Journal of the House of Lords: Volume 3, 1620-1628. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1767-1830.
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DIE Veneris, 27 Februarii,
Domini tam Spirituales quam Temporales, quorum nomina subscribuntur, præsentes fuerunt:
p. Carolus Princeps Walliæ, etc.
Lord Keeper reports the Duke of Buckingham's Narration from the Conference.
THE Lord Keeper, being this Day to report the Narration made by the Duke of Buckingham unto both Houses, at Whitehall, on the 24th of this Instant February, removed from the Wool-sack to his Place on the Earls Bench; for that the said Narration was made to a Committee of the House, and not in the House; the Effect whereof his Lordship reported in this Manner: videlicet,
The Duke's Preface.
"His Grace began with a Threefold Preface: The First, concerning himself; the Second concerning the Prince his Highness; and the Third, concerning the Subject whereof he was to treat. As touching the First, he craved Pardon of both the Houses, if, in the Discharge of this great Burthen which His Majesty had imposed on him, he did not proceed in that Order and Method which leaves in the Memory a sure Dint and Impression, which the Business required; and desires them to consider how unusual it was for him to speak in so great and judicious an Auditory; as touching the Second, he did acknowledge, amongst many great ones, this was none of the least Favours His Majesty had laid upon him, to put him at this Time under the Wings and Protection of the Prince his Highness, without whose Help and Assistance he was now as unable to govern himself in the Parts of the Relation as formerly in the Passages of the Negotiation; for the Third, he noted his Misfortune to fall upon a Subject of such a Nature as shall afford little Honour unto the Relator, of what Affection or Disposition soever he be; for, if he be well affected thereunto, and shall speak the Truth, he must either blush, or wrong his Modesty; if otherwise (as all true-hearted Englishmen must be affected otherwise) he is sure, by laying out all Things in their true Colours, to be taxed of Malice and Envy; however, the Business being of the greatest Importance that Christendom hath afforded these many Years; and that Advice which the Parliament was to give unto His Majesty, being to be founded in Part upon this Relation, he would not be afraid to open so much as might perfectly inform both the Houses in the present Business; but would spare for all that (as far as the Nature of the Relation would give him Leave) to dash upon the Ministers employed from the one or the other King: And this was the Effect of his Grace's Preface.
Heads of the Narration.
"In the Naration itself, his Grace used indeed a close, but yet an exact and perfect Method. A Man might observe therein Six distinct and several Parts. The First was, the Motives of the Prince's Journey to Spaine: The Second was, the Treaty of the Marriage set a-foot in Spaine, severally and by itself: The Third was, the Treaty of the Marriage and Restitution united together, by a reciprocal Subordinaon: The Fourth was, the Prince His Highness's Return from Spaine: The Fifth was, His Majesty's subsequent Proceedings in both the Treaties, sithence the Return: And the last was, the Stating of the Question super totam materiam, wherein both the Houses were to offer unto His Majesty their humble Advice and Counsel. Of these Parts his Grace spake very distinctly and orderly.
Motives of the Prince's Journey to Spain.
"The Motives of the Prince's Journey to Spaine.
"His Grace, acquainting us with his Method, which was to open Things first in the general, and to leave Particulars to shew themselves, took it for granted, that he needed not begin any higher than the Negotiation of Mr. Chancellor of the Exchequer with the Archdutchess, which ministered unto His Majesty the first Occasion of Jealousy, and made a kind of Discovery of their indirect Dealing with this Estate. And then my Lord told us, we should see a Dispatch, written from Hampton Court, upon Mr. Chancellor's Return, and by and by after be acquainted with Mr. Porter's Relation, which was, in very Truth, the Motive of the Prince's Journey.
King's Letter to the Earl of Bristol.
"Here was read the Letter of the Third of October, 1622, to the Earl of Bristow.
"Right Trusty and Right Well-beloved Cousin and Counselor, We greet you well. There is none knows better than yourself, how We have laboured, ever sithence the Beginning of these unfortunate Troubles of the Empire, notwithstanding all Opposition to the contrary, to merit well of Our good Brother the King of Spaine, and the whole House of Austria, by a long and lingering Patience, grounded still upon his Friendships, and Promises, that Care should be had of Our Honour, and of Our Childrens Patrimony and Inheritance. We have acquainted you also, from Time to Time, since the Beginning of the Treaty at Brussells, how crossly Things have there proceeded, notwithstanding the fair Professions made unto Us, both by the King of Spaine, the Infanta, and all His Ministers, and the Letters written by Him unto the Emperor, and them effectually (at the least, as they endeavoured to make Us believe); but what Fruits have We of all these, other than Dishonour and Scorn; whilst we are treating, the Town and Castle of Heidleburg taken by Force, our Garrison put to the Sword, Mainheim besieged, and all the Hostility used that is within the Power of an Enemy, as you will see by the Relation which We have commanded Our Secretary to send you. Our Pleasure therefore is, That you shall immediately, as soon as you can get Audience, let that King understand how sensible We are of these Proceedings of the Emperor towards Us; and withall are not a little troubled to see that the Infanta, having an absolute Commission to conclude a Suspension and Cessation of Arms, should now at last, when all Objections were answered, and the former (solely pretended) Obstacles removed, not only delay the Conclusion of the Treaty, but refuse to lay her Command upon the Emperor's Generals, for abstaining from the Siege of Our Garrisons during the Treaty, upon Pretext of Want of Authority. So as, for avoiding of further Dishonour, We have been enforced to recall both our Ambassadors, as well the Chancellor of Our Exchequer (who is already returned to Our Presence) as also the Lord Chichester, whom we intended to have sent unto the Emperor, to the Dyet at Ratisbone. Seeing therefore, that, merely out of Our extraordinary Respect to the King of Spaine, and the firm Confidence We ever put in the Hopes and Promises which he did give Us, desiring nothing more than, for his Cause principally, to avoid all Occasions that might put us into ill Understanding with any of the House of Austria, We have hitherto proceeded with a stedfast Patience, trusting to the Treaties, and neglecting all other Means, which probably might have secured the Remainder of Our Children's Inheritance (those Garrisons which we maintained in the Palatinate being rather for Honour Sake, to keep a Footing until the general Accommodation, than that we did rely so much upon their Strength as upon his Friendships); and, by this Confidence and Security of Ours, are thus exposed to Dishonour and Reproach. You shall tell that King, that, seeing all those Endeavours and good Offices, which He hath used towards the Emperor in this Business, on the Behalf of Our Son in Law (upon Confidence whereof, that our Security depended, which He continually, by His Letters and Ministers here, laboured to beget and confirm in Us), have not sorted to any other Issue, than to a plain Abuse both of His Trust and Ours, whereby We are both of Us highly injured in Our Honour, though in a different Degree; We hope and desire, that, out of a true Sense of this Wrong offered unto Us, He will, as Our dear and loving Brother, faithfully promise and undertake, upon His Honour, confirming the same also under His Hand and Seal, either that the Castle and Town of Heidleberge shall, within Threescore and Ten Days after this your Audience and Demand made, be rendered into Our Hands, with all Things therein belonging, to Our Son in Law, or Our Daughter, as near as may be, in the State they were when they were taken; and the like for Maineham and Frankendale, if both, or either of them, shall be taken by the Enemy whilst these Things are in Treating: As also that there shall be, within the said Term of Threescore and Ten Days, a Cessation and Suspension of Arms in the Palatinate for the future, upon the several Articles and Conditions last propounded by Our Ambassador, Sir Richard Weston; and that the general Treaty shall be set on Foot again, upon such Honourable Terms and Conditions as We propounded unto the Emperor in a Letter written unto Him in November last; and with which the King of Sp. then (as we understood) seemed satisfied; or else, in case all these Particulars be not yielded unto, and performed by the Emperor, as is here propounded, but be refused or delayed beyond the Time aforementioned, that then the King of Spaine do join His Forces with Ours, for the Recovery of Our Children's Honours and Patrimony, which upon this Trust hath been thus lost; or if so be His Forces at this present be otherwise so employed, as that they cannot give Us that Assistance which We here desire, and (as We think) have deserved, yet that, at the least, He will permit us a free and friendly Passage through His Territories and Dominions, for such Forces as We shall send and employ into Germanie for this Service. Of all which disjunctively, if you receive not from the King of Spaine, within Ten Days at the furthest after your Audience and Proposition made, a direct Assurance, under His Hand and Seal, without Delay, or putting Us off to further Treaties and Conferences; that is to say, of such Restitution, Cessation of Arms, and Proceeding to a general Treaty, as is before mentioned, or else of Assistance and joining His Forces with Ours against the Emperor, or at least Permission of Passage for Our Forces through His the said King's Dominions; that then you take your Leave, and return unto Our Presence, without further Stay: otherwise to proceed in the Negotiation for the Marriage of Our Son, according to the Instruction We have given you. Given &c."
3 Octob. 1622.
"Then his Grace, desiring us to take for Truth whatsoever he should say, granted and attested by the Prince's Presence, he shewed that this Letter was not put Home to the utmost by the Earl of Bristol; whom, notwithstanding, his Grace excused for the Point of his Return, because he had, in another Letter, some private Directions to stay until His Majesty was advertised from that Place, howsoever he gave out his coming away.
"Mr. Porter carried this Letter, with a peremptory Direction to return Homeward after Ten Days Stay: the which Time being now expired, and no Dispatch prepared, Mr. Porter slept to the Conde d' Olivares, whose Servant and Creature he had formerly been, and desired him to speed his Dispatch, that he might have some good Answer to carry Home with him. The Conde asked him, what he would have? He answered, No more than he had promised by the King of Spaine; which was, that, if a Restitution was not made of the Palatinate, by way of Mediation, that then he would join in Arms with the King of Great Brittaine to recover the same, and give Passage for the King's Forces to come at it. The Conde answered, That this Demand was very exorbitant; what! his Master to assist with Arms against His Uncle, against the Catholic League, against the Head of His House! he would never do it. Mr. Porter forthwith rejoined; and asked him, what Hope he could give him, concerning the Match? To which the Conde answered, That for the Match, he knew nothing of it; nor could he understand what it meant. And here give me Leave to weave in Two of those Supplements, which the Lord Keeper imparted from their Lordships to the House of Commons, out of Two several Letters of the Earl of Bristol's, That the Match was originally proposed by Spaine, and not by us, namely by the Duke of Lerma; and that the King of Sp. had directly promised Assistance by Arms, in case Mediation could not prevail for the Restitution of the Palatinate.
"Mr. Porter, acquainting my Lord of Bristol with these Answers, observed his Lordship at the first to be much moved, and to say in Anger, That he would call Olivares to an Account, if he held this Language with him, and would make him understand, that an Earl of England was as good a Man as a Conde in Sp. But, sending for Mr. Porter the next Morning, his Choler was abated, and himself prosessed, that he had changed his Resolution, and concluded to carry the Business more calmly and discreetly. And having soon after spoken with the Conde, he sent for Mr. Porter, and told him, that now he could expound the Riddle; and said, that the Conde was so reserved, because he was shy and dainty to impart these Mysteries with that Freedom to him, who was not qualified as a public Minister. Mr. Porter was moved herewith, and expostulated with the Conde for denying that to his old Servant, which he had imparted to both the Ambassadors; with that the Conde fell into a Rage, and swore, Voto a Dios que in enten los Embaxadores mil vezes si loderen. But, saith the Conde, I have Reason to take it ill at your Hands, whom I ever favoured, and tendred as my Child, for communicating that with the Earl of Br. which I had told you as a Secret. Mr. Porter answered, That, being a Servant of the King's, he could do no less than acquaint His Ambassador therewithall. But the Truth is, that the Conde was highly displeased with Mr. Porter, insomuch that the Duke of Buck. coming into Sp. he spake it openly, that he hated the Ground which Mr. Porter trod on. Mr. Porter returning with a Dispatch, fraught with Generalities, without any one Particular, or Certainty at all, made his Relation to the Prince his Highness, who thereupon took his Resolution to go in Person to Spaine, and gave himself these Reasons for that Enterprize: He saw his Father's Negotiation plainly deluded, Matters of Religion gained upon and extorted, his Sister's Case more and more desperated; that this was the Way to help Things off or on; that, in this Particular, Delay was worse than a plain Denial; and that, according to the usual Proverb, A Desperate Disease must have a Desperate Remedy. This Resolution the Duke, by the Prince's Command, made known unto the King; who, after He had consulted of it together with them, at the last, commanded the Duke to accompany his Highness in this Journey. And here ends the First Part of this Narrative; the Motives of the Prince's Journey."
Treaty of Marriage between the Prince and the Infanta of Spain.
"The Treaty of the Marriage severed, and by itself.
"When the Prince had arrived at Madrid, and immediately discovered himself to the Earl of Bristol, the Duke sent the next Day to offer a Visit unto the Conde, who was so complimental as he refused to receive him in his own House, but gave him a Meeting in a Garden: Here the Conde magnified exceedingly the Prince's Journey; amplified the Obligations his Highness had put upon that King and His Kingdoms; said, that now, without all Peradventure, it must be a Match, and we must part and divide the whole World between us. This Compliment was very apt, quoth the Duke, and proper to proceed from them, who had long sithence, in their Imagination, swallowed up the World as their own, but not to be so easily believed by us, as being no small Offer to part thus suddenly, with the (fn. 1) one Half at a Blow. However, the Ambassador took an Occasion hereupon to move his Grace, that now, having heard this good Affection of the Conde, he would write unto the King, to justify them in their former Dispatches in this kind. Nay, soft, answered the Duke; these are but Generals, when I find the Particulars tuneable hereunto, I shall be ready to relate it to His Majesty.
"The next Day after, when the King and the Prince had met in the Prado, and performed their Interview and mutual Ceremonies; the Conde, taking the Duke into his Coach, and Mr. Porter for his Interpreter, falling into a Discourse of the Match, he said unto the Duke, Let us dispatch this Match out of Hand, and strike it up without the Pope. The Duke answered, He liked the Manner very well, but desired to understand the Means. Why! the Means (quoth the Conde) is very easy: It is but the Conversion of the Prince, which we cannot conceive but his Highness intended, upon his Resolution for this Journey. His Grace answered forthwith, That with Freedom they came thither, and with Freedom they would return again; they were no Jugglers; neither came they to Spaine to make new Bargains; the Prince was settled in his Religion; his Conscience was troubled with no Scruples in that kind; if they struck any more upon that String, they would mar all the Harmony. Then, said the Conde, there is no Way but to send to Rome, to hasten the Dispensation, to the which Motion his Grace assented; saying, The sooner they did it, the better it was. Hereupon the Conde wrote his Letter to the Cardinal Ludovicio, the Pope's Nephew, which, being shewed to the Duke, seemed to him to be very heavy and ineffectual; his Grace desiring therefore to quicken it with such a Postscript, That now the Prince, being arrived, must not be sent back without his Wife; that Delay to a Suitor is a Kind of Refusal; that clogging Instructions would mount to a Denial, and new Conditions to an absolute Breach. The Conde fell into Choler, and said directly, it could not be done (This the Prince affirmed to be acted in his Presence). Of this Carriage of the Conde, Sir Walter Aston made a doubtful, the Earl of Br. a more benign Construction; but the Duke a right-down Conclusion, That these People never intended either Match or Restitution, and so wished his Highness fairly at Home again: and thus the Messenger was dispatched to Rome.
"By this Time, you must imagine all the Shews and Ceremonies for the Prince's Entertainment past over. And within Four or Five Days after, His Highness is placed to see his Mistress, in her Passages through the Streets, as she made her Visits from Church to Church: But, unsatisfied herewith, and pressing for Access, he was delayed from Day to Day, although promised at the first to have it within the Compass of Two Days. In the mean Time, the Duke hearing that it was resolved in Council, that this Visit should be put off until the Return of the Dispensation, he asked plainly of the Conde if it were so? who confessed as much in Effect; and gave his Grace this Reason for it, That much Scandal had already been taken in the Court, that the Prince was permised to have seen the Infanta so publicly in the open Streets; and that the Lady should be thus divulged and prophaned. The Duke replied, He should have done well to have dealt freely with the Prince, and to have acquainted him with so much before. After this, his Highness obtained a Visit, but a very strange one, and such a Visit as was never heard of before: He was not suffered to speak unto her, but (as if he had been upon a Stage) his conned Part, and nothing else, in so many Words and Syllables as they had dictated the same unto him: Here the Prince was pleased to acquaint us with the Reason they alledged for dealing so measuredly and sparingly with his Highness; they were no Astrologers, to foresee the Event of this Marriage; they were uncertain, whether it should take Effect or no; and therefore they resolved to admit him as a Prince only, but not as a Suitor. This Reason was justly misliked, and this Course much suspected by his Highness, as himself now alledged; yet the Conde salved it up with a Compliment, That, if the Dispensation were once returned, he should lye with her, even that very Night: Nay, have her he should upon any Terms; if he could not be qualified to enjoy her as a Wife, yet he should have her as a Mistress.
"And now, in Part to entertain the Time, but principally to prevent more Visits, his Highness is carried to a Country House, called Aranjuez. Here he is pressed again to change his Religion; but, being found deaf and averse to such a Motion, he is set upon by the Conde to this Effect: Yet, Sir, be a Friend to our Religion. To the which his Highness answered, He was no Enemy to their Religion, nor to them that profess it. Soon after, riding in a Coach, it was urged again by the Conde, That the Infanta was of a tender Conscience; and, if she should come unto England, and find the Prince an Enemy to her Religion, it would quite dishearten her. His Highness was therefore moved to promise to hear the Lady speak in that Theme. To this his Highness willingly consented, and told us his Reason, which was very probable; because his Highness was as like to convert her, as she was to pervert him. Not long after, a Conference with some learned Divines is pressed upon his Highness, which the Prince (fn. 2) declined, for these Reasons: First, if his Highness should be reported, in this his first Entrance into the Theatre of the World, to be sickle in his Religion, and to carry these Scruples in his Conscience, it would prove much to his Dishonour in all Parts of Christendom. Secondly, although his Highness (as he professed) was not afraid to confer with any Divines; yet if, after Disputation, they should not prevail against a young Man, they would remain much disgusted and ill affected to the whole Negotiation. Lastly, if the Infanta did please herself with any imaginary Hope of converting the Prince, this Hope would vanish away for the Time to come, if this solemn Conference proved ineffectual; yet the Spaniards were never off from this kind of Importunity, but spent therein all the Interim until the Return of the Dispensation.
"Much about this Time, the Conde invited his Highness to a Treaty of the Terms of Friendships, which his Highness put off, upon this Reason; because emergent Propositions, concerning the Restitution of the Palatinate, might prove a Stay and Remora to the Hastening of the Dispensation, and the Speeding of the Match; whereas, if the Match were once fairly concluded, there could be little Doubt, but the Restitution would be effected; and therefore it was, as his Highness told us, that the Treaty of the Restitution was set aside at this Time, though ever held fit and intended to go Hand in Hand with the Treaty of the Marriage.
"Six Weeks after the Prince's Arrival, arrived the Dispensation, which, contrary to many former Professions, was Four or Five Days concealed from his Highness; at the last the Duke, having Intelligence thereof, did call for it; and so a Committee is appointed to treat thereof, and the Prince attended the Business in Person: But, upon the first Opening of Particulars, the Conde was put to School, and shewed himself to understand never a Word either of the Match, or of the Restitution of the Palatinate. The Articles being propounded to the Prince's Consideration; his Highness most judiciously refused to treat, unless he might have Assurance they should be all cleared and accommodated upon the Place, without sending to Rome to new mould them, because his Highness understood from Rome, by Mr. Gage's Letter, that the Dispensation was returned much clogged in Matter and Manner, and especially with that annexed new Condition, that the King of Sp. before the receiving of the Dispensation, was to take an Oath to see all the Articles, whereupon the Faculty was issued, really performed, or else to make War, in case of any Failure, upon the King of England (a very odd Commission, with Matters of Alliance, as his Highness well observed). Well, his Highness put the Question to the Committee, whether their King could, and whether He would, take this new-found Oath? They answer, that the acting thereof must wholly depend and relate to the Prince's facilitating here in England some kind of Connivance in Matters of Religion; and so, the Prince having signified unto them his Resolution, that he neither could nor would add or alter any Thing in the first Articles sent from England, the Treaty began. And here the Duke made a Remonstrance unto us, that, if any Thing concerning Religion might seem to be added (for the Prince said, that nothing was so added indeed), wherewith His Majesty was not formerly acquainted, it was not the Prince nor his Grace's Fault. Nay, upon one of the Articles sought by the Pope, and comprehended in the Prince's private Promise, a great Contestation arose between the Earl of Br. and the Duke, wherein his Grace said, he shewed himself resolute, which he termed opiniastre; the Earl alledging that the Point in Question was already agreed upon (at the least in the Intention of the Two Kings); this the Duke denied, and was sithence justified in his Denial by the King's Majesty.
"And now the Junto of Divines are met together, to resolve that Case of Conscience, upon what Preparation and Predisposition of Things and Actions that King might safely take the Oath? At this his Highness startled, and enquired what that meant? But Answer was made, that it was only for Form Sake, and should not delay the Business the Length of One Hour (as the Prince was pleased to tell us), But the Truth is, this Committee was the Conde's Wheels, wherewith he set the whole Frame of the Business backward and forward, at his own Pleasure.
"By this Time, the Prince hath gone through all the Articles, together with the rest of the Committee; and leaving Three undecided, that of the Church, that of the Nurse, and that of the Education of the Children (which his Highness reserved until he should speak with the King Himself), going with the Conde in his Coach, he acquainted him with his Resolution for these Three Particulars; which the Conde writing down in a Pair of Table Books, said, That now the Business was in a better Way than ever: It was a Match; and, without more ado, she was his Wife.
"But the very next Morning came the Marquis of Montes Claros, and the Conde de Gondamar, and spake unto the Prince of the same Match as of a new Thing; and told him plainly, that, unless his Highness came unto all the Conditions of the Dispensation, as they were sent from Rome, clearly and entirely, nothing would be done; for they had no Power to remove or alter so much as a Word of false Latin: Whereupon his Highness was justly distasted, and offered to break; for, as himself told us, this was the first Time he saw clearly, they meant to juggle with him; for the which Alteration, and Change of Counsels, all the Excuse they offered was this, That they were Beasts, and blind, and could not read their own Language.
"The Prince thus resolved to take his Leave; the Conde stays him with a double Proposition; either to send to Rome, to have the Articles, as they were agreed upon, confirmed by the Conclave; or else to send to England, that the King our Master might be drawn unto them Word for Word, as they came from Rome: To the which his Highness returned this Answer, That he accepted of both Offers, in due Form and Manner; that they should send to Rome, and himself would repair unto England, to dispose his Father to this Effect, and to facilitate the Negociation. And here the Prince declared his Intention, which was to procure either a fair Breach, or else a speedy Dispatch. The Conde found this to amount to a Breach, and thereupon made a new Proposition, That the Prince would be pleased to stay Twenty Days, until our Master's Answer might be had from England. Here the Prince told us, how the Earl of Br. had said unto him, that this was but a mere Punctilio; and that he received it from very good Hands, that, if his Highness made shew to yield unto this Proposition, he should not be tied thereunto. But (said his Highness) when I had once determined to stay, I never heard more of the Punctilio, but was first bound to real Performance. After this, the Conde and the Earl desired the Prince to speak no more of his Return in this Sort; for, if he did, they would quarrel with it, as mounting to a kind of Menace or Threat; whereunto the Duke answered, That this they could not do, because the Prince bare himself as too well satisfied with the Journey, and no way distasted at all with any Occurrences in Spaine, but troubled only with that clogging of Articles, which happened in Rome: but the Earl of Br. replying, That he knew from good Hands, that, if his Highness staid, they would presently fall to Business, the Prince resolved to stay, upon Condition that Sir Francis Cottington might be dispatched away within Two Days; and some Correo, that might overtake him with the Articles, should be sent after, as soon as ever they could be made ready, which his Highness well hoped might have been the very next Day. His Highness took Care hereby, left the Health of his Secretary, upon whom the Dispatch of the Business wholly depended, might be impaired with any extraordinary Riding. This Condition of his Highness although the Conde (to gain more Time) much opposed, and would have had Sir Francis staid there, until the Articles should be perfectly digested; yet, by the Prince's fixed and constant Resolution to the contrary, was at the last obtained. And now the Articles are laid upon the Anvil again, and the Two Days of their Hammering spun out to Twenty; at the End whereof they brought them, with new Additions and Alterations; hoping that his Highness, through Haste or Unadvisedness, would shut his Eyes, and sup them up without more a-do. But the Prince read them, found out the Alterations, and upbraided them with the Practice. And when they excused themselves, as ignorant in the Form, the Prince offered to help them with a Precedent:
"That, taking the Oath used in the Marriage Treaty between King Phillipp and Queen Marie, and adding it to each Article agreed upon, they might draw it up accordingly. Whereupon they snatched the Papers out of the Prince's Hands, as resolved to pursue this Direction, but a Sevennight after brought them back again, as raw and untoward as ever they were, so as the Prince was fain to take them in Hand himself, who, by the Ministry of the Earl of Br. framed them up in a few Hours, to the full Approbation of all the Committee. But (as the Duke observed) it was not the Dispatch of the Business, but the Approach of the Heats, and consequently the Stay of the Prince, which was the principal Object of the Spanish Counsellors.
"The Articles being at the last sent for England, the Junto of Divines delivered their Opinions, that the Infanta could not be sent over before the Spring ensuing. The Prince, remembring a former Promise, that the Junto should not retard his Negotiation for One Hour, resolved once more to break the Treaty upon this Occasion. This put the Conde to his Invention again, and caused him to make unto the Duke and Sir Walter Aston another Proposition, That, if the Prince would stay until their Ambassador should certify out of England, that the Articles were assented unto by our King, and put in Execution, then the Lady should go over with his Highness (this Voto of the Divines notwithstanding). His Grace answered to this Proposition, That it was worse in Substance than the other; for the Ambassadors might be sinisterly affected; besides that it was a Business of no small Importance to connive at so many Laws as were pointed at in the Articles, many Occasions of Complaint might intervene hereupon, in the large Circuit of England, Scotland, and Ireland; the Ambassadors might take a false Alarum thereby, and return their Certificate accordingly; and so the Prince's Stay should be frustrated and made of no Effect. Then the Conde desired the Duke to go in unto the (fn. 3) Commissioners, who were sitting hard by, and to ask them their Opinions, how the Difficulties might be facilitated. The Duke replied, he knew it was but lost Labour to go from him, the proper Oracle, to these Commissioners, for the assoiling of that Riddle. Yet the Conde pressed his Grace to do so. And the Duke, stepping onward towards the Committee Chamber, was called back by the Conde, and desired to put the Question after this Manner: What Requital, or Satisfaction, the King of Spaine could return, for the Favour the Prince had done Him, by undertaking this Journey? To the which his Grace replied, That now the Question was varied, and the State of it altered. Yet (quoth the Conde) for my Sake, make your first Approach upon them with this Question. The Duke, to satisfy the Conde, went in unto them, who wondered much to see him; he told them he came by the Persuasion of the Conde to propound this Question unto them, What Requital or Satisfaction, &c. They looked one upon another, and in the End one of them made him Answer, That he should return to the Conde, and take from him Satisfaction to his Question. And so the Duke went back to the Conde, who presently enquired what Answer he had received. The Duke told him, such a one as he expected; and, if they had given him any other, they had not so well deserved that great Trust and Employment in the State which the King had most prudently imposed on them. Why? (quoth the Conde) what was their Answer. Surely, (said the Duke) to hold you no longer, it was this, that I should return back again to you to know it. With that the Conde rapped with his Staff, and calling in the Counsellors, he spake unto them in such a perplexed Stile, as though he would have them to understand his Meaning, but yet (for Fear the Duke should do so too) by any Thing rather than by his Words. At the last, the Bishop of Segovia answered his Grace to this Effect: He had heard somewhat of the State of our Kingdom, and had received it from good Hands, that our King could not make a Toleration without a Rebellion, and easily believed it, because the King of Sp. is not able, in His Dominions, to effect the like Enterprize, without incurring the like Danger; and, therefore, he concluded it was unsafe to send the Lady hither at this Time; because, we having granted as much in Effect as a Toleration, it was very probable, she should be welcomed with a Rising and Rebellion. To the which the Duke replied, That, if the Favours which the King his Master had extended to His Catholicks, at the Mediation of that King and the Advice of that very Committee, be of so dangerous a Consequence, it seemed their Lordships, who gave their Advice for the Articles, though they pretended Religion, intended plain and open Rebellion. But you must know (quoth the Duke) that, if His Highness had been of my Lord Bishop's Opinion, that these Connivances had mounted to a Toleration, he had never accepted of these Articles, to have gained any Alliance in the universal World. This was but a temporary Suspension of Penal Laws, but no Toleration, which was never offered to be thrust upon the Estate in England, but by Consent of Parliament. Then they all looked wistly at Gundamore, as the Surveyor General of England, and Author of that Intelligence; so that, being eyed by them all, and in a Manner pointed out, he said, I must confess, the King of Eng. is a very learned King, hath governed very long, and is very rich in the Hearts of his Subjects; yet do I not hold it fitting to send the Infanta thither, before the Articles be perfectly put into Execution. Nay, Sir, you know very well, that I have formerly dealt plainly and freely herein with the King of Great Brittaine. To this the Duke replied, that now he had provoked him very far, for he had been acquainted with the Treaty from the Beginning, and yet never heard a Word fall to that Purpose. Nay, on the contrary Side, the Conde de Gundamore offered to our King the Daughter of Sp. and begged this Alliance merely for the Alliance Sake, without any Prejudice to the present Government, or the Religion established. And that, when we objected the Disadvantage of treating with the Catholick King, because of that Back-door to slip in and out at, at his Pleasure, to wit, the Pope's Consistory, Gundamar replied, The Pope durst not but dispense with this Match, if Spaine so required; and, for Proof, alledged divers Instances of Businesses resolved in Spaine, though disliked by the Pope; to the which, notwithstanding, his Holiness gave his Consent, for mere Fear left his Assent should not be expected or required. The Conde de Gondamar took this very offensively at the Duke's Hands, to be told of those Stories in Spaine, which he had provided for the Meridian of England, and did his Grace no good Offices from that Time forward, which the Duke little regarded; yet one of his Requitals is very memorable, that, at the very same Instant, he infused to the Prince his Highness, that the Duke was in Heart (as he said all his Kindred were) a Roman Catholick; and to a Jesuit of great Accompt and Zeal in those Parts, that he was a most obstinate, perverse, and refractory Puritan, which bred his Grace much Hatred amongst the zealous in those Parts.
"About this Time, it was reported, that his Highness made some Provision to steal out of that Country secretly; and it is very true, that the Ways were laid to intercept him, and in such a Case to detain him openly and avowedly as a Prisoner. Hereupon my Lord Duke was sent unto them, with this brave Remonstrance, that, although they had stolen thither out of Love, they would never steal from thence out of Fear; and, however others were guilty of thinking, they Two should never be guilty of taking, so poor and unworthy a Course. And the Prince, making about that Time a Dispatch unto his Father, sent unto him this Message by Mr. Graymes, That, if His Majesty should receive any Advertisement that he was detained by that State as a Prisoner, He would be pleased, for his Sake, never to think upon him any longer as a Son, but to reflect with all His Royal Thoughts, upon the Good of his Sister, and the Safety of His own Kingdoms: Nevertheless, the Prince commanded Grymes not to deliver this Message, unless he heard that his Highness was there detained.
"And thus far extends the Second Part of the Narrative, the Treaty of the Match, as it stood severed and divided."
The Treaty of the Match and Restitution.
"The Treaty of the Match and Restitution reciprocally subordinated.
"When the Prince had refused the former Proposition of the Conde, to expect the Certificate from the Spanish Ambassadors, and was resolved to stay no longer, the Conde betakes himself to his last Anchor, and offered unto his Highness, in case he would accept of the Time of the Infanta's going at the Spring, a blank Paper, to set down his own Condition for the Restitution of the Palatinate. To this his Highness began to listen, as well remembring his Father's Commandment laid upon him at his Departure, that, together with his Alliance, he should endeavour, to the utmost of his Power, the Peace of Christendom. He therefore sent the Duke and Sir Walter Aston to the Conde, to know, whether he meant seriously and really in this Offer. The Conde avowed, That he did; and that this was the only Way now left to regain the Palatinate by Way of Treaty; otherwise the King our Master must re-conquer it with His Arms, if He will have it. This being justified to the Prince by the Duke and the Interpreter (whom in every Employment the Duke brought still to the Prince for the Witness of his Negociation); his Highness, to prevent the further shedding of Christian Blood, yielded to the Proposition for his Stay.
"Here it is fit to observe this Passage, which is the Thing whereupon all his Highness's subsequent Actions are turned and moved. He had never staid a Sevennight longer in Spain; he had never left any Proxy with the Earl of Br. he had never taken any Oath at The Escuriel; or so much as ever written a Letter of Compliment to the Lady; but that he had still before his Eyes, as his Cynosure, the Promise made by the Conde for the Restitution of the Palatinate. This one Observation will serve as a Torch, to cast not only a Light, but a Lustre upon all his subsequent Actions.
"At this Stay of the Prince, there appeared generally in the Court great Alacrity, such Caresses and Expressions of Joy, as the Duke professed he never saw the like.
"His Grace, laying hold upon this good Humour, thought it best striking when the Iron was hot, and began to cast about, how to shorten these Months, and to hasten the Delivery of the Lady; he (fn. 4) represented unto the Conde, How his Master was now in Years; the Prince was His only Son, and He longed to see Issue by him; that his Highness would suffer much in his Honour and Reputation to return Home without his Wife; that the Infanta's coming in his Company would open unto her a wide Passage into the Hearts and Affections of all the People; that this would kill, in the very Root, the Practices of other Princes, to divert this Alliance; and lastly, this would put an eternal Obligation upon the Duke himself, and a glorious Lustre and Repute upon his present Journey and Employment.
"The Conde said hereupon, That he was bewitched with these Reasons; assured the Duke, his Motion should take Effect; only the Prince must not be acquainted therewith; but himself would presently prepare for the Voyage, and would needs have the Prince name a Day for his Departure, which accordingly was designed and appointed.
"These News either came indeed, or was pretended to have come, to the Infanta; she is supposed to take it exceedingly ill; the Condessa d'Olivaras, who hath the Care of her Education, sent unto the Prince, That it became him not to forsake the Company of such a Lady, for the gaining of a poor Circumstance of Time, after so many and so extraordinary Expressions of Love and Affection; and (upon her Assurance, that no Advantage should be taken of that Promise) prevailed with his Highness to return this Compliment, That, rather than to give her Alteza any Disgust, he would stay for her Seven Years. The Conde (who winked through his Fingers at these Actions of his Wife) pressed to prepare for the Infanta's going (according to that Enchantment the Duke had cast upon him), burst out into Oaths, and demanded, Whether they thought he had nothing else to do with his Master's Money, but to throw it out at the Window in this Kind. And, when the Prince replied again, That, if he were so careful a Steward for his Master, his Highness himself would defray the Preparations, he refused the Offer, and said, His Master expected no such Supplies.
"By this Time, Sir Frauncis Cottington is arrived, with all Things perfected by the King, and Letters from the Ambassadors of good Satisfaction, and a Command from our King unto his Highness to make his Return within One Month after the Reception of these Letters; when the Prince expected to have found them wrapt with an Extasy of Joy, they were in much Disorder, upon the Hearing of the News, and infinitely troubled that His Majesty had so well and so quietly overcome so many Particulars. Here the Duke made this Annotation, that he would not positively affirm they meant to have bred any Stirs in England; but this he well remembered, That when the Prince, to dispute them out of their unreasonable Demands in Matters of Religion, objected against them this Danger of a Rebellion, they replied again, That, if he feared any such Thing, he should be waited upon into England with a good and a strong Army, to decide all Controversies in Religion; a Courtesy (as the Lord Keeper observed in reporting the same) better understood in Myllaine, Naples, and Germanie, than hitherto (God be thanked) in this Island. But the Prince told us his own Answer to this Compliment of theirs, That the Remedy was far worse than the Disease.
"Yet, all this while, there was no Preparation made by the Conde, not so much as for the Prince's Journey; which, his Highness said, was therefore deferred, in Hope to have made him fast and betrothed before his Departure.
"Upon the Certificate of the Ambassadors brought by Sir Frauncis Cottington, the Duke pressed the Conde with his former Promise to deliver the Lady now, the Condition being performed. The Conde told him, the Time was past; and, though his Grace offered to tarry to the very Brim of Winter for her Company, yet was the Motion slighted, and the Duke desired to trouble himself no more with any Thought to that Purpose.
"About this Time, the Conde renewed the Treaty for the Restitution of the Palatinate; saying, That the Lady should by no Means go into England before that Business was accommodated. And, after Conference with the German Ambassador, there was projected a Restitution of the Land to the Son, upon a Condition of a Marriage with the Emperor's Daughter, which the Prince did not dislike; but there was added withall, another Condition, That his Son should be bred in the Emperor's Court; which his Highness utterly rejected.
"As concerning the Prince Palatine himself, he must, like Cain, have a Mark of Infamy laid upon his Person: And for the Electorate, it was a Thing in nubibus, which hung in the Air, and altogether beyond their Reach and Power; nor would they by any Means undertake for the same. Then the Prince demanding of the Conde, whether, in case the Emperor proved refractory, the King, his Master, would assist him with Arms, to reduce Him to reasonable Terms;
"The Conde answered negatively, because they had a Maxim of Estate, That the King of Sp. must never fight against the Emperor. He had indeed, for it was not to be denied, dealt very ill with them in this Particular. But, if He should beat and buffet them, they would not promise to employ their Forces against the House of Austria. Hereupon his Highness made his Protestation to the Conde, Look to it, Sir, for if you hold yourself to that, there is an End of all; for without this you may not rely upon either Marriage or Friendship; for I must (as I am required) return to my Father, and acquaint him with your Resolution in this Point. Look for neither Marriage nor Friendship, without Restitution of the Palatinate.
"Yet was not the Earl of Br. so absolutely perswaded of the Prince's Resolution; for he offered (as was related in the House of Commons) to lay with him a Ring worth a Thousand Pounds, that, for all his Father's Letter, his Highness would keep his Christmas at Madrid; which Wager the Prince laid with him, and gave away his Ring before his Face.
"About this Time, when it was concluded that the Infanta should not come away with the Prince, the Duke took Occasion to open his Mind with some Freedom to the Conde d'Olivares. He put him in Mind how he had formerly told his Grace, That they in Spaine could do with the Pope what they would; and that his Holiness never assented to the Dispensation until they had said it was full Time, and had given him his Cue: That he, the Conde, was the Cause of calling the Junto of the Theologues, which the Conde confessed, saying, That the Devil had put it into his Head so to do: Also that the Conde had offered to his Grace the present Conducting of the Lady, so as he would but endanger his Soul for the Favour, and turn Roman Catholick. To all this the Conde made Answer, That there were but Three Ways to wade through this Business; whereof Two were good, the Third an ill one. The First good one was, the Conversion of the Prince, which now (God be praised) he found impossible; the Second good Way was, that, as they were obliged by the Prince's free Coming into Sp. so they should with the like Freedom deliver up the Infanta into his Hands, trusting him without further Condition; and the Third Way (which he said was a very ill one) was, to wrap him and swaddle him up as hard as they could, with nice Articles and strict Conditions. Whereupon the Duke replied, that they had made Medea's Choice, discovered the best, and chosen the worst of all the Ways. The Conde replied again, That, if he were a Counsellor at large, he would advise the King to commit the Infanta unto his Highness freely and absolutely without Conditions; so he would do if he were the King; and, as he was, he would do so, if the King were Thirty Years of Age; but, being a Favourite, to answer the Actions of a Minor King (although he cannot deny but it lies in his Power), yet he is resolved the Infanta shall not go along with his Highness, but upon these Conditions.
"And by this Time the bravest Prince in Europe is grown cheap and vulgar in the Court of Sp. so as they will scarce bestow a Visit on him; and the Conde came very seldom (fn. 5) to him, pretending for a Reason, that his Highness looked but heavily on him; that, in Fine, the Duke was feign to negociate the Condesa, to procure her Lord to vouchsafe now and then to look upon his Highness.
"About this Place, the Duke declared unto us, How, in those Flashes and Lightnings of the Conde's Favour towards him, those Two Letters came to be produced, which are to be read by and by. The Conde was in (fn. 6) a good Humour, and told his Grace, that now certainly it must be a Match; and that the Devil could not break it. The Duke replied, he thought so too, and that the Match had need be firm and strong, it had been Seven Years in soldering. The Conde denied it, and said plainly, it had not been really intended Seven Months. The Duke rejoined, that, if he were sure of that, he could ingratiate himself very much with his Master, and receive many Thanks for this Journey and Employment, if he could make it appear to the King, that the Marriage was the Produce of this Negociation only. Then, said the Conde, I will fetch that out of my Desk, that shall assure you thereof, and so produced these Two Letters: The First was written with the King of Sp's own Hand, read over Five or Six Times, and the Substance collected in their Memory by the Prince and Sir Walter Aston (the Duke having promised it should not be copied, and indeed the Time not permitting to do it), and by and by after set down in Writing. If we remember the Notary, we need not doubt but it is authentical. The Second Letter is translated by the Prince himself.
King of Spain's Letter.
"The King of Spaine's Letter of the 5th of November, 1622.
"The King, My Father, declared at His Death, that his Intent never was to marry My Sister, the Infanta Donna Maria, with the Prince of Wales, which your Uncle Don Baltazer understood, and so treated this Match ever with Intention to delay it; notwithstanding it is now so far advanced, that, considering withall the Averseness unto it of the Infanta, it is Time to seek some Means to divert the Treaty, which I would have you find out, and I will make it good, whatsoever it be: But, in all other Things, procure the Satisfaction of the King of Great Brittaine, who hath deserved very much; and it shall content Me, so that it be not in the Match."
Count D'Olivarex's Letter.
"The Conde d'Olivares Letter, of the 8th of November, 1622, touching the Marriage.
"Considering in what Estate we find the Treaty of the Marriage between Spaine and England, and knowing certainly how the Ministers did understand this Business, that treated it in the Time of Phillip the Third that is in Heaven, that their Meaning was never to effect it; but, by enlarging the Treaties and Points of the said Marriage, to make Use of the Friendship of the King of Great Brittaine, as well in the Matters of Germanie as in those of Flaunders; and suspecting likewise that Your Majesty is of the same Opinion, although the Demonstrations do not seem so: Joining to these Suspicions, that it is certain that the Infants Donna Maria is resolved to put herself into the Discalzas the same Day that Your Majesty shall press her to make this Marriage, I have thought fit to represent unto Your Majesty that which my good Zeal hath offered me in this Occasion; thinking it a good Time to acquaint Your Majesty withall, to the End you may resolve of that which You shall find most convenient, with the Advice of those Ministers that You shall think fit.
"The King of Great Brittaine doth find Himself at this Time equally engaged in Two Businesses; the one is this Marriage, to which He is moved by the Conveniencies that He finds in Your Majesty's Friendship, with making an Agreement with those Catholicks that He thinks are secretly in His Kingdom; and by this to assure Himself of them, as likewise to marry His Son to one of the House of Austria; knowing that the Infanta Donna Maria is the best-born Lady in the World. The other Business is the Restitution of the Palatinate, in which He is yet more engaged; for, besides that His Reputation is at Stake, there is added the Love and Interest of His Grandchildren, Sons of His only Daughter; so that, both by the Law of Nature and Reason of State, He ought to put them before whatsoever (fn. 7) Conveniencies might follow, by dissembling what they suffer.
"I do not dispute, whether the King of Great Brittaine be governed in this Business of the Palatinate by Art, or Friendship. I think, a Man might say He used both; but, as a Thing not precisely necessary to this Discourse, I omit it. I hold it for a Maxim, That these two Engagements (in which He finds himself) are inseparable; for, although the Marriage be made, we must fail in that, which (in my Way of Understanding) is most necessary, the Restitution of the Palatinate.
"This being supposed, having made this Marriage in the Form as it is treated, Your Majesty shall find Yourself (together with the King of Great Brittaine) engaged in a War against the Emperor and the Catholick League; so that Your Majesty will be forced to declare Yourself, with Your Arms, against the Emperor and the Catholick League (a Thing which to hear with this Uncertainty will offend Your Godly Ears); or, declaring yourself for the Emperor and the Catholick League (as certainly You will), Your Majesty will find Yourself broken in a War against the King of England, and Your Sister married with His Son; with the which all whatsoever Reasons of Conveniencies that were thought upon with this Marriage do cease. If Your Majesty shall shew Yourself Neutral (as it may be that some will propound), (fn. 8) it first will cause very great Scandal, and with just Reasons; since, in Matters of less Opposition than of Catholicks against Hereticks, the Arms of this Crown have taken the Godly against the convenient Party; and at this Time, the Frenchmen somenthing the Hollanders against Your Majesty, Your Piety hath been such that You have sent Your Arms against the Rebels of that Crown, leaving all the great Considerations of State, only because these Men are Enemies to the Faith and the Church.
"It will oblige Your Majesty, and give Occasion to those of the League, to make Use of the King of Fraunce, and of other Catholick Princes ill affected to this Crown; for it will be a Thing necessary for them to do so; and those, even against their own Religion, will soment and assist the Hereticks, for Hatred to us; without Doubt, they will follow the other Party, only to leave Your Majesty with that Blemish that never hath befallen any King of these Dominions. The King of England will remain offended and disobliged, seeing that neither Interests nor Helps do follow the Alliance with this Crown; as likewise with Pretext of particular Resentment, for having suffered His Daughter and Grandchildren to be ruined, for Respect of the said Alliance.
"The Emperor, though He be well affected and obliged to us in making the Translation at this Time, as Businesses now stand (the Duke of Bavaria being possessed of all the Dominions), although He would dispose all according to our Conveniencies, it will not be in His Power to do it, as Your Majesty and every Body may judge; and the Memorial that the Emperor's Ambassador gave Your Majesty Yesterday maketh it certain, since, in the List of the Soldiers that every one of the League is to pay, he shews Your Majesty that Bavier, for himself alone, will pay more than all the rest joined together; the which doth shew his Power and Intention, which is not to accommodate Matters, but to keep to himself the Superiority of all in this broken Time: The Emperor is now in the Diet, and the Translation is to be made in it.
"The Proposition in this Estate is, by considering the Means for a Conference, which Your Majesty's Ministers will do, with their Capacity, Zeal, and Wisdom; and it is certain they will have enough to do with it all; for the Difficulty consists to find a Way to make the present Estate of Affairs streight again, which with lingering (as it is said) both the Power and Time will be lost: I suppose that the Emperor, as Your Majesty knoweth by His Ambassadors, desires to marry His Daughter with the King of England's Son. I do not doubt but He will be likewise glad to marry His Second Daughter with the Palatine's Son. Then I propound, that these Two Marriages be made, and that they be set on Foot presently, giving the King of England full Satisfaction in all His Propositions for the more strict Union and Correspondency, that He may agree to it. I hold it for certain, that all the Conveniencies that would have followed the Alliance with us, will be as full in this; and the Conveniency in the great Engagement is more by this; for it doth accommodate the Matter of the Palatinate, and the Succession of His Grandchildren, with Honour, and without drawing a Sword, or wasting Treasure. With this I interest the Emperor with the Conveniencies of the King of England and the Palatine, the only Means (in my Way of Understanding) to hinder those great Dangers that do threaten by this Means not to accommodate the Businesses, and not to sever Himself from the Conveniencies and Engagements of Bavaria, I reduce the Prince Elector, that was an Enemy, to the Obedience of the Church, by breeding his Sons in the Emperor's Court with Catholick Doctrine.
"The Business is great; the Difficulties greater than perchance have been in any other Case. I have found myself obliged to represent unto Your Majesty, and shall shew, if You shall command me, what I think fit for the disposing of the Things; and of the great Ministers, that Your Majesty hath, I hope, with the particular Notice of these Things, and all being helped with the good Zeal of the Conde d'Gondomar, it may be, God will open a Way to a Thing so much for His and your Majesty's Service."
"It was observed, by reason of a pertinent Question moved by the Lord Chamberlain, that these Letters were written when Porter was in Spaine.
"His Highness remembered, that Sir Walter Aston was struck mute at the Reading of these Letters; for, upon the Death of the late King of Sp. he and Sir Frauncis Cottington going from our Master to the King that now is, to know His Mind concerning the Treaty of the Marriage, received from that King, and returned it to His Majesty, That He was very sorry, He had not the Honour to begin it; but now He would pursue it with all Alacrity; it went before in His Father's Time, it shall run now; then it had Leaden Heels, He would now give it Wings.
"And hitherto extends the Third Part of the Narrative, which comprehends the Treaties of the Marriage and Restitution as united and reciprocally subordinated the one to the other.
The Prince's Return from Spain.
"4. The Prince's Return from Spaine.
"And now the Prince, returning for England, being engaged to leave his Proxy, did deposite the same in the Hands of the Earl of Bristol, who was to keep it, and use it as his Proctor; that is, as he should receive his Highness's Directions from Time to Time. His Order for the present was, That, if the Confirmation came from Rome clear and entire (which it did not), then, within so many Days, he should deliver it to the King of Spaine. A Second Direction was sent unto him, by a Letter which his Highness sent him, between his Departure from The Escuriell and his Coming to the Sea-side, to this Effect: That, for fear a Monastery should rob him of his Wife, he should stay the Delivery of the Powers, until that Doubt were cleared; and that his Highness should send him in the Premises some further Direction."
Here because my Lord of Bristoll, in his Letter of the First of November, 1623 (which followeth anon in this Discourse), doth press so vehemently the Prince's Faith, not to retract this Proxy, and that Serica, the Secretary, had inserted such a Clause in the Instrument, signed and sealed authentically; the Lord Keeper, in his Report in this Place, collected all those Parts of the Narration, which might serve to clear this Act of his Highness; and added some Reasons to maintain the same:
"First, the Prince avowed openly, before both Houses, That he had never, by Oath or Honour, engaged himself not to revoke the Powers, more than by that Clause de non revocanda Procurationc, inserted in the Instrument itself.
"Secondly, his Highness added in the Upper House, that, when he first heard that Clause read, he stumbled at it; but was answered again, that it was but a Matter of mere Form; and, although essentially of no binding Power, yet usually thrust into every such Instrument.
"Thirdly, the Lord Keeper said (and appealed there in to all the Civilians Attendants on that House), That it is lawful, by the Civil and Canon Law, for any Man to revoke his Proxy for Marriage, notwithstanding it hath the Clause de non revocando Procuratore inserted in it; yea, and this may be done without any solemn Notification thereof: And therefore he concluded, that the Earl of Bristol, in charging this upon the Prince, had much forgot himself; and that his Highness might justly, honourably, and legally, not only stay as he did, but withall (if he had so pleased) absolutely have revoked his own Proxy.
"And so much of the Fourth Part of this Narrative, the Circumstances of his Highness's Return from Spaine."
His Majesty's Proceedings in the Treaties since the Prince's Return.
"5. The subsequent Proceedings of His Majesty, in both the Treaties sithence the Return of his Highness.
"And here the Duke told us, how the Prince at the last, by the Mercy of God, and his own wife and judicious Demeanour, came to Royston, and made his Relation to the King of all that had passed. His Majesty was glad of this exact Carriage of His Son in so great a Negotiation; and told his Highness, That he had acted well the Part of a Son; and now the Part of a Father must come upon the Stage, which was, to provide with all Circumspection, that His only Son should not be married with a Portion of Tears to His only Daughter. And therefore His Majesty commands, by an express Dispatch, the Stay of the Proxy in the Earl of Bristol's Hands, until he had some better Assurance of the Restitution of the Palatinate. Hereupon the Lord Keeper observed, That this is no upstart or springing Condition, but the very same offered by Olivares's blank Paper to his Highness, and pressed by his Highness's last Answer to Olivares.
The King's Letter to the E. of Bristol.
"His Majesty's Letter to the Earl of Bristol, of the 8th of October, 1623.
"We have received your's, brought us by Greysly; and the Copy of your's to Our dear Son; and We cannot forbear to let you know, how well We esteem your dutiful, discreet, and judicious Relation and humble Advice to Ourself and Our Son; whereupon, having ripely deliberated with Ourself, and communicated with Our dear Son, We have resolved, with the great Liking of Our Son, to rest upon that Security, and in Point of Doubt of the Infanta's taking a religious Order, which you, in your Judgement, shall think meet. We have further thought meet to give you Knowledge, that it is Our special Desire, that the betrothing of the Infanta, with Words de præsenti, should be upon one of the Days in Christmas, New Stile, that holy and joyful Time best sitting so notable and blessed an Action.
"But First, We will that you repair presently to that King, and give Him Knowledge of the safe Arrival of Our dear Son to Our Court, so satisfied and taken with the great Entertainments, personal Kindness, Favour, and Respect, he hath received from that King and Court, as he seems not able to magnify it sufficiently; which makes Us not know how sufficiently to give Thanks; but will that, by all Means, you endeavour to express Our Thankfulness to that King, and the rest to whom it belongs, in the best and most ample Manner you can. And hereupon you may take Occasion to let that King know, that, according to Our constant Affection to make a firm and indissoluble Amity between Our Families, Nations and Crowns, and not seem to abandon Our Honour, not, at the same Time We give Joy to Our only Son, to give Our only Daughter her Portion in Tears, by the Advice of that King's Ambassadors (they have offered themselves as Our Counsellors), We have entered a Treaty concerning the Restitution of the Palatinate, as will more particularly to you, by the Copies herewith sent, appear. Now We must remember you, that We have ever understood and expected, that, upon the Marriage of Our Son with the Infanta, We should have a clear Restitution of the Palatinate and Electoral Dignity to Our Son in Law, to be really procured by that King, according to the Obligation of Our Honour, ad you have well expressed in you Reasons, why the Person of Our Son in Law should not be left out of the Treaty, but that the Emperor should find out what greater Title; or by increasing the Number of Electorate Stiles, wherewith to satisfy the Duke of Bavaria. We now therefore require you, that presently, in your first Audience, you procure from that King a punctual Answer, what Course that King will take for the Restitution of the Palatinate and Electorate to Our Son in Law; and, in Case that either the Emperor or the Duke of Bavaria will oppose any Part of the expected Restitution, what Course that King will take, to give Us Assurance for Our Content in that Point: Whereof We require your present Answer; and that you so press Expedition herein, that we may together receive the full Joy of both at Christmas. Resting Ourself upon that faithful Diligence of yours We have approved in all your Servic, ethough almost with the latest, We must remember to you, as a good Ground for you to work on, that Our Son did write unto Us out of Spaine; that that King would give Us a Blank, in which We might form Our own Conditions concerning the Palatinate, and the same Our Son confirms unto Us now; what Observation and Performance that King will make, We require you to express, and to give Us a speedy Account. Given, &c."
"Hereabouts the Duke desired us to observe well the Spanish Proceedings; and, if we found them not still to be built upon generals, without any one distinct or certain particular Obligement, he would acknowledge his own Weakness and Incapacity in these Affairs.
"You would conceive, faith the Duke, that, upon this Dispatch, the Earl of Br. would lay hold upon all Hints and emergent Occasions to put off the Desposorios, without this required Assurance of Assistance by Arms first obtained. But the Truth is, he did not so. For First, the Confirmation came from Rome, clogged and mangled, and, instead of challenging them thereupon, he labours, with no shall Strength of Wit, to hide and palliate the same. Secondly, when, in the Temporal Articles, the Portion was altered from Six Hundred Thousand Pounds in really Cash, to some Eighty Thousand Pounds in Money, a few Jewels, and a Pension of Twenty Thousand Pounds per Annum; instead of quarrelling this main Alteration, he seems to approve and applaud the Payment.
"Thirdly, for the Assurance of Restitution of the Palatinate, the main Foundation of both Match and Friendship, he is so far from providing for it before (which was the Method prescribed him by the King), that he leaves it to be mediated by the Infanta after the Marriage.
"Lastly, instead of putting off the Contract, as any Man in the World (upon the Dispatch from Royston) would have done, he is come to prefix a precise Day for the Desposorios. These Things appear very plainly by the Letters of the 24th of October, 1623, and the First of November, 1623; which follow:
E. of Bristol's Letter to His Majesty.
"May it please Your most Excellent Majesty,
"I have received Your Majesty's Letters, of the 8th of October, on the 21st of the same Month, some Hours within Night, and have thought it fit to dispatch back unto Your Majesty with all possible Speed; referring the Answer to what Your Majesty hath by these Letters commanded me, to a Post, that I shall purposely dispatch, when I shall have negotiated the Particulars with this King and His Ministers, wherein (God willing) all possible Diligence shall be used.
"But, forasmuch as I find, both by Your Majesty's said Letters, as likewise by Letters which I have received by the Prince his Highness, that you continue Your Desires of having the Match proceeded in, I held it my Duty that Your Majesty should be informed, that, although I am set free, in as much as concerneth the Doubt of the Infanta's entering into Religion, for the delivering of the Powers left with me by his Highness, yet, by this new Direction I now received from Your Majesty, that the Desposorios should be deferred till Christmas, the said Powers are made altogether useless and invalid; it being a Clause in the Body of the said Powers, that they shall only remain in Force until Christmas, and no longer, as Your Majesty may see by the Copy of them, which I send here inclosed.
"Your Majesty, I conceive, will be of Opinion, that this suspending of the Execution of the Powers, until the Force and Validity of them be expired, is a direct and effectual revoking of them; which not to do, how far his Highness is in his Honour engaged, Your Majesty will be best able to judge, by viewing the Powers themselves. Further, if the Date of these Powers do expire (besides the Breach of the Capitulations), although the Match itself should not, by Jealousies and Mistrusts, be hazarded, yet the Princess's coming at the Spring into England will be almost impossible; for, by that Time new Commissions and Powers shall be (after Christmas) granted by the Prince (which must be to the Satisfaction of both Parties), I conceive so much of the Year will be spent, that it will be impossible for the Fleets, and other Preparations, to be in a Readiness against the Spring; for it is not to be imagined that they will here proceed effectually with their Preparations, until they shall be assured of the Desposorios, especially when they shall have seen them several Times deferred on the Prince's Part, and that upon Pretexts that are not new, nor grown since the granting of the Powers, but were before in being, and often under Debate, and yet were never insisted upon, to make Stay of the Business; so that it will seem that they might better have hindered the granting of them than the Execution of them now, if there were no Staggering in former Resolutions; the which although really there is not, yet cannot it be suspected? and the clearing of it between Spaine and England will cost much Time. I must humbly crave Your Majesty's Pardon, if I write unto You with the Plainness of a true-hearted and faithful Servant, who ever have co-operated honestly unto Your Majesty's Ends, if I knew them. I know Your Majesty hath long been of Opinion, that the greatest Assurance you could get, that the King of Sp. would effectually labour the entire Restitution of the Palatinate was, that he really proceeded to the effecting of the Match. And my Instructions, under Your Majesty's Hands, were to insist upon the restoring of the Prince Palatine, but not to annex it to the Treaty of the Match, as that thereby the Match should be hazarded; for that Your Majesty seemed confident, they here would never grow to a perfect Conclusion, without a settled Resolution to give Your Majesty Satisfaction in the Business of the Palatinate. The same Course I observed in the Carriages of Business, by his Highness, and my Lord Duke, at their being here, who, though they insisted on the Business of the Palatinate, yet they held it fit to treat of them distinctly; and that the Marriage should precede (fn. 9) as a good Pawn for the other.
"Since their Departure, my Lord Ambassador, Sir Walter Aston, and myself, have much pressed to have this King's Resolution in Writing, concerning the Palatinate; and the Dispatches which Your Majesty will receive herewith, concerning that Business, were written before the Receipt of these Your Majesty's Letters. And, doubtless, it is now a great Part of their Care, that that Business may be well ended, before the Infanta's coming into England. And his Highness will well remember, that the Conde d'Olivares often protested the Necessity of having this Business compounded and settled before the Marriage; saying, otherwise, they might give a Daughter, and a War within Three Months after, if this Ground and Subject of Quarrel should still be left on Foot. The same Language he hath ever held with Sir Walter Aston and myself; and that it was a firm Peace and Amity, as much as an Alliance, which they sought with His Majesty; so that it is not to be doubted, but that this King, concluding the Match, resolveth to employ His utmost Power for Your Satisfaction in the Restitution of the Prince Palatine. The Question now will be, whether the Business of the Prince Palatine, having Relation to many great Princes that are interested therein, living at great Distance, and being (indeed) for the Condition and Nature of the Business itself impossible to be ended but by a formal Treaty, which of Necessity will require great Length, whether the Conclusion of the Match shall any Way depend upon the Issue of this Business, which I conceive to be far from Your Majesty's Intention; for so the Prince might be long kept unbestowed, by any Averseness of those that might have particular Interest in the Prince's remaining unmarried, or Dislike of his Matching with Spaine. But this, which I understand to be Your Majesty's Aim, is only to have the Conclusion of this Match, accompanied with as strong Engagement as can be procured from this King, for the joining with Your Majesty, not only in all good Offices for the entire Restitution of the Palatinate, but otherwise, if Need require, of His Majesty's Assistance. Herein I have these Days past laboured with all Earnestness, and procured this King's public Answer, which, I am told, is resolved of; and I shall, within these few Days, have it to send to Your Majesty, as likewise a private Proposition, which will be put into Your Hands; and shall not fail further to pursue Your Majesty's present Directions, of procuring this King's Declaration, in what Sort Your Majesty may rely upon the King's Assistance, in case the Emperor or the Duke of Bavaria shall oppose the entire Restitution of the Prince Palatine. But I conceive, if it be Your Majesty's Intention that I should procure here first this King's peremptory Answer in the whole Business, and how He will be assistant unto Your Majesty, in case of the Emperor's or the Duke of Bavaria's Averseness, and that I should send it unto Your Majesty, and receive again Your Answer, before I deliver the Powers for the Desposorios, the Match would thereby, if not be hazarded, yet, I conceive, the Infanta's going at Spring would be rendered altogether impossible; for if, upon the Arrival of the Pope's Approbation, I cannot refuse them but upon some Ground, if I alledge Your Majesty's Desire of having the Desposorios deferred until Christmas, they know as well as myself, that his Highness's Proxy is then out of Date, besides the infringing of the Capitulations. And they will judge it as a great Scorn put upon this King, who, ever since the Prince's granting of his Powers, hath called himself the Infanta's Desposado; and to that Effect the Prince hath writ unto him, in some of his Letters; besides, it will be held here a Point of great Dishonour unto the Infanta, if the Powers called for by her Friends should be detained by the Prince's Part; and whosoever else may have deserved ill, she certainly hath neither deserved Disrespect nor Discomfort. Further, upon my Refusal to deliver the Powers, all Preparations, which now go on chearfully and apace, will be staid; and there will enter in so much Distrust, and so many Jealousies, that, if the main Business run not Hazard by them, at least much Time will be spent to clear them.
"I must therefore, in Discharge of my Duty, tell Your Majesty, that all Your Majesty's Businesses here are in a fair Way. The Match, and all that is capitulated therein, they profess punctually to perform.
"In the Business of the Palatinate, they protest that they infinitely desire, and will to the utmost of their Powers endeavour, to procure Your Majesty Satisfaction.
"The Prince is like to have a most worthy and virtuous Lady, and who much loveth him; and all Things else depending upon this Match are in a good and hopeful Way.
"This is now the present Estate of Your Majesty's Affairs, as it appeareth unto me and to Sir Walter Ashton, with whom I have communicated this Dispatch, as I do all Things else concerning Your Majesty's Service. And I must clearly let Your Majesty understand, that I conceive, by retaining of the Powers when this King shall call for them, and offering to defer the Desposorios until Christmas, that Your Majesty's Businesses will run a great Hazard, what by the Distastes and Disgusts that will be raised here, and what by the Art and Industry of those which are Enemies to the Match, whereof every Court of Christendom hath Plenty.
"That, therefore, which I presume with all Humility to offer unto Your Majesty is, that You would be pleased to give me Order, with all possible Speed, that, when the Business shall come cleared from Rome, and that the Powers of the Marriage shall be demanded of me in the Behalf of this King, that I may deliver them, and no ways seek to interrupt or suspend the Desposorios, but assist and help to a perfect Conclusion of the Match.
"And that, for the Business of the Palatinate, I continue my earnest and faithful Endeavours to engage this King, as far as shall be possible, both for the doing of all good Offices for the Palatine's entire Restitution, as likewise for this King's Declaration of Assistance, in case the Emperor or the Duke of Bavaria shall oppose the said Restitution. Herein I will not fail to use all possible Means; and I conceive the Dispatch of the Match will be a good Pawn in the Business; and the Help and Assistance which the Princess, being once betrothed, would be able to give in this Court to all Your Majesty's Businesses would be of good Consideration. So, fearing I have already presumed too far upon Your Majesty's Patience, I humbly crave Your Majesty's Pardon, and recommend You to the holy Protection of God, resting,
"Your Majesty's most humble and faithful Subject and Servant,
Madrid, 24 Oct. 1623.
Another Letter from the Earl of Bristol to the King.
"The Earl of Bristol to His Majesty:
"May it please Your Majesty,
"I find, that, upon the News that is now come from the Duke Pæstrana, that the Pope hath clearly passed the Dispensation, which is now Hourly expected here, there is an Intention to call presently upon me for the Prince's Powers for the Marriage left in my Hands, the which I know not upon what Ground or Reason to detain; the Prince having engaged (in the said Powers) the Faith and Word of a Prince no Way to revoke or retract from them, but that they should remain in full Force till Christmas; and delivered unto me, with public Declaration of his Pleasure, that, upon the coming of the Dispensation, I should deliver them unto this King, that they might be put in due Execution; and hereof likewise was there, by Secretary Cerica, as a Public Notary, an Instrument drawn, attested by all the Witnesses present. If I shall alledge Your Majesty's Pleasure of having the Marriage deferred until one of the Christmas Holidays, although they should condescend thereto, that is impossible; for the Powers will be then expired. If I shall insist upon the Restitution of the Palatinate, this King hath therein declared His Answer; and it will be much wondered why that should be now added for a Condition of the Marriage, having ever hitherto been treated of as a Business apart, and was in Being at the granting of the said Powers, and hath been often under Debate, but never specified, nor the Powers delivered upon any Condition of having any such Point first cleared. And I must confess unto Your Majesty, I understand not how, with Honour, and that exact Dealing which hath been ever observed in all Your Majesty's Actions, the Powers can be detained, unless there should appear some new and emergent Cause, since the granting of them (whereof as yet I hear none specified). I therefore, being loth to be the Instrument by whose Hands any Thing should pass that might have the least Reflexion upon Your Majesty's or the Prince's Honour (which I shall ever more value than my own Life or Safety); and judging it likewise to conduce more to Your Service; and assuring myself, that Your Majesty's late Direction to have the Marriage upon one of the Holidays in Christmas, was for Want of due Information, that the Powers would be then expired; I have thought it fit (with the Advice of Sir Walter Aston) to raise no Scruple in the Delivery of the said Powers; but do intend (when they shall be required) to pass on to the nominating of a prefixed Day for Desposorios. But I shall endeavour to defer the Time until I may be advertised of Your Majesty's Pleasure, if it may be within the Space of Twenty-four Days; and will labour to find some handsome and fair Occasion for the deferring of them, without alledging any Directions in that kind from Your Majesty or the Prince.
"The Reasons why I have thought it fit to take this Resolution are; First, I find, by Your Majesty's Letters, and the Prince's that Your Intent is to proceed in the Marriage; and to that Purpose Your Majesty and the Prince have set me free to deliver the Powers, according to the first Intentions, by removing that Scruple of the Infanta's entering into Religion, whereupon they were only suspended. Secondly, Your Majesty's Letter intimateth only a Desire (not a Direction) of having the Marriage upon one of the Holidays in Christmas, which I conceive is to be understood, if it may well and fittingly be so, not if there shall be an Impossibility therein, by reason of the expiring of the Powers before, and that the Intention of having it then should be overthrown thereby, when I am confident, that what Your Majesty writeth is for Want of due Information of the Clause of Expiration of the Powers. Thirdly, if Your Majesty, upon these Reasons, and such as I have formerly al ledged unto Your Majesty, should (as I no Way doubt but Your Majesty will) give me Order for the present Proceeding to the Marriage, yet, by my refusing of the Powers, and alledging Your Majesty's or the Prince's Directions (although afterwards all Things should be cleared), yet would it cast some Kind of Aspersion and Jealousy upon the Sincerity of Your Majesty's and the Prince's Proceedings; on the contrary Side, if Your Majesty's Intention be not to proceed in the Match (whereof I see no Ground), the Intimation of that may be as well a Month hence as now. And I judge it Duty in a Servant, especially in a Business of so high Consequence, and wherein Your Majesty hath spent so much Time, to give his Master Leisure to repair unto His Second Cogitations, before he do any Act that may disorder or overthrow it.
"This I offer with all Humility unto Your Majesty's wife and just Consideration; and beseech You to make Interpretation of my Proceedings herein according to my dutiful and zealous Care of Your Honour and Service. I have of Purpose dispatched this Post with this Letter, to the End I may receive Your Majesty's Directions in this Particular with all possible Speed; which I hope shall be, to proceed directly to the Marriage, according to the Capitulations, and so to order all Things for the Princess's Journey in the Spring; and for the Palatinate, Your Majesty may be confident there shall be all Diligence used in procuring a speedy and good Resolution. So, &c."
Madrid, 1 Nov. 1624, Sti. Vet.
"Now, from this rash Fixing of the Day of the Desposorios in Spaine, which was controlled again by an Express from hence, issued an unnecessary Discourtesy put upon that King, and in a Manner wantonly, by the Earl of Br.; from that proceeded a greater Affront put upon the Prince, the taking away the Title of "La Princessa" from the Infanta, and the debarring of our Ambassadors from any further Access unto her Person, as her Servants and Attendants. And with these, the greatest Discourtesy of all put upon the King, our Master, that, when they returned unto us a poor, lean, and meagre Dispatch, concerning the Restitution of the Palatinate, yet the Earl of Br. accompanied it with this Item, that they were sain to antedate the Paper, for their Honours Sake; or else, if they had taken Notice of the Stay of the Desposorios, they had sent it Ten Times worse. You will not believe his Lordship when you have read it:
King of Spain's Answer to the English Ambassador's Memorial concerning the Palatinate.
"The King of Spain's Answer of the 6th of December, 1623, to the Ambassador's Memorial, touching the Business of the Palatinate.
"That which His Catholick Majesty hath commanded should be given in Answer to the Third Memorial, which the Earl of Br. and Sir Walter Aston, Ambassadors Extraordinary and Ordinary to His Majesty the King of Great Brittaine, delivered unto Him, touching the Business of the Palatinate.
"That His Majesty hath seen the Third Memorial, which they delivered, touching the Business of the Palatinate; and that the Answers, which of late He hath commanded should be given unto the rest which they have delivered in that Business, pre-supposed, as it seemeth to Him, that there is nothing else which can be added in Answer, to that which they now present, since the Answer therein required is not necessary until that all which is there propounded, on the Behalf of the Count Palatine, hath first taken Effect; and that He hath endeavoured to give the Emperor Satisfaction, by the Demonstrations and Satisfactions there mentioned; for that it were Injustice in His Catholick Majesty to shew any Distrust, that the Emperor, His Uncle, should not use His Mercy and Clemency, and give the King's Majesty of Great Brittaine all possible Satisfaction, in case the Count Palatine perform such Acts of Submission and Assurance as are in the said Memorial propounded; especially being accompanied with the Favour and Intercession of His Majesty, which is, and ever shall be, interposed for the effecting of it; and that, in doing otherwise, His Majesty should lose the Power which He hath, as an Arbitrator and Mediator in this Business, in accommodating of it to the Content and Satisfaction of His Majesty the King of Great Brittaine, as He much desireth, and shall endeavour. And to doubt of the effecting of it, seemeth to His Majesty, were to injure the Emperor, considering their Amity and good Correspondency, and the confident Assurance He hath of His Intercession with Him; and is likewise of Opinion, that, to the End the good Offices which His Majesty shall do in this Business may take the good Effect which He wisheth, and that the King of Great Brittaine may receive all Satisfaction, it is sit, that His Catholick Majesty should not make Himself a formal Party in it, as it is pressed by the Ambassadors."
Madrid, 6th Dec. 1623.
"Here the Prince observed, That, whereas the King of Spaine saith, in this Paper, that He hath no Power over the Emperor, in other Treaties He took upon Him to have much Power over Him; so that his Highness said, He verily believed that He had and had not Power, at His own Pleasure.
"Well, for all that Bravado and Menace upon the former Dispatch, they have taken their Pen in Hand again, and have sent unto His Majesty a Project of a Letter; the which, if His Majesty shall make an Invitation to that Effect, shall be sent unto His Majesty from the King of Spaine. And this Letter is the Hercules Pillaro, and the Nihil Ultra in all this Negotiation of the Palatinate:
A Second Answer from the King of Spain concerning the Palatinate.
"The King of Spaines Answer, of the 5th of Jan. 1624, Sti. Novo, touching the Palatinate.
"For the Estimation which His Majesty maketh of your Lordship and Sir Walter Aston, and for the Desire He hath to satisfy the Instances that you have made, that he would write unto the King of Great Brittaine in the Business of the Prince Palatine, He hath condescended thereunto. But this is to be done when you shall bring any Letters from the King of Great Brittaine, touching the said Business; and hath, in the mean Time, commanded me to send you this Copy, which is the Answer, which His Majesty commandeth to be given to that which was last propounded by you in that Business; and that, when you shall bring the said Letter from your King, then the original Letter of the King my Master shall be delivered unto you, with a great Desire of giving full Satisfaction. God preserve your Lordship, &c.
"Juan de Serica."
The King of Spain's Letter.
"Having given Answer to Your Majesty's Ambassadors, and to such Memorials as they have hitherto delivered unto Me touching the accommodating of the Business of the Prince Palatine, and having made known My Desire and Intention herein, they have again of late, with much Earnestness, solicited Me in the Three Points following:
"The First, That I should do all good Offices of Mediation with the Emperor, to the End He may yield unto the entire Restitution of the Prince Palatine to his Possessions and Dignities.
"The Second, That a limited Time might be appointed, for the negotiating by Way of Mediation.
"The Third, That I should forthwith declare Myself, That, the said Mediation not taking Effect within the Time limited, I would employ My Arms against the Emperor.
"Touching the First, Your Majesty may rest assured, that I am ready really and effectually to assist Your Majesty with the best Offices I shall be able, to the End You may receive entire Satisfaction; the Prince Palatine performing the due Submissions, and what else is requisite, as hath been said in My former Answers touching the Alliance and Security on his Part; and that I will continue the said good Offices until the final Conclusion of the Business.
"As for the Second Point, I am well content that there be a limited Time appointed, how long the Offices of Mediation are to endure; but, since the Business cannot be accommodated without a formal Treaty, which cannot be but in those Parts, Your Majesty (taking such Term of Time, as shall seem requisite for so great and difficult a Business) may agree on it there, either with the Infanta My Aunt, or with My Ambassadors, and I do from this Time approve thereof; and so Your Majesty may give Order, that, without the Loss of any further Time, the Treaty begin for the accommodating of the Business, wherein Your Majesty may likewise make such Propositions for the satisfying the Duke of Bavaria, as shall seem fitting.
"Concerning the Third Part, wherein I am intreated, in Your Majesty's Name, by Your Ambassadors, That I would forthwith declare Myself, that, in case the Mediation take no Effect, I would employ My Arms against the Emperor, although I am most certain and confident, that, by Your Majesty's and My Intercession, together with the Submission of the Prince Palatine, and the Performance of what else shall be necessary, as is above said, the Emperor, My Uncle, will, without all Doubt, shew His Clemency, and give Your Majesty entire Satisfaction; yet the making of such a Declaration, besides that it were to bereave Me of the Power as Arbitrator and Mediator in the Business, by making Myself a formal Party, that were likewise to give just Occasion of Offence to the Emperor My Uncle, and to fail in the due Respect which it is fitting I should shew towards Him, if I should accompany the Offices of Mediation with Menaces of Arms: But Your Majesty may be confident, that I will procure, by all Means possible with the Emperor, that this Business may be effected to Your Majesty's full Satisfaction, without withdrawing My Hand from it until that which Your Majesty desireth be accomplished."
"This Letter His Majesty hath already scanned to a Syllable; and, supposing some Virtue might be extracted out of that Phrase, alzar la mano, and the King will not take His Hand from off the Business until our Master shall receive Satisfaction. His Majesty sent unto the Spanish Ambassadors (Men of great Understanding and Quality) for a Key, or a Comment, to open the same, And, behold, this is all they return back unto His Majesty; nor take off His Hand; i.e. He will employ, without Intermission, His best Offices, to procure Satisfaction unto His Majesty. And hitherto that Hand of Mediation hath proved but an unlucky Hand in all this Business."
Here the Lord Keeper related somewhat that was delivered by Cerica unto the Earl of Bristol at the same Instant with this Project of the Letter; as Mr. Clerke, who was then present, hath told the Duke of Buck. videlicet,
"That whereas the King of Sp. had found His Error in going on so fast with the Treaty of the Match, before He had cleared the Treaty of the Restitution of the Palatinate, He is now resolved to invert His Method, and to perfect the Treaty of the Restitution of the Palatinate before He will proceed any further in that of the Marriage; so as the Two Treaties, as they move in Spaine, are now quit, the one with the other; as formerly the Treaty of the Marriage did justie out the Treaty of the Palatinate, so now the Treaty of the Palatinate hath quite excluded the Treaty of the Marriage."
"And here my Lord Duke acquainting us, as Admiral, with Advertisements he had received of the Fleet prepared in Spaine, the Arrest of some of out Ships, and the coming over of Padre Maijira, made an End of the Fifth Part of his Narrative, which contained the subsequent Proceedings of His Majesty, by a select Committee of Counsellors, in both these Treaties, sithence the Return of his Highness from Spaine."
Duke of Buckingham's stating the Question upon the whole Matter.
"The stating of the Question, super totam materiam.
"This Question the Duke stated after this Manner: My Lords and Gentlemen, All your speedy and faithful Advice, concerning this last Dispatch, that implieth (in the Word of Alliances) the Education of the Prince Palatine's Son in the Emperor's Court, and promiseth no Assistance by Arms to recover the Palatinate, is that His Majesty expecteth from both the Houses at this Time, Whether this Project of a Letter, being the full Effect and Produce of all that Negotiation which I have opened to you, be sufficient, Super totam materiam, for His Majesty to rely upon with any Safety, as well for the Marriage of His only Son, as for the Relief of His only Daughter; or that, these Treaties set aside, His Majesty were best to trust to His own Strength, and to stand upon His own Feet. And so his Grace ended with this Conclusion, That, if the bringing of us from Darkness to Light did deserve any Thanks, we owe it, and must wholly ascribe it, to the Prince his Highness."
Memorandum, That the Prince was present at the Narration, and assisted the Duke of Buck. therein; and certified many Particulars thereof. And, it being reported this Day to the House, his Highness approved the same.
The Duke of Buckingham acquainted their Lordships, That Complaint is made against his Grace, for delivering somewhat in this his Narration, which did so highly touch the King of Spaine in His Honour, as, if the like had been uttered by any Subject of that King against His Majesty, it could not otherwise be expiated but with the Loss of his Head that spake it. Wherefore his Grace desired their Lordships to take into their Consideration, whether he could have justified the leaving out of any the Particulars of this Narration.
Their Lordships did generally command the fair Proceeding of the Duke herein; and Agreed, That, as His Grace hath deserved Thanks of them all for the same, so he had deserved ill if he had concealed any Part thereof.
And also their Lordships did conceive, That an Aspersion is laid on the House by this Complaint; for that it concerns their Lordships not to suffer any Thing to be publicly spoken in their Hearing, in Dishonour of so great a Prince, in Amity with His Majesty. And their Lordships do conceive, That nothing then delivered did concern that King particularly, but the Acts of his Officers and Ministers only.
Duke of Buckingham acquitted of any Aspertion on the King of Spain.
For the full clearing of the Duke's Grace herein (the Lord Keeper having, by the general Assent of their Lordships, put it to the Question), the whole House, with One Assent, and unanimous Vote, did agree,
"That the Duke his Grace did deliver nothing in his said Narration, but what was fit for him to do, and the Matter led him unto."
Their Lordships also agreed to satisfy His Majesty herein, by a Committee of their whole House; the Prince being pleased to intimate this their Desire to the King, and to let them know when His Majesty shall be pleased to admit them to His Presence; and then the Lord Keeper to be their Speaker to His Majesty.
Their Lordships were then moved to take into their Consideration how the Spanish Ambassador came to the Knowledge of this; but the Duke's Grace requested their Lordships to desist from the Inquiry thereof, for that he only desired his own Justification, and no Revenge; for which Justification he thanked their Lordships, and they rested satisfied herein.
Message to the H. C. Concerning the Spanish Ambassador's Complaint against the Duke of Bucks.
The Lords sent this Message also unto the House of Commons, by Mr. Serjeant Crew and Mr. Attorney General: videlicet,
Whereas their Lordships are informed, that Complaint is made to His Majesty, by the Spanish Ambassador, That the Duke of Buckingham did, in his Narration to both Houses, so highly touch the Honour of the King of Spaine, that it could not be expiated, but by his Head; their Lordships, taking this into their Consideration, do find this Complaint to fasten an Aspersion on themselves also; and have, by a general Vote of their House, fully acquitted the Duke's Grace thereof, and have determined, by a Committee of their whole House, to satisfy His Majesty therein.
And, to the End that their Lordships may ever (according to their Desire) hold good Correspondency with their House, they have signified this unto them.
These Messengers staying long, the Lords Agreed, That they might adjourn the House before their Return; and that it was agreeable with the former Precedents and Use of the House.
Dominus Custos Magni Sigilli declaravit præsens Parliamentum continuandum esse usque in pomeridianum hujus diei, hora tertia, Dominis sic decernentibus.
Domini tam Spirituales quam Temporales, quorum nomina subscribuntur, præsentes fuerunt:
p. Carolus Princeps Walliæ, etc.
Answer from the House of Commons.
ANSWER returned to the Message sent by Mr. Serjeant Crewe and Mr. Attorney General:
Duke of Buckingham acquitted of the Charge against him there also.
That, having received their Lordships Message, they took the same into their Consideration, and do find the Complaint to asperse their House also; they have acquitted the Duke of Buck. of any Thing which he said, that it did not touch the Honour of the King of Spaine; they attribute much Honour to the Duke for his Narration, and give his Grace hearty Thanks for the same; and they render like Thanks unto all your Lordships, for this your good Correspondency.
Papers concerning the Prince's Journey to Spain, etc. ordered to be read.
To the End their Lordships might truly state the Question of this great Business whereon they are to advise the King, they required to hear the Letter from Spaine, dated 5° (fn. 10) Jan. to be read unto them again; whereupon Mr. Attorney General, coming to the Clerk's Table, read the same.
Mr. Attorney also read the Letter from the Earl of Bristol unto His Majesty, dated the 21st of Oct. 1623, which followeth in hæc verba: videlicet,
"May it please Your most excellent Majesty,
Earl of Bristol's Letter to the King, 21 Oct. 1623.
"I received Your Majesty's Letters of the 9th of September the 23d of the same Month, and by them understand that Your Majesty hath received much Satisfaction by what I had formerly written unto Your Majesty, both concerning the Restitution of the Prince Palatine, as likewise of this King's Resolution to proceed to the Conclusion of the Match; but that Your Majesty findeth the Effects very unsuitable, both by the Proceedings at Brussells and in the Palatinate, as also by what You understand from Rome, by Mr. Gage, of the Pope's Demands; I hope, by the Arrival of Mr. Cottington, Your Majesty will have received Satisfaction, in some Measure at least, that there hath been no Diligence or Time omitted, either for the redressing of any Thing that hath been amiss, or for the advancing of Your Majesty's Affairs. The very Day I received Your Majesty's Letters, I sent a Gentleman Post unto the King, who was gone unto The Escuriall, to crave Leave to attend Him, which He presently granted me, and I repaired thither unto Him upon the Third of October. The Conde de Gondamar being likewise commanded to wait upon the King, I was there well received; and presently upon my Arrival, the Conde d'Olivares came to me, to the Lodgings which were appointed for me to rest in: To him I delivered fully, in the Presence of Sir Walter Aston and the Conde de Gondamar, what I had to negotiate with the King, both in the Business of the Match and of the Palatinate. In the Match I represented how much it imported Your Majesty that a speedy Resolution might be taken therein, both in regard of the Prince, being Your Majesty's only Son, now arrived to the Age of Twenty-two Years, and for the settling of Your Affairs in England. I repeated unto him all the Passages in this Treaty, how many Years had been already spent in it; and that, after so long an Expectation, the Diligences used in Rome, for obtaining the Dispensation, had wrought but small Effect, since the Pope had lately made such Demands as were altogether impossible for Your Majesty to condescend unto. And therefore Your Majesty, seeing the Business still delayed, held it fit that some such Course might be taken, that both Your Majesties might speedily know what You were to trust unto; and therefore had commanded me to signify unto this King Your utmost Resolution, how far You could condescend, in Point of Religion, towards what the Pope demanded; and, if herewith this King could be satisfied, Your Majesty desired that we might proceed to a final and speedy Conclusion; otherwise, that this King likewise would clearly declare himself, that Your Majesty might lose no more Time in the disposing of the Prince Your Son. Hereunto the Conde d'Olivares answered with some Length; the Substance I shall only presume to set down briefly to Your, Majesty.
"He prosessed a sincere Intention and Resolution in this King to make the Match, and that there should not be one Day lost; for that the speedy Dispatch thereof imported them as much as Your Majesty; and, to the End that no Time might be lost, this King had, the next Day after the Death of Don Baltazar de Zuniga, appointed Don Fernanda de Gyron in his Place in the Commission; that, for the going of Mr. Gage from Rome, and the Pope's Demands, they were absolutely ignorant of them; that the King had done all that I myself desired for the Redress of this Error; that I might assure Your Majesty, that You should find here all Sincerity and clear Proceeding, without any Hour's Delay more than of Necessity the Nature of the Business required.
"As for the Business of the Palatinate, I represented at large the Merit of Your Majesty's Proceeding, the many Promises made from hence; yet notwithstanding, whilst Your Majesty was treating at Brusselle, Heidlebergh, one of Three Places which were only left, and where Your Majesty had Garrisons, was besieged by the Archduke Leopold and Monsieur Tilley; that this King had withdrawn his Forces, and so exposed the Palatinate absolutely to the Emperor and Duke of Bavaria. The Conde of Olivares answered me, by acknowledging how much Your Majesty's Proceedings had deserved at the Emperor's and this King's Hands; that whatsoever Your Majesty could expect, or had been at any Time promised, should by this King be really performed; that the Prince Palatine's own Courses hitherto had been the only Hindrance of the effecting of it; that he referred it unto Your Majesty's own just Judgement, whether the calling of this King's Forces out of the Palatinate were with any ill Intention, or merely for the Defence of Flaunders, which otherwise had been put in great Hazard by Count Maunsfeild, as Your Majesty saw by what had really passed; that the Siege of Heidlebergh was no Way by the Consent or Knowledge of this King, or any of His Ministers, but was generally disapproved by them all. I told him, I conceived, that was not enough; for that Your Majesty had engaged Yourself to this King, that, in case Your Son-in-Law would not conform himself, You would not only forsake him, but would declare Yourself against him, and give the Emperor Assistance for the reducing of him to Reason; and that Your Majesty could not but expect a like reciprocal Proceeding from this King. He answered, Your Majesty should see this King's Sincerity by the Effects; and that, if Heidlebergh should be taken, and the Emperor refuse to restore it, or to condescend to such an Accommodation as should be held reasonable, this King would infallibly assist Your Majesty with His Forces; and this he spake with great Assurance, and wished me to desire Your Majesty to be confident You would find nothing but real and sincere Proceedings from hence.
"I was then presently called for to the King, to whom I spoke first in Business of the Match, and delivered him the Contents thereof in Writing, which I have sent to Mr. Secretary. I received from him the same Answer in Effect as from the Conde d'Olivares: That he desired the Match no less than Your Majesty; that, on his Part, there should be no Time lost for the bringing of it to a speedy Conclusion.
"In the Business of the Palatinate, I spoke unto the King with some Length, repeating many Particulars of Your Majesty's Proceeding, and how much Your Honour was like to suffer; that now, whilst You were treating, Heidlebergh, defended by Your Garrison, was like to be taken. The King answered me, He would effectually labour, that Your Majesty should have entire Satisfaction; and, rather than Your Majesty should fail thereof, He would employ His Arms to effect it for You. My Lord Ambassador, Sir Walter Aston, accompanied me at my Audience, and was a Witness of all that passed, as well with the King as with the Conde d'Olivares.
"Within few Days after, the News of the Taking of Heidlebergh came hither, whereupon I dispatched again to the King, in such Sort as I have at large advertised to Mr. Secretary Calvert. The Effect of my Negotiation was, that they, on the 13th of October, dispatched Letters away to the Infanta, to stop the Emperor's and Duke of Bavaria's Proceedings; but pressing them further, in regard their former Letters have wrought so little Effects. They have given me at present a second Dispatch, which I have sent unto the Infanta, and whereof Mr. Secretary will give Your Majesty an Account, which, I conceive, will procure Your Majesty better Satisfaction than hitherto You have received from the Emperor and His Party.
"For the Business of the Match, I have written to Mr. Secretary what is to be said at present, and will only add, that, as I should not willingly give Your Majesty Hopes upon uncertain Grounds, so I would not conceal what they profess, which is, that they will give Your Majesty real and speedy Satisfaction therein.
"And, if they intend it not, they are falser than all the Devils in Hell; for deeper Oaths and Protestations of Sincerity cannot be made.
"It will only remain, that I humbly cast myself at Your Majesty's Feet, for that Addition of Title, wherewith it hath pleased You to Honour me and my Posterity. My Gratitude and Thankfulness wanteth Expression; and, shall only say unto Your Majesty, that, as all I have, either of Fortunes or Honour, I hold it merely of Your Bounty and Goodness; so shall I ever chearfully lay them down, with my Life into the Bargain, for the Service of Your Majesty and Yours. So, with my humblest Prayers for the Health and Prosperity of Your Majesty, I humbly recommend Your Majesty to God's holy Protection, and rest,
"Most humble Servant and Subject,
Madrid, the 21st of Oct. 1622.
These Letters being read, the House was adjourned ad libitum; and their Lordships considered of the Contents thereof, and of the Points of the Narration reported this Morning by the Lord Keeper; and debated what they should advise the King touching this great Business.
And, for that His Majesty hath required the Advice of both Houses, they thought it not fit to conclude on any Thing at this Time, but to have a Conference with the Commons, and to consider first what to propound unto the Commons at the said Conference; which their Lordships deferred unto their next Meeting.
Hospitals and Work-houses.
The House being resumed; the Committee for confirming of Hospitals and Alms-Houses was put off till Tuesday next; and these Lords were added to the same Committee: videlicet,
Lord Viscount Wallingford.
Lord Bishop of Oxon.
Dominus Custos Magni Sigilli declaravit præsens Parliamentum continuandum esse usque in diem crastinum, videlicet, diem Sabbati, 28m diem instantis Februarii, hora nona, Dominis sic decernentibus.