Journal of the House of Lords: Volume 6, 1643. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1767-1830.
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DIE Lunæ, 23 die Septembris.
L. Viscount Say & Seale.
Lady Drake's Petition for a Maintenance.
Upon reading the Petition of Dame Hellen Drake, the Relict of Sir John Drake, late of Ash, in the County of Devon, Knight; shewing "her great Losses she hath sustained by (fn. 1) adhering to the Parliament; desiring that the Houses would please to take (fn. 2) her Necessity into their Consideration, and allow her some Maintenance for herself and Family."
Message to the H. C. for Committees to prepare an Answer to the Paper of The States Ambassadors.
To let them know, that the Lords, having received Advertisement that The States Ambassadors have this Morning in Person to their Lord Speaker renewed their Desire of an Answer, concerning their Endeavours of a Mediation for Peace, do think fit that the Committee of both Houses formerly appointed to treat with The States Ambassadors concerning the Ships, as also to whom this Business concerning Peace was formerly referred, shall prepare a fitting Answer to be made to them, concerning their said Desire, and to present the same to both Houses; and the Lords do desire the House of Commons to join with them herein.
and with Lady Drake's Petition.
2. To deliver to them the Petition of Dame Hellen Drake; and to let them know, that this House recommends the Particulars in the same to their Consideration; and that this House desires their Concurrence, that she may have assigned to her the House of Sir Thomas Reynolds, ready furnished, to live in.
Ordination of Ministers.
Message from the H. C. with Letters from Sir T. Middleton & al. about the Surrender of Montgomery Castle, &c.
To communicate to their Lordships divers Letters from Sir Thomas Middleton, Sir Wm. Brereton, and Sir John Meldrum; wherein is expressed the good Success God hath given the Forces under them, against the Enemy, before Mountgomcry Castle; also there is signified the good Service the Lord Herbert of Cherbury hath done, in delivering up the said Castle into the Hands of the Parliament Forces, which else would have caused much Blood; and likewise there is an Agreement mentioned between Sir Thomas Middleton and the said Lord Herbert. The House of Commons, taking these Particulars into Consideration, (fn. 3) do think fit that the Sequestration be forthwith taken off the said Lord Herbert's Estates; and that the Agreement be confirmed, wherein the House of Commons desire their Lordships Concurrence.
and with an Ordinance.
Ld. Herbert of Cherbury's Sequestration taken off.
"It is this Day Ordered, by the Lords and Commons in Parliament assembled, That the Sequestration of the Estate of the Lord Harbert of Cherbury be forthwith discharged and taken off; and that the Goods and Books of the said Lord Herbert of Cherbury, now under Sequestration, be forthwith restored unto the said Lord Herbert; and the Sequestrators at Campden House are required to take Notice hereof."
Answer to the H. C.
Ordinance for a Duty of One and a Half per Cent, on Goods, for Relief of Plymouth.
"The Lords and Commons in Parliament assembled, being fully assured and satisfied of the exceeding Faithfulness of the Inhabitants of the Town of Plymouth, and of the very great Charge and Expence they have been put unto, in Defence of themselves and that Place; and being most sensible of the manifold Miseries and Sufferings that Place hath undergone, by several long and strict Sieges, by Means whereof they are in no sort able of themselves longer to defend that Place; and knowing likewise the imminent Danger that Town now is in, and of what Consequence the Preservation of it is to the whole Kingdom, and how the Interest of Trade is concerned therein; and finding that the Provisions already made are in no sort proportionable to defray the Charge of that Garrison, nor to supply the present Necessities of that Town; do Order and Ordain, That where any Subsidy, Custom, or other Duty, is or shall be laid or imposed, by Authority or Ordinance of both Houses of Parliament, upon any Goods, Wares, or other Merchandizes, of what Nature, Kind, or Quality soever, to be exported out of, or imported into, the Kingdom of England, or Dominion of Wales, that there One Tenth Part more (over and above the Tenth Part formerly imposed by Ordinance of Parliament of the 15th of November last, for the Defence of the Towns and Ports of Plymouth, the Isle of St. Nicholas, the Towns of Poole and Lyme, and Places nigh adjacent) of the Rate of the Custom, Subsidy, or Duties, now paid, or according to the Book of Rates now by such Authority or Ordinance established, be paid and answered, over and above the said Custom, Subsidy, or Duty, from and after the 29th Day of September Instant, of and from all and every such Goods, Wares, and other Merchandize, so to be exported or imported; (that is to say) where Ten Shillings now is paid, there hereafter shall be paid One Shilling more, and after that Rate for more or less, to continue for the Space of Six Months, and no longer; and to be received, collected, and taken, by Nathan Wright and Francis Lenthall, of London, Merchants, their Deputy or Deputies, to be employed and disposed of for, in, and about, the Defence of the said Town and Port of Plymouth, and Island of St. Nicholas, and Places adjacent, in such Manner as by the Committee of Lords and Commons appointed for the Safety of those Places, shall be Ordered and Directed; and the said Subsidy and Imposition to be paid under such Penalty and Seizures as are established by an Ordinance or Act now in Being, for other Customs and Subsidies already established; and the Collectors shall hereby be secured and saved harmless, by Authority of both Houses of Parliament, in what they shall do in Execution of the Premises: Provided always, That, as touching the Duty hereby imposed, there be no Deduction or Defalcation of Fifteen Pounds per Cent.
"And it is further Ordered, That all Customers, Comptrollers, and other Officers whom it may concern, in the Port of London, and other the Out Ports, do take particular Notice of this Ordinance; who are to pass no Entry until the said Duty hereby imposed be fully and duly satisfied and paid to the said Collectors, or their Deputies, and signified under their Hands in Writing: And it is further Ordained, That there shall be allowed, out of every Twenty Shillings so paid, the Sum of Six Pence, for such Collection.
"And it is lastly Ordained, That this Tenth Part now granted is intended, and shall be construed, to extend only unto, and to be taken of, such Duties, Customs, and Subsidies, as were granted, and in Being, before the 15th Day of November, 1643, and before the former Tenth Part formerly mentioned was granted."
Agreement on the Surrender of Montgomery Castle by Lord Herbert.
"I James Till, Gentleman, Lieutenant Colonel of Horse, do hereby, in the Name of Sir Thomas Middleton Knight, promise and undertake, That no Violence shall be offered to the Person or Goods of Edward Lord Herbert, or any Person or Persons within his Castle of Mountgom'y; and that they shall have free Liberty to go out of the said Castle, and carry away their Goods and Money, whensoever they will; and that a good Convoy shall be granted, for the safe doing thereof, as far as Coventry; and Recommendations given to the Officers there, for the further conveying of the said Persons and Goods to London, if it be required; and that, in the mean while, a true Inventory shall be taken of all the Household Stuff used in the said Castle; and of all the Books, Trunks, and Writings, in the said Castle; and (fn. 4) of all the Horses and Cattle in and about the said Castle, and all Provisions of Victuals."
(fn. 5) "Letters from Sir William Brereton, Sir Thomas Middleton, Sir John Meldrum, of the great Victory (by God's Providence) given them, in raising the Siege from before Mountgomery Castle; and how they routed and totally dispersed His Majesty's Forces, under the Command of the Lord Byron, where they took all their Carriages, Arms, and Ammunition, and made them fly to Shrewsbury and Chester; with a List of the Names of all the Commanders and Officers taken and killed in the said Service.
Letter from Sir Wm. Brereton, with an Account of the Victory over the King's Forces near Montgomery.
"That God who is most glorified by working by the weakest and unworthiest Instruments, hath this Day given a most glorious Victory, and as much ma nifested His Power therein as in any Day I have been engaged since the Beginning of these Wars.
"We have relieved Mountgomery Castle, wherein there was closely besieged, and much distressed, the Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Colonel Price, and most of Sir Tho. Middleton's Officers, and near Five Hundred Soldiers.
"We were so very hard tasked by the Multitude of our Enemies (who did much exceed us in Number), as that, if the Commanders and Soldiers had not engaged and behaved themselves very gallantly, or if we had wanted any Part of our Forces, it might have hazarded our Army, for it was very dubious and uncertain which Way the Lord would incline the Victory. It came to Push of Pike, wherein they were much too hard for us, having many more Pikes. Our Horse also, at the Beginning of the Battle, were worsted, and retreated; but there was, I do believe, an unanimous Resolution both in Horse and Foot to sight it out to the last Man. Indeed there could be no other Hope or Expectation of Safety or Escape, there remaining no Way of Retreat, all Passages being entirely in the Enemy's Power (if Masters of the Field); and truly, if God had not infatuated, they might easily have interrupted our Passage, and made good divers Passes against us. But our Extremity was God's Opportunity to magnify His Power; for when it was most dubious, the Lord so guided and encouraged our Men, that with One fresh valiant Charge we routed and put to Retreat and Flight their whole Army, pursued them many Miles even in the Mountains, and did perform great Execution upon them; slew (I do believe) Five Hundred, wounded many more, took near Fifteen Hundred Prisoners, and amongst them Colonel Broughton and Colonel Tilsley, who they report to be General Majors. There were also taken Lieutenant Colonels, Majors, and Captains, more than Twenty; and all their Carriages, and near Twenty Barrels of Powder, wherein they were furnished the Night before the Battle. We took also (as was conceived) near Fifteen Hundred or Two Thousand Arms, most for Foot. Most of their Horse escaped towards Shrewsbury and Chester.
"The Enemy's Army was reported (and I do believe it) was no less than Four Thousand, the Foot being the old Irish, who came out of Ireland with Col. Broughton, Warren, Tyllier, and some of Colonel Ellis, and some of Colonel Sir Michael Woodhouse's, and Sir Michael Ernly's Regiment, from Shrewsbury, Chester, and Ludlow. Our Army consisted of about Fifteen Hundred Foot and Fifteen Hundred Horse. We lost not Forty Men slain, and I do believe there was not Sixty wounded. Our greatest Loss was of Sir Wil. Fairfax and Major Fitz-Simons, most gallant Men. Sir John Meldrum did with much Judgement order and command these Forces, and therefore deserves a large Share in the Honour of this Day's Success. But indeed the whole Honour and Glory is to be given and ascribed to God, the Giver of Victories, and who is most deservedly stiled The Lord of Hosts.
"What remains further to be done in Prosecution of this Victory shall not be omitted; and, if it please God that Newcastle be delivered, and some Scottish Forces assigned to assist to the taking in of Chester, I hope, through God's Mercy, there may be a good Account given of all these Parts of the Kingdom: To effect which, no Man shall serve you with more Faithfulness than
"We know not how to dispose of these common Prisoners, unless it would please you to order some of them that will take the Covenant to be shipped (if God gives us Liverpoole) and transported over into Ireland, to serve you there.
"We have left Sir Tho. Middleton in a good Condition in Mountgomery Castle; and the Gentlemen of the Country begin to come in unto him. Sir John Price is already come unto him before I came thence. The Lord Herbert is come away with us towards Oswestry."
Letter from Sir Thomas Middleton, on the same Subject.
"I formerly acquainted you of our coming hither, and of our Proceedings in these Parts, and also of the good Success it pleased God to bestow upon us; since which Time the Enemy hastened to come upon us, before we could bring in Provision for our Garrison; by reason whereof, I was enforced to retreat with my Horse unto Oswestry, with some small Loss only of Stragglers that lay loitering behind, leaving all my Foot in the Castle, and hastened into Cheshire to procure Relief, and likewise into Lancashire to Sir John Meldrum, from whom I found a great deal of Readiness to relieve us in our Distress, and to preserve what we had gotten from the Enemy, being Thirtyseven Barrels of Powder, and Twelve of Brimstone, both which they exceedingly wanted. Sir John Meldrum, with Sir William Brereton and Sir William Fairfax, marched with Three Thousand Horse and Foot towards Mountgomery, and came thither on the 17 of this Instant September, where we lay that Night in the Field that was most advantageous for us; which the Enemy had possessed themselves of before, and deserted at our coming thither, placing themselves upon the Mountain above the Castle, a Place of great Advantage for them. We resolved not to go to them, but to endeavour the victualling of the Castle, whereupon we sent out Parties for the bringing in of Provisions; which the Enemy perceiving, they marched down in a Body both Horse and Foot, being in Number about Five Thousand, and came up to our Ground, and gave us Battle; wherein, after an Hour's Fight, it pleased God we obtained a glorious Victory, having taken many Officers, One Thousand Four Hundred common Soldiers, slain Four Hundred, and taken their Ammunition, with a great Part of their Arms, and some few Horse, the rest all flying away. The Lord Byron commanded in Chief the Enemy's Forces, and Sir John Meldrum the Parliament's Forces, who behaved himself most bravely and gallantly; and Sir William Fairfax, who had the Command of the Horse, did most valiantly set upon their Horse, and engaged himself so far that he was taken Prisoner, but presently fetched off by the Valour of our Men, but sore wounded. Our Men issued also out of the Castle, and fell upon the Enemies in their Trenches, and took divers of their Officers and Soldiers, which they had left to keep their Works. Sir William Brereton, with the Cheshire Foot, did most bravely behave themselves that Day, and did beat the best Foot in England, as they the very Enemies confess, being all Prince Rupert's Foot, and the chosen Foot out of all their Garrisons. I shall make it still my humble Suit, that you will please to afford me some speedy Course for present Money, for the Payment of my Soldiers, for without that I shall not be able to keep them together; and for the present, I shall take upon me the Boldness to subscribe myself,
And one from Sir John Meldrum.
"I have thought fit to give your Lordships a brief Account of some Passages of Businesses here in Wales, forbearing a larger Relation till I shall have a further Time and larger Subject, which, in all Probability, by God's Assistance, may offer itself within a short Time. I was, by the earnest Invitations of Sir William Brereton and Sir Thomas Middleton, easily persuaded to concur with them for the Relief of Mountgomery Castle, besieged by the King's Forces. I resolved to contribute my best Endeavours in that Expedition, as well in regard of the Importance of the Service, as that Leverpoole was not to be attempted suddenly by such Forces as I had (being in Number inferior to the Forces within the Town); whereupon I went along with the Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, and Staffordshire Forces (amounting to Three Thousand Horse and Foot), and marched to Mountgomery Castle in Wales, which was by a great deal of Industry and Resolution taken in by Sir Thomas Middleton, together with a great deal of Powder, Match, and Brimstone, which (coming from Bristoll) was prepared for the Relief of Shrewsbury, Chester, and Leverpoole. Upon our Approach towards the Castle, the Enemy did withdraw themselves in some Disorder. The next Day after, being the 18th of September, they did take the Advantage of the Weakness of our Quarters, the Third Part of our Horse being employed abroad for Victuals and Forage. Their Horse and Foot came on with great Courage, resolving to break through our Forces, and to make themselves Masters of a Bridge we had gained the Night before, which would have cut off the Passage of our Retreat. It pleased God to dispose so of the Issue of the Business, that (by the Resolution of the Officers and Soldiers of Horse and Foot) the Enemy did lose the Advantage they had in the Beginning, and were shamefully routed by the Pursuit of the Victory, which continued for the Space of Three Miles. There are found dead upon the Place Five Hundred, besides many Officers of Quality killed and wounded, and Twelve Hundred Prisoners. Sir William Fairfax and Major Fitsimons (who carried themselves most bravely) are deadly wounded, without great Hope of Recovery, with some other Captains and Officers of our Horse. The Cheshire Foot, with their Officers, carried themselves more like Lions than Men, especially Major Lowthian, who commanded as Major General. The Castle is relieved with Victuals; Sir Thomas Middleton's Soldiers, who were before as Prisoners, are made free, together with the Lord Herbert of Cherberie. Amongst the Prisoners, Major General Tilliseley, Colonel Broughton, and divers Lieutenant Colonels and Majors, with many Captains and Lieutenants; so that, by the Blow given here, the best of their Foot are taken away; Shrewsbury, Chester, and Leverpoole, unfurnished with Ammunition; and North Wales (which formerly hath been the Nursery for the King's Armies) in all Likelihood will shake off that Yoke of Servitude which formerly did lie upon their Neck, and will be reduced to the Obedience of King and Parliament, by the Example of Montgomery Castle, which is One of the goodliest and strongest Places that ever I looked upon. The Personal Carriage and Endeavours of Sir William Brereton and Sir Thomas Middleton hath been exceeding great in the Advancement of this Service. There is good Hope that Leverpoole by Famine will be soon rendered; and that Shrewsbury and Chester will be at the last Gasp; whereof, by God's Assistance, there shall be a short Trial made. So having no further for the present to impart to your Lordships, I shall cherish all Occasions wherein I may approve myself,
"The Intelligence I have had since the closing of my Letter, of a Body of Horse and Colonel Hunks Regiment of Foot, that are marched to Shrewsbury; and that the Lords Biron and Mullinax are gone back to Chester; I have altered my Resolution touching Shrewsbury, which at the best had no other Inducement but the Hope of a Party within the Town, and the Scarcity of Soldiers there. I am,