflict with his British officer, returned to England.

Beaufoy, Henry (1786 – 1851) Manager of the family vinegar brewery in South Lambeth Road, and founder of the Lambeth Ragged School, with which Whymper's parents were involved. His father, Mark Beaufoy (1764 – 1827), was the first Englishman to climb Mont Blanc, in 1787, when he made the fourth ascent of the mountain, a few days after de Saussure.

Beddome, Edward Smith (1821 – 1884) Underwriter who lived at Trinity Square, Newington, Southwark. The son of William Beddome (1788 – 1858), a warehouse manager and wool merchant for Favell, Beddome and Co, of Gresham Street. William Beddome was a senior deacon at Maze Pond, and on the committee of the Stepney Baptist College.

Bell, Thomas (1792 – 1880) Zoologist who contributed to many popular works on such subjects as Crustacea, reptiles and quadrupeds. He was president of the Linnean Society from 1853, and chaired the meeting in 1858 at which Alfred Wallace's letter about evolution, sent from the East Indies, was read alongside Darwin's initial paper.

Bennett, William (1811 – 1871) Member of the NWCS, possibly a pupil of David Cox.

Bentley, Richard (1794 – 1871) Printer and publisher, based in Shoe Lane. Bentley's Quarterly Review first appeared in March 1859, but the map drawn by Whymper, 7 – 9 February 1859, was not used.

Bernal, Ralph (1784 – 1854) Lawyer and MP, whose inheritance of a large West Indian estate enabled him to amass a vast collection of glass, ceramics, plate, armour and pictures. On his death the government declined to buy the collection for the new South Kensington Museum, and the consequent auction raised £70,000.

Bernard, Simon Francis (1817 – 1862) A French revolutionary resident in London from 1853. Despite his acquittal he was probably involved in the attempt made on Louis Napoleon's life in January 1858.

Best, William (1826 – 1875) Baptist minister in Ramsey (not Ramsgate as Whymper thought), then Leeds.

Black, Adam (1784 – 1874) With his nephew Charles, Black established the publishing house of A and C Black in Edinburgh. He succeeded Macaulay as MP for Edinburgh.

Blomfield, Charles James (1786 – 1857) Bishop of London from 1828 until his death.

Bogue, David (c.1808 – 1856) Publisher, at 86 Fleet Street.

[Bomba see Ferdinand II]

Bonaparte, Charles-Louis Napoleon (1808 – 1873) Nephew of the first Emperor Napoleon (1769 – 1821), Louis Napoleon was elected president of the French republic in 1848, but in 1851 he staged a coup d'état and declared himself Emperor Napoleon III.

Booth, Samuel Harris (1824 – 1902) Baptist minister in Birkenhead, and later Islington, who turned down the offer of being the minister at Maze Pond in January 1857. He succeeded James Millard as secretary of the Baptist Union.

Bosquet, Pierre François Joseph (1810 – 1861) French general during the Crimean War.

Bousfield, William (c.1824 – 1856) French polisher in Soho, hung on 31 March 1856 for the murder of his wife and three children.

Bower, Edward Skillington (1840 – 1885) Son of a blacksmith, Bower became a cabman in Southwark. He was secretary of the North Lambeth Cricket Club.

Boys, Thomas Shotter (1803 – 1874) Watercolour painter and lithographer who also worked as a print-seller.

Bradbury, William (1800 – 1869) William Bradbury and Frederick Mullett Evans (1803 – 1870) were printers who ran a large firm in Lombard Street (with offices also in Bouverie Street) which specialised in high-quality production of illustrated periodicals. Bradbury and Evans were the proprietors and printers of Punch.

Braidwood, James (1801 – 1861) Celebrated superintendent of the London Fire Brigade, whose step-son Thomas Jackson was killed in a fire at Blackfriars, 16/17 February 1855.

Branch, John (c.1807 – 1856) Baptist minister at Waterloo Chapel, Lambeth.

Brewer, Robert Kitson (c. 1813 – 1875) Baptist minister at Great George's Street chapel in Leeds.

Brierly, Sir Oswald Walters (1817 – 1894) Painter of marine scenery and a naval engineer. After ten years in Australia, Brierly was commissioned by the London Illustrated News to accompany the fleet to the Baltic when war broke out with Russia in 1854. The following year he went to the Black Sea.

Bright, John (1811 – 1889) Radical politician and MP for Manchester from 1847 to 1857, then MP for Birmingham from 1858.

Britton, John (1771 – 1857) Antiquary whose multi-volume Beauties of England and Wales was illustrated with steel engravings.

Brock, William (1807 – 1875) Baptist minister at Bloomsbury Chapel from 1848, many of whose sermons were published.

Brooke, Sir James (1803 – 1868) Army officer and adventurer appointed consul-general for Borneo in 1847. He declared himself rajah of Sarawak, but was forced to flee in 1857 after a rebellion by Chinese mine–workers.

Brown, Sir George (1790 – 1865) Lieutenant–general, Brown led the light division in the Crimea under Lord Raglan. He fell sick after the abortive assault on Sevastopol in June 1855, and was invalided home immediately after Lord Raglan's death.

Brown, Humphrey (1803 – 1860) MP for Tewkesbury in 1857, and a director of the Royal British Bank, from which he borrowed £70,000. Brown was convicted of obtaining credit by falsely presenting the bank's accounts and sentenced to a year in prison, of which he served five months in 1858.

Brown, John W. (c.1791 – 1856) Banker and a member of Maze Pond chapel, resident at Oakland Lodge, Streatham Hill. His daughter, Emma Ann Brown, (1825/6 – 1904) married Henry Hill, a clerk in a life assurance company, at Clapham Congregational Church on 5 September 1855. On her marriage certificate her age is given as twenty-seven, but the census returns indicate that she was thirty, although Whymper thought she was thirty eight.

Browne, Robert William (1809 – 1895) Ordained deacon, and Professor of Classical History at King's College, London, Browne was the author of History of Rome (1859), for which Edward Whymper supplied the illustrations.

Brunel, Isambard Kingdom (1806 – 1859) Engineer responsible for the SS Great Eastern, the largest ship of her time, built between 1854 and 1857.

Brunnow, Philipp von (1797 – 1875) Russian diplomat, who had been the ambassador in London.

Buchanan, James (1791 – 1868) US president from 1857 to 1861, Buchanan's failure to deal with secession led to the civil war.

Buck, William James (c.1820 – 1897) Painter, born in London.

Burnet, John (c.1790 – ?1871) Baptist minister in Camberwell, born in Scotland.

Burt, Thomas (b. c.1814) Publisher and bookseller, superintendent of the SPCK from 1857.

Butterworth, Charles (c. 1831 – 1907) Butterworth and Heath were a wood engraving firm in the Strand. Born in Camberwell, Butterworth was still listed as a wood engraver in 1901.

Cadman, William (1815 – 1891) Anglican vicar of St George's, Southwark.

Calcraft, William (1800 – 1879) Hangman from 1829 until 1874, Calcraft was notoriously incompetent (see entry for 1 April 1856).

Campbell, Colin (1792 – 1863) Army officer; a major–general in the Crimea, he was appointed commander–in–chief in India on the outbreak of the mutiny.

Campbell, John, first Baron Campbell of St Andrews (1779 – 1861) Lord chief justice from 1850 to 1859, then lord chancellor. He presided in the trials of William Palmer and the Royal British Bank directors.

Canham, George (1839 – aft. 1901) School friend of Whymper's, who became a banker's clerk, married, had two daughters and eventually moved from Brixton to Malden in Surrey. His father was a timber merchant's clerk.

Canrobert, François (1809 – 1895) Commander of the French forces in the Crimea until his resignation in May 1855.

Carden, Sir Robert Walter (1801 – 1888) Banker elected Lord Mayor of London in 1857.

Carlisle, George William Frederick Howard, seventh Earl of (1802 – 1864) Liberal politician who was travelling on the continent during 1853-4, before appointment as lord lieutenant of Ireland by Palmerston in 1855.

Cassell, John (1817 – 1865) Publisher who started in the 1840s with popular newspapers and periodicals. From 1885 to 1888 Edward Whymper worked as a general manager for the firm that Cassell had founded.

Castle, Charles (c. 1838 – ?1907) Son of an engraver from Holborn, apprenticed to the Whympers. He is subsequently listed as a photo miniature painter, and in 1891, as an artist and a sculptor.

Castle, John William (1825 – 1889) Tailor in Lambeth, near to the Whympers.

Cavaignac, Louis Eugène (1802 – 1857) Republican general who stood against Louis Napoleon in the election of 1848.

Chelsea, Henry Cadogan, Viscount (1812 – 1873) MP for Dover from 1852, he unsuccessfully contested Middlesex in 1857 and succeeded as fourth Earl Cadogan in 1864.

Cheshire, William (1837 – 1915) Wood engraver who served his apprenticeship with the Whympers. His family were neighbours of the Whympers at 12 Canterbury Place. Cheshire settled in Sutton as an artist and engraver.

Chown, Joseph Parbery (1821 – 1886) Baptist minister at Sion chapel, Bradford, who moved to the Bloomsbury chapel in 1875.

Clark, Robert (1825 – 1894) R & R Clark were an important printing firm, founded in Edinburgh in 1846, where Alfred Whymper served his apprenticeship. Clarks printed Edward Whymper's books, Scrambles amongst the Alps and Travels amongst the Great Andes of the Equator.

Clarke, Charles (fl. 1858 – 1864) Baptist preacher from Bradford, who succeeded James Millard as pastor at Maze Pond in 1864.

Clay, Richard (1790 – 1877) Printer with offices in Bread Street Hill. He lived at the Avenue, Muswell Hill, with his wife Susan. Clay printed the edition of Aesop's Fables for which Josiah Whymper engraved the illustrations by Tenniel, as well as Dufferin's Letters from high latitudes.

Clay, Sir William (1791 – 1869) MP for Tower Hamlets from 1832 to 1857, and chairman of Southwark and Vauxhall water companies.

Clint, Alfred (c. 1844 – aft. 1858) Son of Alfred Clint (1807 – 1883), a marine painter. The younger Clint trained as a painter.

Clowes, George (1814 – 1886) William Clowes and Sons was the country's largest printing firm, based at Duke Street, Blackfriars. They were an early user of steam–powered presses in the 1820s, worked with Charles Knight on the Penny Magazine, and printed for many of the publishers for whom the Whympers worked (John Murray, William Longman). After the death of their father in 1847, William Clowes (1807 – 1883) ran the firm with his brothers, Winchester (1808–1862), and George. George Clowes was an early member of the Alpine Club.

Cobden, Richard (1804 – 1865) Industrialist, politician and social reformer, Cobden lost his seat as MP for Rochdale in 1857.

Cockerell, Charles Robert (1788 – 1863) Architect and professor, whose work included the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

Codrington, Sir William John (1804 – 1884) Army officer appointed commander–in–chief of British forces in the Crimea in November 1855.

Collambell, Charles (c. 1813 – 1890) The Whymper family doctor and their neighbour at 15 Lambeth Terrace. Collambell was a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons.

Combermere, Stapleton Cotton, first Viscount (1773 – 1865) Army officer.

Coningham, William (1815 – 1884) Unsuccessful candidate for the constituency of Westminster in 1852, he was elected MP for Brighton in 1857.

[Conyngham see Coningham]

Constantine Nicholayevich, Grand Duke (1827 – 1892) Son of the Emperor Nicholas I, Grand Duke Constantine was in charge of the Russian navy.

Cook, Samuel (1806 – 1859) Painter of marine scenes, and a member of the NWCS from 1854.

Cooke, Robert Francis (1816 – 1891) Partner of the publisher, John Murray.

Corbould, Edward Henry (1815 – 1905) Member of the NWCS, appointed as drawing master to the royal children in 1851. A draughtsman on wood, Corbould provided illustrations for many books and periodicals.

Corderoy, Edward (1811 – 1865) J. and Edward Corderoy and Co. were provision agents in Tooley Street. Edward Corderoy was involved in local politics and lectured for the Young Men's Christian Association. Edward Whymper drew some illustrations for his published lecture on George Stephenson.

Coton, Frances (fl. 1855 – 1858) Firework maker in Westminster Road.

Cotsell, William (c.1794 – ?) Royal Navy purser, whose son John Thomas H. Cotsell (1820/1 – 1903) was an officer of the SPCK. They lived in Camberwell.

Cowdy, Samuel (1817 – 1900) Baptist minister in Leighton Buzzard.

Cowie, Frederick (c.1832 – 1885) London painter.

Cowley, Henry Richard Charles Wellesley, first Earl (1804 – 1884) Ambassador to France from 1851, Lord Cowley was sent to Vienna in 1859, to mediate between Austria and France.

Cowslade, William W. (1818 – 1915) Proprietor of the Reading Mercury.

Cox, David (1783 – 1859) Painter. His son David Cox (1809 – 1885) was a member of the NWCS.

Cox, George (1795 – 1857) Bookseller and publisher, with premises at Bedford Street, Covent Garden, and superintendent of SPCK until his death.

Craig, Ida (1831 – 1903) Scottish poetess, who won first prize (out of 621 candidates), for her Ode on the centenary of Burns at the anniversary celebrations at the Crystal Palace on 25 January 1859.

Crampton, Sir John Fiennes Twistleton (1805 – 1886) British representative in Washington from 1852 to May 1856, when he was recalled to London at the insistence of the American government, due to his involvement in the illegal recruitment of mercenaries for the Crimean War.

Crassweller, Harris (1827 – 1905) Baptist minister in Leominster.

Crawford, Robert Wigram (1813 – 1889) City merchant, who was MP for the City of London from 1857 until 1874.

Creswick, Thomas (1811 – 1869) Landscape painter and member of the RA.

Cumming, John (1807 – 1881) Minister of the Presbyterian Church of England, who preached in London and prophesied that the second coming would occur in 1867.

Cumming, Roualeyn George Gordon- (1820 – 1866) Army officer and sportsman who achieved great popularity lecturing, displaying his trophies and through his book, Five Years of a Hunter's Life in the Far Interior of South Africa.

Dalton, William Henry (fl. 1857) Publisher, 28 Cockspur Street.

Dalziel, George (1815 – 1902) George Dalziel, along with his brother Edward Dalziel (1817 – 1905), started London's largest wood engraving firm. They worked principally for the publisher Routledge, but also supervised the illustrations for the Great Exhibition catalogue in 1851. The Dalziels engraved the Pre-Raphaelite illustrations to Moxon's edition of Tennyson's Poems in 1857, and also Tenniel's illustrations to Alice's adventures in wonderland (1865). Most of the engravings of John Gilbert's illustrations to Nisbet's edition of The book of Job (1857) were shared between the Dalziels and Josiah Whymper (see 20 December 1856).

Darby, Henry (c.1806 – 1870) Described in the census as a 'pyrotechnist,' and in the Post Office Directory as 'artist in fireworks to Her Majesty,' Darby's premises were at 98 Regent Street, near Lambeth Walk.

Dare, Charles William (c. 1819 – 1898) Barrister who practised in Lincoln's Inn. He lived at 4 Andover Street, St Giles, Camberwell.

Davies, Ann E. (c.1798 – 1855) Neighbour to the Whympers in Lambeth Terrace, married to William Davies, a secretary.

Davis, George Henry (c. 1812 – 1876) Baptist minister, who was Secretary of the Religious Tract Society from 1855.

Davis, Joseph (c.1808 – aft. 1855) Baptist minister at Portsea.

Dawson, Henry (1811 – 1878) Landscape painter who worked in London from 1850.

[Deheny See Dennehy]

[Denison, Edmund see Grimthorpe]

Dennehy, Philip James (fl. 1856) Second master in the navy, courtmartialled and sentenced to death for being absent from duty while his ship was under fire. The sentence was commuted to transportation for life, but after considerable indignation in the press, this was reduced to a year's imprisonment.

Derby, Edward Stanley, fourteenth Earl of (1799 – 1869) Prime Minister for a brief period in 1852, Derby formed a Conservative administration in 1858–9.

Dickens, Charles (1812 – 1870) Author whose public readings were extremely popular. His usual performance was the whole of Christmas Carol and the trial scene from Pickwick Papers.

Dickes, William (1815 – 1892) Illustrator, engraver and publisher. Licensed to use Baxter's process, Dickes did all the colour printing for the SPCK.

Dickinson, William Robert (fl. 1836 – 1882) London artist.

Dillon, Frank (1823 – 1909) Landscape painter, resident in Montague Place, Bloomsbury, who made many visits to Egypt, starting in 1854. He travelled widely in Europe, also visiting Morocco and Japan.

Disraeli, Benjamin (1804 – 1881) Tory politician who was chancellor of the exchequer during 1852, but in opposition from 1853 until 1858, when he returned as chancellor under Derby. Later Prime Minister in 1868 and from 1874-80.

Dolby, Charlotte (1821 – 1885) Contralto singer.

Doulton, Frederick (1824 – 1872) Member of the Doulton pottery family, he was elected MP for Lambeth after the resignation of Roupell in 1862, and sat until 1868. Doulton and his wife were members of Maze Pond chapel until becoming Unitarians in 1852.

Doulton, Sir Henry (1820 – 1897) Older brother of Frederick Doulton, he managed the family pottery business in Lambeth High Street.

Drew, Joseph (c. 1821 – 1905) Baptist minister in Newbury.

Dufferin and Ava, Frederick Blackwood (later Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood), first Marquess of (1826 – 1902) Dufferin sailed his yacht to Iceland, Jan Mayen Island and Spitsbergen in 1856, and the resulting popular account, Letters from High Latitudes, was illustrated with engravings by the Whympers. From 1884 to 1888 Dufferin was Viceroy of India, where he knew Edward's younger brother, Henry Josiah Whymper.

Duke, Sir James, Bt, (d. 1873) MP for City of London from 1849 until 1865.

Dumas, Alexandre (1802 – 1870) Popular French author and a friend of Victor Hugo, whom he visited on Guernsey.

Dundas, Edward William (c.1800 – 1866) Bookseller, who became an assistant to John Murray.

Dundas, Sir Richard Saunders (1802 – 1861) Admiral, appointed to command the Baltic fleet in February 1855.

Dundonald, Thomas Cochrane, tenth Earl of (1775 – 1860) Popular naval officer, who, during the Napoleonic Wars developed a plan to bombard French ships in their harbours, using poison gas from burning sulphur. By now an admiral, Dundonald suggested it would work against Sevastopol, but the town fell before the government could make use of his idea. Much of Thomas Cochrane's career provided the basis for the character of Jack Aubrey in the novels by Patrick O'Brien.

Eastlake, Sir Charles (1793 – 1865) Artist who had spent fourteen years in Italy, before supervising the interior decoration of the new Palace of Westminster. President of the RA, he became the first director of the National Gallery in 1855.

Eastty, Nathaniel (c.1793 – 1859) Beer merchant and shipping agent, with premises in Upper Thames Street. Born in Ipswich, Eastty was a member of the same Baptist chapel there (Stoke Green) as Josiah Whymper, and was a deacon at Maze Pond chapel for sixteen years. His son John Eastty (1823/4 – 1896), a provision agent connected to Corderoy and Co, was also a prominent member of Maze Pond chapel, who lived at 86 Grange Road, Bermondsey.

Edgar, William (c.1790 – 1869) Silk mercer with Swan and Edgar of Piccadilly, who lived in Clapham.

Elgin, James Bruce, eighth Earl of (1811 – 1863) High commissioner and plenipotentiary in China from 1857 to 1859.

Ellis, Thomas (c. 1803 – after 1861) Letterpress printer in Lambeth. [Whymper could be referring to a naturalist painter, Thomas Ellis (fl. 1842 – 1856) who lived at Peckham, and exhibited at the RA.]

Ellis, William (1794 – 1872) Missionary who started a series of visits to Madagascar in 1852, where his proselytizing efforts failed but he made valuable botanical collections, and took many photographs. The Whympers engraved the illustrations to his book Three visits to Madagascar during the years 1853-1854-1856, published in 1858.

Estcourt, James Bucknall Bucknall (1802 – 1855) Major-General, who died of cholera in the Crimea.

Evans, David (fl. 1858) Baptist preacher from Manchester

[Evans see Bradbury, William]

Exeter, John (c. 1771 – 1856) Landed proprietor, resident in Lambeth.

Fahey, James (1804 – 1885) Watercolour painter and secretary of the NWCS from 1838. He resigned in 1874 due to financial irregularities.

Fariner, Thomas (c.1835 – ?) Engine smith in Bermondsey.

Farnfield, William Henry (1838 – 1897) Neighbour of the Whympers in Lambeth Terrace, who became an articled clerk to a solicitor. Farnfield's father was an artillery officer (on half pay).

Fauntleroy, Thomas (c. 1797 – 1870) Ivory merchant and box wood supplier in Tooley Street. His daughter Jane Fauntleroy was a witness at the wedding of Emma Brown and Henry Hill.

Fenton, Roger (1819 – 1869) Lawyer whose inheritance allowed him to follow an interest in art, then photography, Fenton was instrumental in setting up the Photographic Society of London (from 1894 the Royal Photographic Society). He was commissioned by Thomas Agnew to take photographs in the Crimea, where he stayed from March through June of 1855.

Ferdinand II (1810 – 1859) Bourbon King of the Two Sicilies from 1830, responsible for the heavy-handed suppression of liberal opposition in 1848.

Fishbourne, James Culbert (c.1827 – 1875) Baptist minister in Thaxted, then Hastings.

Foster, Myles Birket (1825 – 1899) After early training as a wood engraver, Birket Foster became a widely admired watercolour painter and illustrator. He provided illustrations for many books of poetry – Scott, Milton – and Birket Foster's Pictures of English Landscape, engraved by the Dalziels, was a showcase for his work. At Josiah Whymper's suggestion, he moved from St John's Wood, to Witley, near Haslemere, in 1863.

Foulsham, Chester (1837 – 1904) Schoolfellow of Edward Whymper's, who became an architect. Foulsham's father managed the Clayton Arms in Lambeth.

Franklin, Sir John (1786 – 1847) Naval officer and arctic explorer, who left London in May 1845, commanding Erebus and Terror, on his second attempt to find the north west passage. After leaving Greenland in July they were never seen again. Many expeditions went in search of Franklin, and in 1854 John Rae found evidence of bodies from the two ships on King William Island. In 1859 Leopold McClintock confirmed the disappearance of the ships' entire crews.

Fuller, Andrew (1754 – 1815) Baptist theologian and first secretary of the Baptist Ministry Society. His son, Andrew Gunton Fuller (1799 – 1884), and grandson Sir Thomas Ekins Fuller (1831 – 1910), were both members of Maze Pond chapel, but left there to become ministers elsewhere. Thomas Fuller later became an important political figure in South Africa.

Gale, Joseph (c.1832 – 1891) Sign and ticket writer, born in East London.

Galland, Robert (c.1826 – 1896) Solicitor with Edwards, Frankish and Galland of New Palace Yard, Westminster, who lived at Larkhall Lane, Clapham.

Garbett, Edward (1817 – 1887) Church of England minister of St Bartholomew's church, Gray's Inn Road, and editor of The Record.

George, Jonathan (d. c. 1860) Born in Glamorgan, a Baptist minister in Camberwell.

Gibson, Edmund Stanley (1820 – 1895) Draughtsman on wood, who lived at 3, Henry Place, Kennington Lane.

Gibson, Thomas Milner (1806 – 1884) Radical MP for Manchester from 1841 to 1857, then for Ashton under Lyne from December 1857 to 1868. His amendment to the Conspiracy to Murder Bill caused the defeat of Palmerston's administration in 1858.

Gilbert, Frederick (c. 1828 – ?1896) Water colour painter and draughtsman, resident in Lewisham then Greenwich.

Gilbert, Sir John (1817 – 1897) Prolific illustrator and painter, Gilbert lived all his life at Blackheath. A member of the Old Water Colour Society, and later a Royal Academician, Gilbert was knighted in 1872. In an un–credited article written while on the boat to Ecuador, Whymper drew attention to his astonishing facility as a draughtsman on wood. 'As a boy, the writer of this notice has often waited whilst Gilbert has made a drawing for some magazine or other publication. The MS has been read, the composition determined upon, and the drawing executed in less time than most artists would find necessary for the reading of the MS alone.' Whymper marvelled at Gilbert's completion of his full page illustration of the Charge of the Light Brigade, for the Illustrated London News in only three hours, while the newspaper's messenger waited for the block. ("Sir John Gilbert R.A." Leisure Hour 1880: 183–185.)

Gillman, James (b. c.1842) Schoolfellow of Whymper's who went into the army. His father was a clergyman, and his mother from New South Wales.

Gladstone, William Ewart (1809 – 1898) Chancellor of the Exchequer under Aberdeen from 1853 until his resignation in February 1855. He remained in opposition until re-accepting this post under Palmerston in June 1859. He was subsequently Prime Minister on four occasions: 1868-74, 1880-85, 1886 and 1892-4.

[Glennie see Glenny]

Glenny, William Joseph (1838 – 1886) Born in Battersea, Glenny worked as a drawing master, before becoming Professor of Drawing at King's College.

Goddard, Arabella (1836 – 1922) Pianist.

Godwin, George (1813 – 1888) Architect and writer who edited The Builder, a popular weekly professional journal.

Gomez, Antonio (b. c.1829) Neapolitan sentenced to life imprisonment for the attempted assassination of Napoleon III on 14 January 1858.

Goodall, Walter (1830 – 1889) Watercolour painter resident in St Pancras.

Gorchakov, Mikhail (1795 – 1861) Russian commander in chief of the forces in Moldavia when the Crimean War started, then appointed the commander in Sevastopol when Menshikov was recalled.

Gosse, Philip (1810 – 1888) Zoologist who did much to popularize natural history through his books and promotion of aquaria. His religious views did not allow him to accept Darwin's theory of evolution, or the geological evidence for the age of the earth. He drew the illustrations to many of his own books himself, often working directly onto the wood block. After his first wife died, Gosse and his son Edmund moved from Islington to Devon.

Gotch, Frederick William (1808 – 1890) Baptist minister and tutor at the Baptist College in Bristol.

Gould, Anne D. (b. c.1820) Artist resident in Camberwell, married, but not living with a husband.

Gould, John (1804 – 1881) Ornithologist and publisher who had worked on Darwin's bird collections, when the Beagle returned in 1836.

Graham, Sir James Robert George (1792 – 1861) Home Secretary under Robert Peel from 1841 until 1846, Graham returned to government as First Lord of the Admiralty in Aberdeen's coalition of 1852. He resigned in February 1855.

Gray, John Edward (1800 – 1875) Keeper of the zoology department at the British Museum from 1840; Gray had an honorary doctorate from the University of Munich.

Gray, Thomas (1716 – 1771) Poet, whose family had a long connection with Stoke Poges, where he is buried. In 1856 Josiah Whymper had engraved some illustrations by Birket Foster to a new edition of Gray's An elegy written in a country churchyard.

Green, Charles Frederick (1840 – 1898) Watercolour painter and illustrator, who had been apprenticed to the Whympers. He subsequently made a successful career as a black and white artist, providing illustrations for Dickens' The old curiosity shop and many of the periodicals. He was living next to the Whymper's studio in Canterbury Place during his apprenticeship.

Green, Samuel Gosnell (1821 – 1905) Baptist minister who was a lecturer and, from 1863, president of the Baptist college in Yorkshire. From 1876 he was the book editor of the Religious Tract Society.

Green, Stephen (c.1796 – 1874) Manager of a pottery works at Prince's Street, near Blackfriar's Bridge. He lived at 3 Union Place in Lambeth, before moving to Clapham. With his first wife Emma (c.1805 – 1851) he was a long–standing member of Maze Pond chapel. He married Mary Clay (c.1815 – ?) in 1856. Stephen Green was a witness at Josiah Whymper's marriage to Emily Hepburn in 1866.

Greenfield, Henry (c.1813 – 1881) Cabinet-maker at 21 Lambeth Terrace, a neighbour of the Whympers.

Grimthorpe, Edmund Beckett Denison, Baron (1816 – 1905) Barrister and amateur horologist, who, along with the Astronomer Royal, George Airy, was joint referee of the competition to build the new clock for the Palace of Westminster. The design and working of the clock owe more to Denis on than to anyone else.

Grisi, Giula (c. 1810 – 1869) Italian opera singer established in London, who performed with her lover, Mario.

Grosvenor, Lord Robert (1801 – 1893) Third son of the first Marquess of Westminster, Grosvenor was MP for Middlesex until August 1857, when he was elevated to the peerage as Baron Ebury. In 1855 he introduced his Sunday Trading Bill, to prevent shops in London opening on Sundays. Popular hostility, culminating in the riot in Hyde Park on 1 July 1855, caused him to withdraw the bill.

Gubbins, Martin Richard (d. 1863) Employee of the East India Company since 1830, his house in Lucknow formed a salient part of the defence of the residency during the events of 1857.

Guthrie, Thomas (1803 – 1873) Popular Free Church of Scotland minister, who published his sermons and pamphlets against the evils of drunkenness.

Haghe, Louis (1806 – 1885) Watercolour painter, who also worked as a lithographer. His painting, "A public letter writer in the remains of the Theatre of Marcellus, Rome" was shown at the NWCS annual exhibition in 1857.

Hall, Benjamin (1802 – 1867) MP for Marylebone until 1859, he brought in the bill to establish the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855, and became chief commissioner in July that year. His name was given to the bell in the clock tower of the new Houses of Parliament.

Hall, Samuel Carter (1800 – 1889) Writer originally from Ireland who settled in London to make a living from journalism and editing. For many years he edited the Art Journal, as well as producing such illustrated books as Ireland, its Scenery, Character, etc. (1841–3), for which Josiah Whymper engraved some of the pictures. A tireless campaigner for temperance and the improvement of the poor, he may be the model for Pecksniff in Martin Chuzzlewit.

Hallam, Henry (1777 – 1859) Historian responsible for such works as The constitutional history of England from the accession of Henry VII to the death of George II (1827), and Introduction to the literature of Europe in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries (1837–9). The death of Hallam's son Arthur Henry is commemorated in Tennyson's poem, In memoriam.

Hanbury, Robert Culling (1823 – 1867) Partner in the brewery firm of Truman, Hanbury, Buxton and Co, he was MP for Middlesex from 1857 to 1867.

Handel, George Frederick (1685 – 1759) German composer who settled in London. The hundredth anniversary of his death fell in April 1859.

Hands, T. (fl. 1857) Baptist minister in Salisbury.

Harcourt, James (c. 1799 – aft. 1873) Baptist minister at the chapel in Borough Road, Southwark.

Harding, George (c. 1822 – 1858/9) Farmer from North Cadbury, Somerset, who married Sarah, the widow of Edward Whymper's uncle Theophilus. He became an innkeeper in Shepton Mallet but was declared bankrupt in May 1856. After his early death his widow worked as a barmaid.

Hardinge, Henry (1785 – 1856) Governor–general of India from 1844 to 1848, he succeeded Wellington as general commanding–in–chief on the latter's death in 1852.

Harvey, William (1796 – 1866) Wood engraver trained by Thomas Bewick, Harvey moved to London in 1817 on completion of his apprenticeship, settling in Richmond. Gradually abandoning engraving, Harvey became a skilled draughtsman, doing much work for Charles Knight. Many of his beautiful illustrations to Edward Lane's The thousand and one nights (Charles Knight, 1839) were engraved by Josiah Whymper.

Havelock, Sir Henry (1795 – 1857) Long–serving army officer, who commanded a brigade under James Outram during the Indian Mutiny.

[Heath see Butterworth]

Henderson, Frances (1769 – 1806) Wife of George Stephenson and mother of Robert Stephenson.

Hepburn, Emily (1832 – 1886) Daughter of Thomas Hepburn and third wife of Josiah Whymper, whom she married on 4 December 1866 in Battersea. Emily Hepburn exhibited as an artist in her own right, and her drawings illustrated Beauty in common things (London: SPCK, 1874).

Hepburn, Thomas (1797 – 1880) Wealthy merchant with a tannery business in Bermondsey. Hepburn was a deacon at Maze Pond chapel, became a county magistrate and had a large house on Clapham Common. Besides Emily, he had two other daughters, Maria and Sophia, and two sons, Thomas and Arthur, who all became members of Maze Pond chapel.

Herbert, Sidney (1810 – 1861) Follower of Robert Peel, Herbert was Secretary at War in the Aberdeen coalition. He resigned with Gladstone and Graham when Palmerston did not give an assurance that there would be no enquiry into the management of the war.

Hester, Giles (1829 – 1911) Baptist minister.

Hewitt, Elizabeth Barnett (c. 1841 – aft. 1891) Born in Liverpool, Elizabeth Hewitt eloped with Edward Whymper's cousin John Charles Whymper in 1857.

Hoddle, John (1827 – 1869) Boot maker at Fox Court, Holborn.

Hogarth, John (1832 – 1895) Photographic printer in the Haymarket, who later moved to Manchester and became a restorer of engravings.

Hook, Walter Farquhar (1798 – 1875) High church Anglican, popularly thought to be sympathetic to the Tractarians. Hook was vicar of Leeds from 1837 until 1859, when he became dean of Chichester.

Howitt, William (1792 – 1879) Prolific author who, after an ill-advised venture at magazine publishing led to bankruptcy, spent two years in Australia. His Land, labour and Gold: or, two years in Victoria: with visits to Sydney and Van Diemen's Land (1855) was published the year after his return. Howitt's wife Mary (1799 – 1888) wrote popular works for the SPCK, for which the Whympers engraved many of the illustrations.

Hue, Évariste Régis (1813 – 1860) French missionary who travelled from Canton to Tibet, reaching Lhasa in 1846.

Hugo, Victor (1802 – 1885) French novelist best known for The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1831) and Les Misérables (1862). After Louis Napoleon's coup d'état of 1851, Hugo fled to Brussels, then Jersey. From 1855 he lived in Guernsey.

Hume, Joseph (1777 – 1855) Radical MP for Montrose.

Hussey, James McConnell (c. 1819 – 1891) Curate, then vicar, of Christ Church, Brixton.

Ingram, Herbert (1811 – 1860) Trained as a printer, Ingram made enough money as a distributor of pills, using some dubious publicity, to allow him to start the Illustrated London News in 1842. This made him a rich man, and he was elected MP for Boston in 1855.

James, Edwin (1812 – 1882) Queen's Counsel, James acted for the prosecution in the trial of William Palmer in 1856. He was later disbarred for fraud and fled to New York owing £100,000. He may be the original for Mr Stryver in A tale of two cities.

Johns, Charles Alexander (1811 – 1874) Ordained deacon, a school master and writer on natural history. The Whympers engraved the illustrations by Joseph Wolf to Johns' British birds in their haunts (London: SPCK, 1862).

Jones, David (c.1820 – 1887) Baptist minister in Folkestone, who later moved to New Park Road chapel, Brixton.

Jones, Ernest (1819 – 1869) Leading chartist, Jones had been one of the main speakers at the great demonstration on Kennington Common, in April 1848.

Jones, Sir Harry David (1791 – 1866) Lieutenant-General in the Crimea during 1855, he was wounded in an attack on the Redan.

Jones, William (fl. 1856) Baptist minister in Newport, Isle of Wight.

Joy, William (1803 – 1867) William Joy and his brother, John Carihloe Joy (1806 – 1859) were marine painters from Great Yarmouth. However, it is possible that Whymper's reference is to Thomas Musgrave Joy (1812 – 1866), a portrait painter resident in Pimlico.

Jullien, Louis Antoine (1812 – 1860) Conductor and impresario, ruined by the bankruptcy of the Surrey Gardens Company in 1857.

Kane, Elisha Kent (1820 – 1857) American arctic explorer who led an expedition to the north west of Greenland in 1853, ostensibly to look for Sir John Franklin, but in practice to find a way to the North Pole. After two winters in the Arctic, the expedition ended unsuccessfully in some disarray.

Kearney, William Henry (1800 – 1858) Founder member and later vice–president of the NWCS; he lived at 114 High Holborn.

Kelke, William Hastings (c.1803 – 1865) Rector of Drayton Beauchamp, Buckinghamshire and a writer on law and ecclesiastical history.

Kingsley, Charles (1819 – 1875) Author and religious controversialist, best known for his novel, The water babies (1863).

Kirkland, Charles (1811 – 1886) Baptist minister in Canterbury.

Knowles, James Sheridan (1784 – 1862) Playwright and actor, who started a second career as a Baptist preacher in 1844.

Lablache, Louis (1795 – 1858) Singer and comic actor from Naples who performed to great popularity in London from 1834 to 1855.

Lancaster, Richard Bottomley (c. 1813 – 1893) Baptist minister at Regent Street chapel, Lambeth.

Lance, George (1802 – 1864) Artist and Baptist.

Langham, Nat (1820 – 1871) Bare–knuckle prize fighter.

Layard, Sir Austen Henry (1817 – 1894) Archaeologist and liberal politician, Layard had been a strong critic of the government during the Crimean War and lost his seat as MP for Aylesbury in 1857. Josiah Whymper had engraved the illustrations to his books on Nineveh, published by John Murray.

Ledru-Rollin, Alexandre Auguste (1807 – 1874) French revolutionary politician.

Leggatt, Henry (c. 1791 – 1858) Senior partner in the firm of Leggatt, Hayward and Leggatt, art dealers in Cornhill. Fosters, the auctioneers, sold his collection of water colour sketches, including works by Turner, Clarkson Stanfield, David Roberts and David Cox, at their Pall Mall premises on 26 February 1858.

Leigh, Jane (c. 1792 – aft. 1861) Sister of Samuel Leigh.

Leigh, Samuel (c.1794 – 1856) Cashier at the Bank of England, who adopted Edward Whymper's mother, the orphaned Elizabeth Claridge. He lived in Peckham with his sisters Jane Leigh and the widowed Ann Sowerby.

Leslie, Charles Robert (1794 – 1859) Historical genre painter and member of the RA.

Lewis, John Frederick (1805 – 1876) Painter who had spent ten years in the Middle East.

Leyland, John (c. 1815 – 1882) Governor of Bridge House Reformatory, High Street, Wandsworth.

Livingstone, David (1813 – 1873) Scottish missionary and explorer, the first European to see the falls on the Zambezi, which he named after Queen Victoria. The Whympers engraved the illustrations drawn by Joseph Wolf to Livingstone's Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa, published while he was in London in 1857.

Locke, John (1805 – 1880) Barrister and Liberal MP for Southwark from 1857 to 1880.

[Louis Napoleon see Bonaparte]

Lucan, George Charles Bingham, third Earl of (1800 – 1888) Commander of the cavalry in the Crimea, Lucan was responsible for the immediate order to the Light Brigade, which resulted in their infamous charge on 25 October 1854. This was rancorously disputed between Lucan and Lord Raglan, resulting in the former's recall from the Crimea, which he left on 14 February 1855.

Lyons, Lord Edmund (1790 – 1858) Naval officer and diplomat, who was second in command to Admiral Richard Dundas when the Crimean War started. Lyons captured Balaclava in 1854 and Kinburn the following year. His well–publicised views on the conduct of the war earned him a different reputation from the cautious high command of the navy.

Macaulay, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Baron (1800 – 1859) Historian and politician. The first two volumes of his History of England were published in 1848 and volumes three and four in December 1855.

Mackay, Charles (1812 – 1889) Poet and writer, with an LLD from Glasgow University, who worked as an editor for the Illustrated London News from 1848 until 1859.

McKewan, David Hall (1816–1873) Watercolour painter born in London, probably a pupil of David Cox. A member of the NWCS from 1850, McKewan exhibited his pictures of Smyrna at their annual exhibition in 1859.

Mackness, John Thomas (c. 1831 – aft. 1857) Painter and decorator in Regent Street, Lambeth.

Maclise, Daniel M. (1806 – 1870) Historical painter and member of the RA.

Macmillan, Alexander (1818 – 1896) Along with his brother Daniel (1813–1857), the founder of the Macmillan publishing house.

Macpherson, Charles (c.1789 – aft. 1856) Printer in Edinburgh.

Mahon, Philip Henry Stanhope, Lord (1805 – 1875) Politician and historian whose History of England from the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Versailles, 1713-1783 was published in seven volumes, 1836–1853. He later succeeded as 5th Earl Stanhope.

Malcolm, James (c. 1828 – aft. 1861) Baptist minister from Aberdeen, who was pastor at Maze Pond for a few months in 1857.

Manning, Samuel (1821 – 1881) Baptist minister at Sheppard's Barton, Frome from 1846 to 1861. From 1863 Manning was book editor of the Religious Tract Society. He started a prolific series of illustrated travel books (Swiss pictures drawn with pen and pencil, Italian pictures drawn with pen and pencil, and many others) for which the Whympers did some of their best engravings.

Mario, Giovanni Matteo de Candia (1810 – 1883) Italian tenor singer, the lover of Giula Grisi.

Marley, Robert (c. 1817 – 1856) Ticket-of-leave convict who had been transported for housebreaking. He was hung on 15 December 1856 for the murder of Richard Cope, a jeweller's assistant.

Marmora, Alfonso Ferrero La (1804 – 1878) Sardinian general, La Marmora, arrived in the Crimea with 15,000 troops in April 1855. He was prime minister of Italy from 1864 to 1866.

Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805 – 1872) Italian democratic political activist.

Menshikov, Aleksander Sergeyevich (1787 – 1869) Russian commander in chief in the Crimea until being replaced in February 1855.

Metternich, Klemenz von (1773 – 1859) Austrian diplomat who played a significant part in the post-Napoleonic settlement at the Congress of Vienna, in 1815.

Millais, William (1828 – 1899) Landscape painter, elder brother of John Everett Millais (1829 – 1896), pre-Raphaelite artist.

Millard, James Henry (1819 – 1883) Baptist minister who moved from Huntingdon to become pastor of Maze Pond chapel in 1858, but resigned in 1863. He was later secretary of the Baptist Union for fifteen years.

Miller, Hugh (1802 – 1856) Scottish journalist, writer and geologist, Miller shot himself at his home in Edinburgh in December 1856. His autobiography, My schools and schoolmasters, was published in 1852.

Miller, William Frederick (1834 – 1918) Architectural draughtsman and wood engraver.

Miller, William Henry (1815 – 1895) Printer, stationer and publisher at 6 Bridge Street, Lambeth.

Mole, John Henry (1814 – 1886) Landscape painter, a member of the NWCS.

Molesworth, Sir William, Bt, (1810 – 1855) Radical MP for Southwark from 1845 to 1855.

Montalembert, Charles de (1810 – 1870) Liberal journalist, whose article entitled, "Un débat sur l'Inde au Parlement anglais," so offended Louis Napoleon that he was arrested.

Moon, Sir Francis Graham, Bt, (1796 – 1871) Publisher who was Lord Mayor of London during Louis Napoleon's visit of 1855.

Moore, Thomas (1779 – 1852) Poet, the author of Lalla Rookh. His Memoirs, journal and correspondence was published in eight volumes by Longman between 1853 and 1856.

Morbey, Joseph (fl. 1857) Carver and guilder with offices at 69 Bishopsgate.

Morrell, Henry (fl. 1858) Pen and ink merchant in Fleet Street.

Morrison, James (1789 – 1857) Merchant banker, who left property worth four to six million pounds on his death on 30 October 1857.

[Mouriaveff see Muraviev-Amurskii]

Mudie, Charles Edward (1818 – 1890) Son of a bookseller, Mudie founded a popular circulating library, available to paying subscribers. From his headquarters at 510 New Oxford Street, Mudie also operated as a publisher.

Muraviev-Amurskii, Nikolai Nikolaevich (1809 – 1881) Russian general and commander in Armenia.

Murchison, Roderick Impey (1792 – 1871) President of the Geological Society, and of the Royal Geographical Society, responsible for important work on geological history in the 1830s.

Murray, John (1808 – 1892) Methodical businessman, John Murray took over the management of the family publishing firm in 1843. Josiah Whymper had started his association with the firm by this date, and he and Edward continued to work for Murray's for more than 50 years, engraving the illustrations to accounts of travel, guide books, and numerous scientific and natural history works. Whymper organised the illustrations to all Schliemann's works on his archaeological discoveries, published in English by Murray. John Murray published all Whymper's own books, and at the end of his life Whymper gave the copyrights to the firm. Murray was an early member of the Alpine Club.

Nakhimov, Pavel Stepanovich (1802 – 1855) Admiral in charge of the Russian Black Sea fleet and military governor of Sevastopol. He was killed by a sniper's bullet at the Redan.

Nana Sahib (1824 – ?) Indian ruler who had quarrelled with the British over his pension, and was involved in the massacre of Europeans during and after the siege of Cawnpore in 1857. After the Mutiny he probably escaped to Nepal, but his subsequent whereabouts and details of his death are not known for certain.

Napier, Sir Charles (1786 – 1860) Commander of the naval forces in the Baltic in 1854, Napier was MP for Southwark from 1855 to 1860.

[Napoleon see Bonaparte]

Nasmyth, James (1808 – 1890) Engineer principally known for inventing a steam hammer.

Need, Captain Henry (c. 1818 – 1875) Royal Navy captain who made a series of watercolours while on anti-slavery patrols off the coast of West Africa in the 1850s.

Nightingale, Florence (1820 – 1910) Nursing organizer known for her work among the allied troops at Scutari during the Crimean War. The subscription opened to support her work there had raised £28,000 by the end of May 1856.

Nisbet, James (c. 1817 – aft. 1858) Publisher, 21 Berners Street

Nosotti, Charles (c. 1830 – 1909) Looking glass manufacturer, gilder, cabinet maker and interior decorator, in Oxford Street.

[Nosotty see Nosotti]

Novello, Clara (1818 – 1908) Popular soprano who retired from public performance in 1860.

Orsini, Felice (1819 – 1858) Italian revolutionary, executed along with Giuseppe Pieri, for the attempted assassination of Louis Napoleon on 14 January 1858.

Outram, Sir James (1803 – 1863) Army officer in the East India Company, who with Havelock was responsible for the relief of Lucknow in September 1857.

Palmer, William (1824 – 1856) Surgeon in Rugeley, Staffordshire, who was convicted at the Old Bailey of poisoning his friend John Parsons Cook. Robert Graves wrote a novelised account of the story, They hanged my saintly Billy. Although agreeing that Palmer was 'a scoundrel and spendthrift,' Graves shared Whymper's opinion that Palmer was probably innocent of the crime for which he was hung.

Palmerston, Henry John Temple, third Viscount (1784 – 1865) Foreign minister between 1830 and 1841, and then under Lord Russell from 1846 to 1851, Palmerston was Home Secretary when the Crimean War started. He was made Prime Minister in February 1855 to popular acclaim on the resignation of Aberdeen's government. Resigning after the failure of his conspiracy to murder bill in 1858, he returned as prime minister in June of the following year and died in office.

Panmure, Fox Maule, second Baron (1801 – 1874) Secretary of State for War in Palmerston's government of 1855 to 1858.

Pasha, Omar (1806 – 1871) General of Serbian origin who commanded the Ottoman forces in the war against Russia.

Paul, Sir John Dean, Bt, (1802 – 1868) Partner in the bank of Strahan, Paul and Bates. Having been trading while insolvent, bankruptcy was declared in June 1855, with debts of £750,000, but the bank had fraudulently sold securities belonging to its customers. After escaping the police at Reigate station, Paul turned himself in at Bow Street. Strahan and Paul were released from Woking prison in 1859.

Paxton, Sir Joseph (1803 – 1865) Landscape gardener at Chatsworth who designed the Crystal Palace for the 1851 Great Exhibition. Paxton was responsible for the extensive gardens in Sydenham, where the building was re-erected in 1854.

Pease, Edward (1767 – 1858) Quaker and original promoter of Stephenson's railway at Darlington.

Pélissier, Aimable Jean Jacques (1794–1864) Commander of the French forces in the Crimea during the final year of the war. He was French ambassador to London from 1858 to 1859.

Pellatt, Apsley (1791 – 1863) Glass manufacturer and Liberal MP for Southwark from 1852 until 1857, when he lost his seat, having been a director of the Royal British Bank (although he avoided prosecution).

Penton, Lawrence (c. 1830 – 1889) Painter, sign writer and grainer in Lambeth.

Peters, Thomas (c.1826 – aft. 1856) Baptist minister in Rayleigh, Essex.

Pewtress, Joseph (1813 – 1887) News vendor and rag merchant who established a large printing and publishing firm, which printed the Baptist Magazine. His brother Edmund Pewtress (1820–1915) was a stationer and publisher. A relation and also a Baptist, Stephen Pewtress (1828/ 9 – 1910) was a London bookseller. Many of the Pewtress family were members of Maze Pond chapel.

Phelps, Samuel (1804 – 1878) Actor and theatre manager who successfully ran Sadler's Wells from 1844 until 1862.

Pianori, Giovanni (1827 – 1855) Italian who attempted to shoot Louis Napoleon on 28 April 1855. He was guillotined two weeks later.

Pickersgill, Henry William (1782 – 1875) Portrait painter and member of the RA. His nephew Frederick Richard Pickersgill (1820 – 1900) was also a painter, but not a member of the RA in 1856, when Whymper mentions his visit.

Pierce, Earl (1823 – 1859) American banjo player and comedian who had come to London in 1857 with an offshoot of the original Christy's Minstrels.

Pieri, Giuseppe (c. 1807 – 1858) Italian revolutionary, executed along with Felice Orsini, for the attempted assassination of Louis Napoleon on 14 January 1858.

Pinches, Conrad Hume (c.1819 – 1881) Whymper's schoolmaster at Clarendon House. Pinches was also a barrister, and practised after finishing as a schoolmaster in the 1870s.

Price, John (fl. 1856) Baptist minister in Weymouth.

Prior, William Henry (1812 – 1882) Landscape painter and draughtsman, a follower of Bewick's pupil William Harvey. Prior worked for Charles Knight and for Vizetelly on the Illustrated Times. In 1851 he was resident at 72 Oakley Square, St Pancras, then moved to Plumstead.

Probart, Edward (c. 1798 – 1874) Manufacturing chemist resident in Lambeth.

Rachel (1821 – 1858) Stage name of the French actress Elisa Felix.

Radetsky, Joseph, Count von Radetz, (1766 – 1858) Austrian field marshal, after whom Strauss's Radetsky march was named.

Raffles, David (c.1827 – aft. 1859) Gardener resident in Lambeth.

Raglan, Fitzroy James Henry Somerset, first Baron (1788 – 1855) Commander of the British force in the Crimea until his death there on 28 June 1855.

Read, Samuel (1816 – 1883) Watercolour painter, born at Needham Market, Suffolk. He learnt wood engraving with Josiah Whymper, also studying with Collingwood Smith. The Illustrated London News sent him to Constantinople in 1853. He provided illustrations for books published by the SPCK, and became an associate of the Old Water Colour Society in 1857, and finally a member in 1880. He lived at 55 Argyll Road, Kensington.

Reade, Charles (1814 – 1884) Successful popular author best known for The cloister and the hearth (1861).

Redgrave, Richard (1804 – 1888) Landscape painter and member of the RA.

Redpath, Leopold (c.1816 – aft. 1857) Clerk of the Great Northern Railway Company who was convicted of forging deeds transferring stock, and sentenced to transportation for life.

Reeves, John Sims (1818 – 1900) Tenor singer who had studied in Paris and Milan.

Reid, S. (fl. 1855) Draughtsman on wood

Rennie, Sir John (1794 – 1874) An engineer with extensive factories near Blackfriars Bridge, Rennie was responsible for the new London Bridge built in 1831.

Richardson, Edward M. (1810 – 1874) Landscape watercolour painter who became an associate of the NWCS in 1859, is likely to be the Richardson mentioned by Whymper. He had several brothers who were also painters: Thomas Miles Richardson (1813 – 1890); Henry Burdon Richardson (c. 1811 – 1874); Charles Richardson (1829 – 1908).

Rivington, George (1801 – 1858) Rivington's was a long–established family publishing firm located, after 1853, at Waterloo Place, Pall Mall. During the time of the diary the firm was run by George Rivington, Francis Rivington (1805 – 1885), and later by Francis' son, Francis Hansard Rivington (1834 – 1913). The family also had a large printing business, based in St. John's Square.

Roberts, David (1796 – 1864) Landscape artist who travelled in Egypt and the Holy Land. His paintings and sketches were published as coloured lithographs in five volumes, Views in the Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt and Nubia (London: F.G. Moon, 1842 – 9).

Robins, Thomas (1814– 1880) Landscape painter and member of the NWCS.

Robinson, John (fl. 1858) Baptist preacher.

Robson, William James (c.1820 – aft. 1857) Principal clerk at the Crystal Palace Company from 1853, Robson was convicted of stealing shares and sentenced to twenty years' transportation.

Roebuck, John Arthur (1802 – 1879) Independent MP for Sheffield from 1849 to 1868. His motion to set up a select committee to inquire into the state of the army before Sevastopol was carried by 157 votes in 1855.

Roffey, Thomas William (1840 – 1928) Schoolfellow of Edward Whymper's, and later his solicitor.

Rogers, Samuel (1763 – 1855) Poet, who bequeathed three paintings to the National Gallery, and whose library and art collection raised £50,000 at Christies in May 1856. His poem Italy was published with illustrations by Turner.

Rosevear, William T. (1824 – 1908) Baptist minister in Coventry, born in Cornwall.

[Roseveer, Rosevere see Rosevear]

Rothschild, Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, Baron de (1808 – 1879) MP for the City of London from 1847 until 1868, then from 1869 until 1874.

Roupell, William (1831 – 1909) After a turbulent election Roupell was elected for Lambeth as a Liberal in 1857. Returned as MP in 1859, he resigned in 1862 and absconded to Spain (whereupon Fred Doulton was elected). Returning to England Roupell was recognised and convicted of forging a will and a deed. Sentenced to penal servitude for life, he was released in 1876.

Rowbotham, Thomas Charles Leeson (1823 – 1875) Watercolour painter of landscapes and a member of NWCS from 1851.

Rudio, Carlo di (1832 – 1910) Italian condemned to death for his involvement in the attempt to assassinate Napoleon III on 14 January 1858. His sentence was commuted to live imprisonment on Devil's Island, from which he escaped, reaching London in 1860.

Russell, Lord John Russell, first Earl (1792 – 1878) Prime Minister from 1846 to 1852, Russell served in Palmerston's administration after 1855, and was sent to an inconclusive peace conference in Vienna, partly because Palmerston wanted him out of the way. He returned to government with Palmerston in 1859, as Foreign Secretary.

Russell, William Howard (1820 – 1907) Russell went to the Crimea as a reporter for The Times and stayed there two years, his critical articles having a wide influence on public opinion. Russell's book, The War: from the landing at Gallipoli to the death of Lord Raglan, was published in two volumes (1855, 1856).

Sadleir, John (1815 – 1856) MP for Sligo, who committed suicide on Hampstead Heath, after being engaged in fraudulent share transactions.

Salomons, Sir David (1797 – 1873) Banker who became the first Jewish Lord Mayor of London in 1855.

Sandall, Henry Blandford (c. 1817 – 1890) Architect resident in St George's Road, Southwark.

Sandwith, Humphrey (1822 – 1881) Army physician who served throughout the siege of Kars. When the garrison surrendered in November 1855, the Russian commander Muraviev released Sandwith in recognition of his treatment of Russian prisoners, and he returned to London in January 1856. His account of the siege, A Narrative of the siege of Kars, and of the six months' resistance by the Turkish garrison, under General Williams, to the Russian Army, was published by John Murray in 1856; the Whympers engraved the book's two illustrations.

Saunders, John (1811 – 1895) Writer and editor, Saunders was managing his own illustrated monthly, the National Magazine, when imposed on Josiah Whymper and George Clowes by the SPCK. Edward Whymper was probably mistaken in thinking he was a lawyer.

Saward, James Townsend (c. 1797 – aft. 1857) Lawyer convicted of forgery in connection with laundering the proceeds of the bullion robbery from the South Eastern Railway in 1855. He was sentenced to transportation for life.

Sayers, Tom (1826 – 1865) Undefeated boxing champion.

Scott, Joseph (c.1831 – 1888) Wood engraver born in Ireland who trained with the Whympers and afterwards worked for them, particularly on Cassell's Picturesque Europe (1876–9).

Scott, Thomas Dewell (c.1828 – 1911) Engraver and draughtsman on wood, resident in Camberwell.

Scovell, George (c.1804 – 1890) Wharf and dock proprietor, born in Lambeth.

Seymour, Sir Michael (1802 – 1887) Naval officer, who served in the Baltic during the Crimean War, then took charge of the China station in 1856.

Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, seventh Earl of (1801 – 1885) Politician and an evangelical philanthropist, Shaftesbury was president of the Ragged School Union from 1844.

Sharp, J. W. (1817 – 1856) Jack Sharp was a popular comic singer who performed at Vauxhall Gardens.

[Sharpe see Sharp]

Sheepshanks, John (1787 – 1863) Cloth manufacturer and art collector who donated his collection of British paintings and drawings to the new South Kensington Museum in 1857.

Shelley, Sir John Villiers (1808 – 1867) Liberal MP for Westminster from 1852 to 1865 and a supporter of the National Sunday League, established to extend the leisure opportunities available to those who worked for six days of the week, by opening such places as the Crystal Palace and the British Museum on Sundays.

Sherman, John (1788 – 1861) Cricketer who played until into his sixties.

Sibthorp, Charles de Laet Waldo (1783 – 1855) Tory MP.

Simpson, Sir James (1792 – 1868) Army officer who succeeded to the command of British forces in the Crimea on Lord Raglan's death. He resigned his command in November 1855, after the taking of Sevastopol.

Skelton, Percival (c. 1813 – 1887) Illustrator, an unsuccessful candidate for the NWCS. Skelton had a long relationship with the Whympers, for whom he drew designs on the wood block. He is credited as a draughtsman in Scrambles amongst the Alps and Travels amongst the Great Andes of the Equator. He married Sir Charles Eastlake's sister, Katherine. In 1851 he was resident in Bath, then moved to 7 Ampthill Square, Marylebone.

Skill, Edward (1831 – 1873) Wood engraver born in Yarmouth, who worked in London. He moved to Sweden in 1864. His father Frederick Skill (b. c.1801) was a printer born in Norwich, and his younger brother Thomas (b. c.1830) a painter who moved to Lambeth. The draughtsman mentioned by Whymper could also be Frederick Skill (1824 – 1881), an artist and draughtsman on wood, born in Swaffham, who settled in west London.

Smiles, Samuel (1812 – 1904) Writer, whose best–known work, Self help, was published by John Murray, immediately following the biography of George Stephenson, for which Edward Whymper draw the illustrations. Before moving to London, Smiles had been the editor of the Leeds Times, had got to know George Stephenson, and had a lifelong involvement in the development of the railways. He lived in Lewisham.

Smirke, Sydney (1798 – 1877) Younger brother of Robert Smirke, the architect responsible for the British Museum. Sydney Smirke built the reading room between 1854 and 1857, enclosing the rectangular courtyard left by his brother.

Smith, Albert (1816 – 1860) Originally a doctor, Smith made his living as a public entertainer. After climbing Mont Blanc in 1851 (the wood–engraver Henry Vizetelly, who knew Smith, maintained that he had been carried up the last part of the mountain by his porters), Smith opened his entertainment, The ascent of Mont Blanc, illustrated with moving panoramas, at the Egyptian Hall in 1852. By far the most popular show in London, the performance closed two days after Whymper's visit in June 1858.

Smith, Charles Manby (1805 – 1880) Author of The working man's way in the world, being the autobiography of a journeyman printer (1853).

Smith, Edward Tyrrel (1804 – 1877) Impresario who managed the Drury Lane Theatre from 1852 until 1862.

Smith, Madeleine (c.1835 – 1928) After a sensational trial lasting nine days, Madeleine Smith was acquitted of murdering her lover, L'Angelier, with the Scottish verdict of 'Not Proven', indicating not that she was innocent but that there was insufficient evidence to convict her. This case formed the basis of Wilkie Collins' novel, The law and the lady (1875).

Smith, William Collingwood (1815 – 1887) Landscape painter in water colour, who ran a teaching practice at his residence in Brixton. He taught Josiah Whymper.

Smithers, Henry Keene (c. 1813 – 1874) Secretary of the Commercial Dock Company, sentenced to six years' penal servitude in June 1858, for embezzling up to £9,000 from his employer. Resident in Camberwell, he had three sons and three daughters.

Soper, Thomas James (c. 1817 – 1893) London landscape painter, born in Edmonton, resident in Denmark Hill, then Lambeth.

Sowerby, Ann (c. 1790 – 1861) Sister of Samuel Leigh.

Sparrow, John (c.1807 – ?1858) Engraver, resident in Lambeth.

Spooner, William (fl. 1859) Printer and publisher in the Strand.

Spurgeon, Charles Haddon (1834 – 1892) Popular Baptist preacher, who achieved celebrity for his sermons to enormous crowds in London. He established the Metropolitan Tabernacle at the Elephant and Castle in 1861.

Stalker, Alexander M. (c. 1815 – 1892) Baptist minister, born in Scotland, who served in Leeds, then Frome.

Stanfield, Clarkson (1793 – 1867) Landscape painter who specialised in marine subjects, Stansfield was a member of the RA.

Stapleton, John (1815 – 1891) MP for Berwick from 1857 to 1859, Stapleton was one of the directors of the Royal British Bank, along with Humphrey Brown, charged with fraudulently publishing false accounts.

Stephenson, George (1781 – 1848) An engineer responsible for a new miner's safety lamp in 1815, and then the development of the modern railway locomotive.

Stephenson, George Robert (1819 – 1905) Nephew of George Stephenson, he worked with his cousin Robert Stephenson as a railway engineer from an office in Great George Street.

Stephenson, Robert (1803 – 1859) Son of George Stephenson, he followed his father as a railway engineer. He was MP for Whitby from 1847.

Stokes, William (1803 – 1881) Baptist minister involved in the Peace Society.

Strafford, John Byng, Earl of (1772 – 1860) Army officer who fought at Waterloo.

Strahan, William (fl. 1831 – 1859) Originally William Snow, a banker convicted of fraud, with Sir John Paul and Robert Bates.

Street, George Edmund (1824 – 1881) Ecclesiastical architect and architectural writer, based in London from 1856.

Such, John (1810 – 1878) Printer born in Southwark and resident in Clapham.

Suffolk, Charles John Howard, seventeenth Earl of (1804 – 1876) Ten paintings were stolen from the Howard family home at Charlton Park, Wiltshire, in October 1856. John Farbon, a messenger at the War Office, was charged with their theft.

Sulman, Thomas (1832 – 1900) A draughtsman on wood, born and resident in Islington.

Sunter, Edwin (b. c.1835) Edwin Sunter and Leonard Sunter (b. c.1833) were whitesmiths (metal workers) resident in Lambeth.

Swinfen, Charles Albon (c.1830 – 1895) Engraver, born and resident in Lambeth.

Symons, William Martyn (c. 1817 – 1890) Printer and stationer in Bridge Street, Lambeth.

Taylor, Robert E. (1823 – 1897) Printer in Lambeth.

Tenniel, Sir John (1820 – 1914) Artist and Punch cartoonist best known for his illustrations to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865), engraved by the Dalziels. Josiah Whymper engraved his illustrations to an edition of Aesop's Fables. From 1854 Tenniel lived at 10 Portsdown Road, Maida Hill.

Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811 – 1863) Author of Vanity Fair (1847-8) who wrote prolifically for periodicals.

Thomson, Arthur Saunders (1816 – 1860) Army surgeon who worked in New Zealand from 1848 until 1858. He was in London until November 1859, when he left for China. His book, The story of New Zealand (J. Murray, 1859), for which the Whympers engraved the illustrations, was the first written history of New Zealand.

Thornbury, Walter (1828 – 1876) Author who had travelled widely, and contributed to Dickens' All the year round. (His father was a solicitor, from which Whymper may have derived his mistaken opinion of John Saunders.)

Thornton, William (c.1814 – 1887) Auctioneer, land agent and valuer, resident in Reigate.

Thynne, Lord John (1831 – 1896) Later fourth Marquess of Bath, diplomat and politician with Anglo–catholic views.

Todleben, Eduard Ivanovich (1818 – 1884) Russian military engineer who organized the defence of Sevastopol during the Crimean War.

Tomlinson, Charles (1808 – 1897) Lecturer and schoolmaster, who studied at the London Mechanics' Institute, and wrote on a variety of scientific subjects, his most successful work being Cyclopedia of Useful Arts (1852).

Trench, Richard Chevenix (1807 – 1886) Dean of Westminster from 1856, where he introduced Sunday evening services.

Trestrail, Frederick (1803 – 1890) Baptist minister and secretary of the Baptist Missionary Society from 1849 to 1870.

Truscott, James Wyatt (c.1824 – aft. 1858) Printer for SPCK, at Nelson Square, Blackfriars Road.

Turner, Joseph Mallord William (1775 – 1851) One of the most important English artists, and a leading figure in the Romantic Movement.

Underhill, Edward Bean (1813 – 1901) Secretary of the Baptist Missionary Society, he travelled in India and Ceylon from 1854 to 1857, then lived in Hampstead.

Ure, Andrew (1778 – 1857) Scottish chemist who published works on contemporary industrial practices.

Vacher, Charles (1818 – 1883) A member of the NWCS who had travelled in Italy.

Vaughan, Dr John (c. 1793 – c. 1859) Vicar of St Matthew's, Brixton, Vaughan was acquitted at the central criminal court of making false entries in the parish register of burials.

Venables, Richard (c.1774 – 1858) Archdeacon of Carmarthen.

Villiers, Henry Montagu (1813 – 1861) Canon of St Paul's, he began his incumbency as Bishop of Carlisle on 25 February 1856.

Vince, Charles (1824 – 1874) Baptist minister of Graham Street chapel, Birmingham.

Vizetelly, Henry Richard (1820 – 1894) Trained as a wood engraver in Kennington, Vizetelly ran a printing, engraving and publishing business before moving to Paris in 1865. He worked with Ingram on the Illustrated London News, then, when newspaper stamp duty was about to be abolished in 1855, started his own Illustrated Times, with the publisher David Bogue as proprietor.

Vokins, William (1815 – 1895) Dealer in works of art in Marylebone.

Waddington, David (c.1806 – aft. 1861) Chairman of the Eastern Counties Railway and MP for Harwich from 1852 until 1857.

Wakley, Thomas (1795 – 1862) Medical journalist, editor of the Lancet, radical MP for Finsbury from 1835 to 1852 and coroner for West Middlesex from 1839.

Walker, Frederick (1840 – 1875) Important painter in oil and water colour, who trained as a wood engraver with the Whympers for two years, from the end of 1858.

Walker, William (1824 – 1860) American freebooter who intervened in a civil war in Nicaragua in 1855, and, as commander of the army, established a regime there that was recognised by the American government in May 1856.

Walmsley, Sir Joshua (1794 – 1871) MP for Leicester and president of the Sunday Society, which campaigned for the opening of museums on the Sabbath, as a result of which he lost his seat in 1857.

Ward, Edward Matthew (1816 – 1879) Painter of historical genre subjects.

Warner, William (c.1801 – 1886) Wheelwright, married to Charlotte (c.1809 – 1877), who lived on Ham Common.

Warren, Henry (1794 – 1879) Artist, resident in Chelsea. From 1839 to 1873 he was President of the NWCS. His son, Edward George Warren (1834 – 1909), was also a member of the NWCS.

Warren, Mary (c. 1771 – 1856) Wife of John Warren, a carpenter of 3 Norfolk Row, Lambeth, and neighbour of the Whympers.

Warren, Samuel (1807 – 1877) Author of Passages from the diary of a late physician (1832).

Waterlow, Sir Sydney (1822 – 1906) Printer who became Lord Mayor of London.

Watkins, John (c.1823 – 1874) Photographer in Parliament Street.

Watkins, John (c.1826 – 1899) Wood engraver, born in London and resident in Highbury, Islington.

Watson, J. (fl. 1858) Publisher working for Nisbet and Co.

Watson, Thomas James (c.1799 – 1857) Superintendent of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum in Old Kent Road.

Watts, John (1785 – 1858) Partner in the pottery firm of Doulton, Watts in Lambeth High Street. John Watts founded the Baptist chapel in Regent Street, Lambeth.

Weale, John (1791 – 1862) Publisher and writer on architecture, with offices in High Holborn.

Weedon, Edwin (c. 1819 – 1873) London painter of ship scenes. In 1857 his address was 15 Essex St, Strand, then in 1861, 3 Danes Inn, Westminster.

Weir, Harrison William (1824 – 1906) Oil painter of natural history and landscape scenes, originally trained by the printer George Baxter. Weir worked both as a draughtsman on the wood block and an engraver for the Illustrated London News. He lived at Lyndhurst Road, Peckham.

Wells, Charles Tennant (c. 1808 – 1879) Draughtsman on wood who had worked for Charles Knight, then set up as a manufacturer of engravers' wood blocks, with premises in Bouverie Street.

Wheeler, Ann (b. c.1786) Assistant to her son–in–law, James Gwinn, a bookseller and stationer of The Broadway, St Giles, Camberwell.

White, William B (fl. 1856) Picture dealer in Holborn.

Whymper, Alfred (1843 – 1904) Edward's brother. Alfred trained as a printer, then in 1884 was ordained in the Church of England, working as a vicar in Nottingham and Southwell.

Ebenezer (1811 – 1879) Nathaniel Whymper's oldest child and Edward's uncle. Ebenezer Whymper was a Baptist minister but also worked in the wood engraving business with his brother Josiah. He lived at Moore Place, Lambeth, with his wife Lydia (c. 1817 – 1859); they had three surviving children, Harriet, John Charles and Elizabeth. Ebenezer married his second wife Susannah Dearlove in 1860, but she died the following year, whereupon he married again, in 1862. His third wife, Eliza Wade survived him.

Elijah (1822 – 1883) Younger brother of Josiah, and Edward's uncle. Elijah served his apprenticeship as a wood engraver in Josiah's workshop.

Elizabeth (1848 – 1935) Edward's oldest sister. Elizabeth never married but spent her life in social service, becoming a major in the Salvation Army, and a leading temperance campaigner.

Frederick (1838 – 1901) Edward's older brother. Frederick served his apprenticeship as a wood engraver but showed more interest in water colour painting, and had exhibited by the time he was twenty one. In June 1862 he sailed to Vancouver, returning to London at the end of 1867. His book Travel and adventure in the territory of Alaska was published by John Murray the following year.

Henry Josiah (1845 – 1893) Edward's brother. Henry worked in bookselling and publishing before training as a brewer in Burton on Trent. In 1866 he started work at the recently built brewery at Murree, in the Punjab (modern Pakistan), of which he became the manager. Henry Josiah was a leading freemason.

John (1827 – 1895) Younger brother of Josiah and Edward's uncle. He was a grocer in Watford.

John Charles (1838 – bef. 1891) Edward's cousin, the eldest son of Ebenezer Whymper. John Charles Whymper worked as a wood engraver in Lambeth. As recorded on 22 March 1857, he married Elizabeth Barnett Hewitt (then aged about sixteen) in Oxford. They settled near the Elephant and Castle and their first child was born in December 1858.

Joseph (1850 – 1886) Edward's brother. Joseph trained as a brewer and followed his brother Henry to Murree, later managing the Crown Brewery in Mussoorie. He married there, but died as the result of a cart accident.

Josiah Wood (1813 – 1903) Nathaniel Whymper's second son and Edward's father, born in Ipswich. Like his older brother Ebenezer, he married three times. His second wife, Elizabeth Whitworth Claridge (1819 – 1859) was the mother of his eleven children.

Nathaniel (1787 – 1861) Josiah Whymper's father and Edward's grandfather. He was a brewer and town councillor in Ipswich, of radical political views. He married three times, first to Elizabeth Orris (1791 – 1829) with whom he had eight surviving children; then Elizabeth (1788 – 1838), the widow of Thomas Bradlaugh, whom he married in 1834, and finally Charlotte Gross (1818 – 1894), with whom he had one daughter, Charlotte (1851 – 1927), who married Thomas Elkington.

Samuel Leigh (1857 – 1941) Edward's youngest brother. Educated at University College School and trained as a chemist, Samuel followed his brothers to India in 1877. He became a manager at Murree before moving to Naini Tal, from where he retired in 1913, then travelled round the world. He was a keen ornithologist and angler.

Theodosia (1828 – 1891) Josiah Whymper's youngest sister is almost certainly the aunt mentioned on 30 May 1859. She lived with her father Nathaniel until her marriage to George Barnes in 1860.

Theophilus (1840 – 1887) Edward's cousin, the son of Josiah's younger brother Theophilus (1820 – 1843). His father died when he was young and his mother Sarah (c. 1818 – aft. 1901), returned to her place of birth, North Cadbury, in Somerset, and married a local farmer George Harding. In 1861 Theophilus was a warehouseman in Lambeth, but by 1871 he had become a draper in Yeovil, recently married to his cousin Harriet Whymper (c. 1837 – 1875), Ebenezer's oldest child. After Harriet's death, Theophilus married again in 1877.

William Nathaniel (1855 – 1917) Edward's brother. William Nathaniel attended University College School and then joined Royal Exchange Assurance when seventeen. He retired as company secretary in 1917.

Wilkinson, William (1795 – 1865) MP for Lambeth from 1852 until 1857.

Willey, W. (fl. 1856) Baptist minister in Oxford.

William, Charles Cave (fl. 1858) A railway carriage maker in Glasshouse Yard, Goswell Street.

Williams, D. (fl. 1857) Baptist minister in Accrington, Lancashire.

Williams, William (1788 – 1865) Radical MP for Lambeth from 1850 to 1865.

Williams, Sir William Fenwick (1800 – 1883) British commissioner with the Turkish army, Williams was in charge of the garrison at Kars that was forced to surrender in November 1855.

Wire, David (1800 – 1860) Born in Colchester, Wire was elected Lord Mayor of London in 1858.

Witherington, William Frederick (1785 – 1865) Landscape painter and member of the RA.

Wolf, Joseph (1820 – 1899) Wildlife painter, born in Germany, invited to London (where he settled in Primrose Hill) in 1848 by the Zoological Society, to illustrate a book on birds. His long association with the Whympers had started by the time of their collaboration on David Livingstone's first book. In 1873, Edward and Josiah Whymper effectively published (under the imprint of Alexander Macmillan) The life and habits of wild animals, illustrated by designs by Joseph Wolf a beautifully engraved showcase of Wolf's illustrations. Edward's younger brother Charles was trained by Wolf.

Woods, William (c. 1832–aft. 1891) In 1853 he married Josiah's younger sister Hephzibah Whymper (1826–1895), and is therefore Edward's uncle. Born in Yarmouth, William Woods worked as an accountant before becoming a Baptist minister in Swaffham, later moving to Nottingham.

Wordsworth, Christopher (1807–1885) Nephew of the poet William Wordsworth, Christopher Wordsworth was canon at Westminster Abbey from 1844. Twenty two of the illustrations to his Greece: pictorial, descriptive and historical (London: William S. Orr, 1839), were engraved by Josiah Whymper.

Wormull, Henry (1815–1866) Surgical instrument maker in Portland Street, Newington, Lambeth. [Whymper could be referring to the probably related Anthony Wormull, a cutler in Lambeth Walk.]