II. DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF COMMODITIES
The list is an alternative to a full index. Although all the commodities
in the calendar are listed below, reference is only made to their first entry.
The descriptions do not claim to be comprehensive: a few commodities
remain unidentified while others are too familiar to require explanation.
The following books have been especially useful in supplementing the
Oxford English Dictionary:
H. R. Schubert, History of the British iron and steel industry (1957)
Oskar de Smedt, De Engelse natie te Antwerpen in de 16e
eeuw (Antwerp, 1950,
H. J. Smit, Bronnen tot de geschiedenis van den handel met Engeland, Schotland en
Ierland, 1485–1585. Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën, 86, 91 ('S-Gravenhage,
E. M. Veale, English fur trade in the later Middle Ages (Oxford, 1966)
T. S. Willan, Tudor Book of Rates
Andirons, iron, 18; latten, 191. See also Latten
Argentum vivum, see Quicksilver
Argol, 18. The crude bitartrate of potassium which, when purified,
becomes cream of tartar.
Ashes, 480; 'rouse', 660; soap, 437. Wood ashes for making lye, the alkalised
water used in cloth manufacture.
Awl blades, 45
'Babies', see Dolls
Backs, iron, 234. Probably chimney backs (q.v.).
Bags, leather, 710
Baking pans, copper, 258. See also Pans
Balances, gold, 808; ounce, 64. See also Weights
Balls, 45. See also Tennis balls, Washing balls
Bands, copper, 155
Barber's cases, 771
Barlings, 602. 'Barlings or fir-poles' in the 1611 Book of Rates.
Barrels, empty, 154
Basil leather or skin, 154. Sheepskin tanned in bark.
Baskets, 717; wicker, 410. See also Hand baskets
Basnets, latten, 18. Small rounded headpieces with ventail or visor. See
Bastards, 198. A sweet wine; sometimes applied to any kind of sweetened
Basts, 563. Any flexible fibrous bark used in rope-making. See also
Cables, Cordage, Hawsers, Rope
Battery, 18. Articles of metal wrought by hammering, especially kettles,
Bays, bay berries, 46. Fruit of the bay laurel tree.
Beads, glass, 18
Beams, wooden, 178
Beaver backs, 805
Beaver bellies, 790
Bed pans, 18
Beds, 339; Ghentish, 154; sealed, 624; of silk, 653
Bells, 213; dog, 729; hawk, 759; horse, 18; morris, 298
Beryllia, 472. Oxide of berylium or glucinum, otherwise called glucina.
'Blues', 539, see 539n
Boards, cutting, 670; paste, 487
Books, unbound, 38
Bottles, earthenware, 334; stone, 346; wicker, 2
Bottoms, brass and copper, 294
Boultel, 154; Beaupreau ('Beapers'), 340; Rennes, 155. A cloth used for
bolting or sifting meal or flour.
'Box combs', 395. The Book of Rates lists 'box pieces for combs', rated
by the thou. and 'combs the box' with half a gross the box. See also
Boxes, 339; painted, 154; soap, 564
Brazil, 143. A red dye made from the wood of the East Indian tree
'Brissels', 46. A fabric, associated perhaps with Brussels.
Brooches, lead, 458
Brushes, 383; hair, 539; rubbing, 367; weaver's, 156. See also Comb
Buckles, latten, 756; paper, 18
Buckram, 47; French, 636. A linen cloth, usually Flemish and blue-dyed.
Budge, rumney, 576. Lambskins, the name being derived from Bougie in
North Africa, whence skins were exported to Flanders and Brabant.
Rumney (Roumenie) was the name given to lambskins from
Bugle, 572; glass, 580
Bustian, 45. A cotton or cotton and linen cloth.
Buttons, glass, 340; Milan, 296; steel, 435
Cables, 3. See also Basts
Calf-forrel, 487. Forrel, a vellum-like parchment for book covers.
Calf skins, 785
Cambric ('Camerick'), 503. A fine white linen cloth from Kamerijk
(Cambrai) in Flanders.
Camlet, 45; unwatered, 781; watered, 339. A mixed fabric of uncertain
composition but often incorporating silk and probably of high quality.
See also Grogram camlet
Candle plates, 18; latten, 703
Candlesticks, 146; latten, 213
Candy, 46; brown, 45. Sugar in large crystallised pieces.
Cans, drinking, 740
Canvas, 2; Bar ('barroys' or 'barras'), 18; Castile, 367; 'clincent', 45;
cushion, 535; Dutch packing, 45; Newcastle, 46; Normandy, 156;
packing, 2; 'spruce', 647; striped, 156; striped with crewel, 405;
striped with silk, 389; Tours, 827; Troys, 367; Vitré ('Vetery'), 67;
working, 458. Bar canvas was a coarse linen cloth or packing canvas
named after the principality of Bar. 'Clincent' may indicate a shiny or
burnished canvas (Middle Dutch cleinson, clinsen = cleansed, shiny:
English 'clinquant'). See also Poldavis
Cap-paper, 337. See also Paper
Cap ribands, 18
Caps, taffeta, 771
Caraway seed, 433
Carpets, 45; Ghentish or sealed, 45; 'turney' (? Tournai or Turnhout),
191; Venice, 46
Carrels, 502. A mixed fabric of silk and linen.
Carving tools, 18
'Catlins', 435. ? catlings, a small surgical knife; or catgut for stringed
Chafing dishes, 2; latten, 389. Vessels which hold burning charcoal or
other fuel, for heating purposes.
Chain-lace, crewel, 2. See also Crewel
Chains, see Dog chains, etc.
Chamber stools, 155. See also Close stools
'Chaps', 594. ? Chapes or metal pieces attached to buckles, scabbard
Checks, check pieces, 154; worsted, 45. Fabric woven with a check or
Cheese, Holland, 110
Chests, 297; Danzig, 632
Chimney backs, 365. Iron plates which protected the back walls of
fireplaces. See also Backs
Chimney rakes, iron, 178
Citherns, 305. A stringed musical instrument. See also Gitterns
Clapholt, clap boards, 28. A small size of split oak, used for barrel-staves
Close stools, 259. See also Chamber stools
Cloth(s), coarse, 628; cradle, 339; dyed, 465. See Eeklo, Gelders,
Ghentish, Hamburg, Harnesdale, Olonne cloths.
Coal-fish, 240. A fish allied to the cod and found in northern seas.
Colombets, 18. An unidentified cloth; perhaps a variation of 'camlet'.
Coloquintida, 466. Or colocynth, the bitter-apple, used as a purgative.
Comb brushes, 45
Comb cases, 435
Combs, 2; halfpenny, 827; horse, 290; paper, 395; pennyware, 64; quarter,
265; wooden, 457. See also 'Box combs'
Cooper's tools, 46
Copper, see Baking pans, Bands, Bottoms, Hangings, Nails, Pans, Wire
Copperas, 155. Iron sulphate, used in dyeing, tanning and making ink.
Cordage, 28. See also Basts
Coriander seed, 45
Corn powder, 18. Gunpowder that has been granulated. See also
Cotton, unspun, 771. See also Cyprus cotton
Cotton wool, 234
Counters, 45. Pieces of metal or other material, used in counting or keeping
Creepers, 146. A small iron 'dog', placed in pairs on a hearth between
Crewel, 18. A worsted yarn. See also Chain-lace, Dornick, Girdles
Crewel lace, 64
Croplings, 3. An inferior kind of stockfish.
Crossbow laths, 462
Cruse, stone, 42. An earthenware pot or jar.
Cucumber seed, 522
Cuit, 198. Wine boiled down to a certain thickness and sweetness.
Cumin, 710. A plant, like fennel, with aromatic seed.
Curtain rings, 211
Cushion cloths, 335
Cyperus, 367. Probably sweet cyperus or gelingale.
Cyprus cotton, 18
Damask, 18; for napkins and towelling, 576
Dates, 45; garbled, 463. Garbled = sifted and cleansed.
Deals, 28; Marienburg ('Meighborro'), 599; spruce, 563
Dials, 234; wooden, 340
Diaper towelling, 237; for napkins and table cloths, 576
Dog chains, 18
Dolls ('Babies'), 491
Dornick, 18; caddis, 367; crewel, 46; French, 236; woollen, 155. Dornick,
which takes its name from Doornik in Flanders, was a fine linen
cloth. Caddis = crewel.
Doubles, 46; hand, 539; iron, 45. The Book of Rates distinguishes between
'double iron plates', rated by the piece, and double or single plates
('white' or 'black') by the cwt. The distinction is not clear. Iron and
other metals were commonly worked into sheets or plates and doubling was a normal method of strengthening them. Grey and white
were the two basic types of cast iron. See also Plates
Dripping pans, 154
Dudgeon, 18. A wood used for the handle of knives, etc.
Ear picks, 463
Eeklo cloth, 157. Eeklo ('Ecclo') was an important centre of linen-weaving.
Eels, 564; dole, 89; pimper-, 216; shaft-, 239; stub-, 205. The difference
between these types of eel is obscure. They may indicate distinctions
in age and colouring.
Epithyme, 522. A plant used in medicine.
Falcon, 21. Also entered as tercel-gentle ('tassell gentill') = a male falcon.
Feathers, 21; ostrich, 591
Felts, felt hats, 415
Fenugreek ('Venecreke'), 730. A leguminous plant cultivated for its
seeds, which were used both medicinally and to provide a yellow
Figs, 247; Algarve, 207
Figs-dode and -merchant, 113. '-dode' indicates an inferior kind of fig.
Files, 45; goldsmith's, 259
Fireshovel plates, 45
Fish, 22; green, 597. See also Coal-fish, Croplings, Eels, Herrings, Lings,
Staplefish, Stockfish, Sturgeon, Titlings
Flasks, gun, 678
Flax, 10; bale, 510; bundle, 477; quartern, 488; ton, 477. Bale, etc.
presumably indicate the way the flax was packed.
Flax and hair, 465
Foin backs, 67. Foin, the skins of stone marten.
Foin potes, 155. Potes ('pouts') are furs from the paws or mains of an
Foin tails, 155
Foin wombs, 67
Forrel, see Calf-forrel
Fox backs, 67
Fox skins, 624
Fringes, 45; half-silk, 45; silk, 191
Frizado, 154. A fine kind of frieze.
Frying pans, 18
Fustian, 46; Genoa, 154; Milan, 210; Naples, 45; Ulm ('holmes'), 18.
A cloth of cotton and flax, manufactured principally in Italy and
Galls, 18. Oak-apples or gall-nuts, used in making ink, tanning, dyeing
Gelders cloth, 582. Probably a linen cloth.
Ghentish cloth, 18. A linen cloth; Ghent was a main centre of production.
Gimlets, wooden, 643
Ginger, 18; green, 53
Girdles, crewel, 389; velvet, 771
Girdling(s), 64; crewel, 155; worsted, 576
Gitterns, 305. See also Citherns
Glass(es), 4; Burgundy, 146; drinking, 155; halfpenny ware, 702; Normandy, 64; Rhenish, 20. See also Beads, Buttons, Looking glasses,
Grain berries, 357. The Book of Rates lists grain of Portugal and of
Seville, the latter in berries. Both were probably forms of the grainlike insect kermes or alkermes which produced a scarlet dye.
Grains, see Grain berries, Guinea grains
'Greens', 539. Probably green dornick, as listed in the Book of Rates.
Grogram camlet, 296
Grogram silk, 62
Guinea grains, 265. Malagueta pepper, obtained from West Africa.
Gum, 296. The Book of Rates lists eight types of gum.
Gum arabic, 191
Gunpowder, 18; serpentine, 341. Serpentine was gunpowder in fine meal,
as opposed to the corned or granulated kind. See also Corn powder
Guns, see Hand guns
Halbert heads, 462
Hamburg cloth, 21. A linen cloth.
Hand baskets, 242. See also Baskets
Hand guns, 810
Hangings, copper, 234
Harnesdale cloth, 18. A linen cloth.
Harp strings, 45
Hat bands, 45
Hats, 340. See also Caps, Felts, Straw hats
Hawsers, 28. See also Basts
Hazebroucks ('Hasbrough'), 18. A linen cloth of Hazebrouck in France.
Heath brushes, 6. 'Heath for brushes' in the Book of Rates.
Hedlack, 381. A linen cloth.
'Hedlands', 18. ? a variant spelling of hinderlands.
Hellebore, white, 367. Plant used medicinally.
Hemp, 18; Cologne, 18
Hemp seed, 232
Hides, 761; cow, 785; raw, 590
Hinderlands, 21. A linen cloth.
Holland cloth, 18. A linen, probably woven in Flanders and only bleached
Horns, iron, 643
Horns [writing], 678
Hose, see Silk hose, Stammel hose
Hour glasses, 4
Ink, see Printer's ink
Inkle, 18. A kind of linen tape, or the thread or yarn from which it is
Ireos ('Erius'), 154. Root of the Florentine Iris, used in pharmacy.
'Irims' or 'Iruns', 643. Probably iron-ware, but not identified.
Iron, 63; 'ames', 45; faggot, 557; 'Lukes', 466; 'small square', 18; Spanish,
63; spruce, 145. Willan equates 'ames' with Almayne = Germany,
but H. R. Schubert, op. cit., 313 more convincingly takes the word
to signify the district of Amiens, a centre of iron manufacture in
northern France. Faggot indicates iron in rods and bundles;
'Lukes' = Luik i.e. Liège; 'small squares' were the smaller of the
two sorts of cast iron bars which were normally produced in the
sixteenth century, being thinner and lighter than the 'long squares'.
See also Doubles, Plates; and Andirons, Chimney backs, Horns,
Pans, Pots, Rakes, Thread, Wire
Irons, see Planing irons
Jews' trumps, 490
Joiner's tools, 178
Kerseys, dyed, 156
Kettle bands, 463
Knives, 18; 'Almaine', 45; Cologne, 212; German, 541; single, 213.
Almaine = German.
Lace, 45; narrow, 395; passement ('percement'), 45. Passement was a
simple form of lace whereby the threads were passed or interlaced.
Lapis calaminaris, 211. Calamine, a zinc ore used medicinally for external
Latten, black, 781; shaven, 156. Latten, a mixed metal either identical
with or closely akin to brass. Black latten was milled brass in
plates or sheets; shaven were thinner sheets. See also Andirons,
Basnets, Buckles, Candle plates, Candlesticks, Chafing dishes, Pipes,
Lead tablets, 64
Lignum vitae, 45. Wood from the guaiacum tree, used in medicine.
Lince, 154. Lince = linsey, a coarse linen cloth.
Linen, 156. See also Buckram, Bustian, Cambric, Eeklo, Gelders cloth,
Ghentish cloth, Hamburg cloth, Harnesdale cloth, Hazebroucks,
Hedlack, Hinderlands, Lince, Linsey-wolsey, Middlegood, Minsters,
Olonne cloth, Osnabriicks, Padduck, Soultwich
Linseed oil, 18. Also called painter's oil.
Linsey-wolsey, 296. A cloth of linen and wool.
'Locke persers', 46
Locks, 46; gate, 710; hanging, 211; horse, 710; 'slight', 435. See also
Long pepper, 703. Milder than common black pepper, long pepper had
Looking glasses, 2; crystal, 45; halfpennyware, 45; pennyware, 730;
Lutes, 305; Antwerp, 703; Cologne, 466; Venice, 53
Lute strings, 45. Or minikins.
Mace, 45; garbled, 710
Madder, 18; Bruges, 763; German, 46. See also Mull-madder
Manna, 539. The juice of certain sorts of ash tree, used as a purgative.
Marking stones, 435
Marten, see Foin
Mattriss cards, 4. Playing cards regarded as defective.
Mazer wood, 617
Middlegood, 3. A linen cloth.
Minikins, see Lute strings
Mink, 790; untawed, 15
Minsters, 155. A linen cloth originally from Münster.
Mockado, 18. An imitation velvet, of wool and silk.
Molasses, 539. See also Treacle
Mull-madder, 45. The most inferior of the four qualities of Dutch madder.
Nails, card, 710; copper, 827; great, 155; head, 18; patten, 178; rose, 290;
saddler's, 535; small, 18. See also Tacks
Napkins, 285. See also Damask, Diaper
Neckerchief bands, 18
Needle cases, 457
Needles, 45. See also Pack needles
Nigella, 46. 'Anguilla romayne' or 'nigillum romanum', a plant of which
the seeds were used for medicinal purposes.
Nightcaps, quilted, 576; quilted linen, 702
Oil, 154; bay, 298; Seville, 272. See also Linseed oil, Rape oil, Train oil
Olonne cloth ('oulderons'), 213. A linen cloth from Brittany.
Onion seed, 154
Orchil, 365. A red or violet dye obtained from lichens.
Orpiment, 45. Trisulphide of arsenic, used as a pigment.
Osnabrücks ('Ozenbridge'), 3. A linen cloth originally from Osnabrück.
Pack needles, 234
Pack thread, 2; bottom, 462
Padduck, 468. A linen or canvas cloth.
Padlocks, 178. See also Locks
Painter's oil, see Linseed oil
Panele, 291. Brown unrefined sugar.
Pans, copper, 146; earthenware, 731; iron, 45. See also Baking pans,
Dripping pans, Frying pans, Warming pans
Paper, 2; brown, 211; printing, 38; writing, 827. See also Cap-paper
Parchment skins, 497. See also Calf-forrel
Paste boards, see Boards
Paving stones, 367
Paving tiles, 365
Penners, 678. Cases or sheaths for pens.
Pens, see Writing pens
Pepper, 18. See also Long pepper
Pinpillows, 234; cloth, 710; tin, 384
Pipes, 339; latten, 298; wooden, 516
Planing irons, 710
Plates, black or white, 18; 'funi', 294; furnace, 730; iron, 45; latten, 433.
See also Doubles, Fireshovel plates
Playing cards, 2. See also Mattriss cards
Playing tables, 36
Points, 64; check, 367; half, 212; leather, 435; thread, 18. Cord fastenings
Poldavis, 69. A coarse canvas, taking its name from Pouldavid in Brittany.
Pots, earthenware, 731; galley, 365; iron, 265; stone, 18
Pottingers, 297. Small basins or soup dishes.
Printer's letters, 228
Printing ink, 228
Pumping stocks, 228
Purse rings, 11
Purses, velvet, 771
Purse wire, 340
Quicksilver, 155. Or argentum vivum.
Raisins, 78; 'de lixa', 88; Malaga, 112; Marbella, 87
Raisins of the sun, 38. Sun-dried raisins.
Rakes, see Chimney rakes
Rape oil, 10. Oil from rape seed, for domestic use.
Rasters, 719. Or Rafter = spar, lath.
Rattles, wicker, 4
Red lead, 18
Riband, caddis, 433. See also Cap ribands, Thread ribands
Rings, 4. See also Curtain rings, Purse rings
Rods, 50. For basket-making.
Rope(s), tarred, 36; untarred, 761. See also Bast-ropes, Cables, Cordage,
Rosalger, 2. Disulphide of arsenic, used as a pigment.
Roses, 643. Roses for headpieces, i.e. rosettes worn on caps or hats.
Rugs, 339; cradle, 212
'Russels', 259. ? Linen cloth from Roeselare (West Flanders).
Sack, 137; sherry, 681; Spanish, 355
Sackcloth, 155; striped, 298. A coarse linen cloth.
Salmon, 217; Scotch, 217
Salmon gills, 342
Salt, great, white and bay, 1. Great salt was coarse grained, white was
more fine and pure. Bay salt indicates its origin, from Bourgneuf
'Sanderstock', 643. ? Sandarac, which is listed in the Book of Rates as
sandrake, a resin used in the preparation of spirit varnish.
Sarcenet, 18; Bologna, 647; Florence, 462. A fine silk material.
Satin, 18; Bruges, 522; Genoa, 540
Satin silk, 210
Saws, carpenter's, 781; hand-, 46; tenon-, 211; two-hand-, 46; whip-, 46
Says, 18; gartering, 154; Hondschoote ('Honneskott'), 191. A cloth
similar to serge.
Scomes, 354. An inferior sort of sugar.
'Sea gills', 406
Seeds, 491; garden, 405
Shears, 178. 'Sheres for sempsters' in the Book of Rates.
Sheets, packing, 433
Shirt strings, 348
Shuttles, 156; weaver's, 539
Silk, 46; Bruges, 46; ferret ('floret'), 45; Genoa, 540; Paris, 11; 'poll', 296;
raw dyed, 389; sewing, 282; short, 163; Spanish or Seville, 146;
thrown, 523; undyed, 466. See also Tartarines
Silk cards, 308
Silk hose, 282
Silk nobs, 340
'Sine Alexandrie', 574. Probably some kind of drug: Alexandria (i.e.
Egypt) was a noted source of pharmaceutical materials.
'Sirrills', 643. Possibly some kind of saw, from the Latin 'serra'.
Skins, Flanders, 211; Spanish or Seville, 242; counterfeit Spanish, 464.
See also Basil leather, Beaver, Budge, Calf-forrel, Calfskins, Chamois,
Ermine, Foin, Fox, Goatskins, Hides, Mink, Parchment, Seal, 'Vents',
Soap, 258; black, 708; Castile, 258; Flemish, 513; grey, 702. See also
Soap ashes, see Ashes
Soap boxes, see Boxes
Soultwich, 49. A linen cloth, probably from Salzwedel in Germany.
Spectacle cases, 458
Spectacles, 395. See also Glasses
Squirts, 272. A tubular piece by which water may be squirted.
Stammel, 18. A woven fabric like linsey-wolsey.
Stammel hose, 653
Standishes, 154; leather, 383. Stands with ink, pens, etc.
Staplefish, 23. Cod or other gadoid fish cured by drying and beating.
Stavesacre, 574. A plant, the seeds of which were used as an emetic.
Steel, 18; coarse, 643; 'stass', 18. ? 'Stass' (German) = bundle, sheaf.
Stinice, 522. 'Stene' or 'Scinci', small lizards used in medicine.
Stockfish, 49. See also Croplings, Titlings
Stomachers, furred, 155
Straw hats, 154
Succade, 291. Fruit preserved in sugar, either candied or in syrup.
Sugar, 154. See also Panele, Scomes
Sugar candy, see Candy
Sugar powder, 591
Sumach, 18. Dried and ground leaves, used in tanning and dyeing.
Sword blades, 18
Tablemen, 593. Pieces used in board games.
Tables, 593; walnut, 792. See also Playing tables, Writing tables
Taffeta, 18; 'caffaes', 465; Florence, 462; Levant, 45; Lucca ('Lukes'),
465; Spanish, 357; Tours, 156. 'Caffaes', perhaps from caffa, a rich
Tapestry, caddis, 45; hair, 18; silk, 155; wool, 18
Tartarines, 234. Rich stuff, apparently of silk and originating in the East.
Teazles, 2. The prickly flower-heads of the fuller's teazle, used for raising a
nap on the surface of cloth.
Tennis balls, 46. See also Balls
Tercel-gentle, see Falcon
Tercel-goshawk, see Goshawks
Thread, 18; bottom, 18; Bruges, 18; Cologne, 296; 'copper gold', 576;
crossbow, 45; 'housewaies', 611; iron, 335; linen, 393; Lyons, 38;
Oudenaarde, 18; Paris, 341; piecing, 155; sister's, 433
Thread cards, 710
Thread riband, 154
Ticks, 365; Brussels, 435; Turnhout, 18. Turnhout ('Tournold' or
'Tourney') was the main centre of the flourishing Kempen tickweaving industry. Brussels ticks were a relatively new article.
Tiles, see Paving tiles
Tin tablets, 642. ? A children's toy.
Titlings, 3. A small size of stockfish.
Tooth picks, 771
Towelling, see Damask, Diaper
Train oil, 1. Oil from whales, seal and fish—especially cod.
Treacle, 339; Flemish, 154; Genoa, 154. Flemish treacle was not the
syrup called treacle but a medicinal compound, used as a salve.
Trenchers, 45; penny, 678
'Tressel garnet', 643. Garnet, a hinge for doors, etc., or tackle used on
ships for hoisting in provisions, etc.: tressel = trestle.
Tripe de velours, 298. An imitation velvet.
'Trosies', 595. Probably trusses or ropes used to hold the yards to the
Trunks, 178. ? Hollow tubes from which darts or pellets were shot.
Turmeric, 365. The root-stock of an East Indian plant, used both as a dye
and in medicine.
Turnsole, 46. A violet-blue or purple colouring matter.
Velvet, 18; 'garding', 572; Lucca ('Lukes'), 462. Garding, probably
'garden', indicating a flowered velvet, as in 'garden satin'.
Venice gold, 574
'Vents', 155. A fur or skin, probably 'venter' = the under-belly.
Vermilion, 703. The mineral dye.
Warming pans, 191
Warps, 747. Small ropes.
Washing balls, 463. Toilet soap, sometimes perfumed or medicated.
Weights, brazen gold, 435; gold, 154; pile, 389; troy, 650. Pile weights,
usually of brass and fitting one upon another to form a pile. See also
White lead, 45
Wine, Alicante, 472; Burgundy, 623; Canary, 801; Coniac, 579; corrupt, 80;
Gascony, 61; Nantes, 621; Oléron, 59; Rhenish, 52; Rochelle, 54; of
St. Martin, 224; sweet, 53. See also Bastards, Cuit, Malmsey, Muscatel, Sack
Wire, clavichord, 18; copper, 598; iron, 229; latten, 18. See also Purse wire
Woad, 18; Toulouse, 433
Wood, see Barlings, Beams, Boards, Clapholt, Deals, Mazer wood, Oars,
Rasters, Rods, Spars, Wainscots
Wool, 63; Eastland, 154; estrige, 3; hat, 45; Spanish, 46. Estrige is probably
a corruption of Estriche and is therefore synonymous with Eastland,
i.e. the region of Scandinavia and the Baltic.
Woolcards, 2. An instrument of wire, leather and wood, used for combing
wool prior to spinning.
Woollen edging, 383. For decorating hats.
Wormseed, 155. The dried flower-heads of various plants, used medicinally.
Worsted, broad, 18; narrow, 191. See also Checks, Girdling, Yarn
Writing pens, 298
Writing tables, 155
Yarn, worsted, 18. See also Crewel