Affairs of the East India Company: Appendix D, glossary of oriental terms

Pages 1413-1434

Journal of the House of Lords: Volume 62, 1830. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, [n.d.].

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In this section

Appendix D.


(Originally annexed to the Fifth Report of the Committee of the House of Commons on the Affairs of the East India Company in 1812, and communicated to the House of Lords in 1830.)



The numerous Oriental Terms occurring in the Fifth Report, and its Appendix, have been adopted from most of the languages current throughout India: — from Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Hindustany, Bengaly, Telinga, Tamul, Canara, and Malabar; and a few from Turkish and Malay. In spelling them, little attention has been paid to correctness or consistency. This has arisen, in some degree, from there being no fixed rules for the notation of Oriental terms in the letters of our imperfect alphabet, every one spelling according to his ear; but in a greater degree, from the ignorance or inattention of the Native clerks, employed in the public offices in India to copy the transactions of the East India Company. To give an instance of the confusion occasioned from these circumstances, the word which, according to its form and sound in Arabic, should be written Maháll (A. محاّل), the first vowel short, and the last long, occurs under no less than eight different shapes, not one of which is correct upon any system of orthography; viz. Mal, Maal, Mahl, Mehal, Mehaal, Mehaul, Mhal, and Mohaul. A great many other instances occur where the same term is variously spelt, and often in the same page.


In collecting and arranging the words herein to be explained, it hence became necessary that they should be exhibited under their various spellings, however incorrect, just as they appear in the printed Report and Appendix; but, in order to remedy the evil above complained of, an attempt has been made to trace each word to its source, to exhibit it in its genuine character, as far as Types could be procured for that purpose, and to convey its true pronunciation in the Italic character, upon a plan of notation differing but little from that laid down by Sir William Jones in the beginning of the first volume of the Asiatic Transactions, and which has been successfully followed by others in the subsequent volumes of that work. This plan, which has at least uniformity to recommend it, consists chiefly in avoiding the use of the double vowels ee and oo, by substituting for them i and u with the Italian pronunciation, and in distinguishing the long vowels from the short by the use of the acute accent. Thus a, e, i, o, u, are to be pronounced short, and á, é, í, ó, ú, long, and both as by the Italians.

Many words in this Glossary could not be traced to their origin; and a few occur in the Report and Appendix which will not be found in the Glossary, because neither their etymology nor their technical application could be satisfactorily explained. It has also been part of the plan to give the radical and common acceptation of every term, as well as the official and technical application of it: whenever this or any other part of the scheme has failed, it is attributable to the want of knowledge, and time for further research, to supply that deficiency.


A stands for Arabic.
B Bengaly.
C Canara.
H Hindustany.
M Malay.
Mal Malabar.
P Persian.
S Sanskrit.
Tam Tamul.
Tel Telinga.
T Turkish.

Charles Wilkins.

East India House, 26th April 1813.



Abwab, (A. ابواب abwáb, plur. of باب báb, a gate, door-way).

Items of taxation, cesses, imposts, taxes. This term is particularly used to distinguish the taxes imposed subsequently to the establishment of the assul, or original standard rent, in the nature of additions thereto. In many places they had been consolidated with the assul, and a new standard assumed as the basis of succeeding imposition. Many were levied on the Zemindars as the price of forbearance, on the part of government, from detailed investigations into their profits, or actual receipts from the lands, according to the hastabood. v. Assul, Fouzdarry, Abwab, and Hastabood.

ABWAB COSSIM KHAN, (P. ابواب قاسم خان abwáb-i-Kásim Khán).

Abwab or cesses introduced by Cossim Alli Khan. v. Abwab.

ABWAB JAFFIER KHAN, (P. ابواب جعفرخان abwáb-i-Jaءfar Khán).

Abwab or cesses introduced by Jaffier Khan. v. Abwab.

ABWAB SUJAH KHAN, (A. ابواب شجاع خان abwáb-i-Shujáء Khán).

Abwab or cesses introduced by Nabob Sujar Khan. v. Abwab.

ABWAB SOUBADARRY, (P. ابواب صوبه‌داري abwáb-i-subahdárí).

Abwab or cesses of the soubadarry. New and perpetual imposts levied by the authority of the provincial governors.

ABKARRY, (P. ابكاري áb-kárí, from آب áb water, and كاري kárí manufacture).

Taxes or duties on the manufacture and sale of spirituous liquors, and intoxicating drugs.

ADAWLUT, (A. ء عدالتadálat).

Justice, equity; a court of justice. — N. B. The terms
ء عدالتِ ديوانيadálat-i-díwáni and
ء عدالتِ فوجداريadálat-i-faujdárí
denote the civil and the criminal courts of justice. v. Dewanny and Foujdarry.

ADKARY, (s. अधिकारी adhi-kárí from अधि adhi over, and कारी kárí agent).

A governor or superintendent; or any thing relating to a superior. A term applied to villages where an individual holds the entire undivided estate.

ADONI JEMNUM, in Malabar, a kind of leasehold tenure, where artificers, and the like, hold small spots of ground from Rajahs and great men. v. Appendix, p. 801.

AGRAHARAH, (s. अग्रहर : agraharah).

Who takes first; an epithet given to Brahmans. Rent-free villages held by Brahmans.


Villages of which the absolute proprietary right is chiefly held by Brahmans. v. Appendix, p. 826.

AHUK, (by mistake AHUX and AKHUC), (P. اهك ahak).

Lime. One of the soubadarry abwab or taxes established by Alli Verdi Khan for defraying the expense of purchasing lime at Sylhet for the use of government. N. B. Sylhet is celebrated for stone lime.

AKAMNAMAH, written also AHAMNAMAH, (P. احكام نامه ahkám-námah).

Written orders. Assessment of Tippoo Sultan.

AKHERJAUT, (A. اخراجات ikhráját plur. of خرج kharaj). Expenses, disbursements, charges; charges general.

AKHERJAUT AURUNG, (P. اخراجات ارنگ ikhráját-i-arang).

Expenses of an aurang or place where goods are manufactured. Charges for transporting salt to the place of sale; for weighmen, erection of storehouses, &c. &c. v. Aurung.

AKTA or ATKA, (A. اقطاع iktáء).

Assignment of land. Jaghire lands. v. Jaghire.


ALCHALICOO. The mouldering away of the banks between the corn-fields.

ALTHAMGA, (P. التمغا altamghá).

A royal grant in perpetuity; perpetual tenure. An heritable Jaghire in perpetuity. v. Jaghire.

AMANUT DUFTER, (P. امانت دفتر amánat-daftar, from A. امانت amánat trust, deposit, and P. دفتر daftar an office).

An office for deposits; or, perhaps, for recording the reports of Aumeens.

AMEER, (A. امير amír).

A nobleman.

AMEER UL OMRAH, (A. امير الامرا amír ul umará).

Noble of nobles, lord of lords. An article in the rent-roll called tumar (طومار túmár) being a jaghire appropriation of the commander in chief, termed zatee (ذاتي zátí) i.e. personal, or for his own benefit. v. Jaghire.

AMLAH, (A. ء عملهamalah).

Agents, officers; the officers of government collectively. A head of zemindarry charges. N. B. It is sometimes written omlah. v. Aumil.

ANAD-BUNGER or ANOD-BUNGER, (H. अनाथबंजर anáth-banjar, from s. अनाथ anátha lordless, and H. बंजर banjar waste land).

Waste land without a master or owner. Undivided waste or common. v. Anathee.

ANADEE, (s. अनादि anádi without a beginning).

Old waste land. v. Anathee, of which Anadee may, perhaps, be another spelling.

ANATHEE, (s. अनाथि anáthi
having no lord, master, or owner, from नाथ nátha a lord or master, with the privative अ a prefixed).

Old waste land: lands not cultivated within the memory of man.


The name of an order to the village accountants in the Northern Circars to ascertain the quantity of land in tillage and of seed sown; or to value the crops of the cultivators.

ANDOO, (Tam. ándu).

In Malabar, a cycle of sixty years. v. Appendix, p. 827.

ANICOODY, People who work in trade, as common workmen.

ANNA, (H. انا aná).

The 16th part of a rupee.

ANWERS. Horsemen.

ARBAB, (A. ارباب arbáb plur. of ربّ rabb). Lords, masters.

ARBABULMAL, (A. ارباب‌المال arbáb-ul-mál).

The officers of the treasure. Extra allowances to the clerks and accountants of the khalsa or exchequer, called Mutseddies (متصدّي Mutasaddi), q. v.

ASHAM or ASHHAM, (A. احشام ahshám plural of حشم hasham).

Retinues, military pomp and parade, the military.

ASHAM OMLEH, (A. احشام عمله ahsham-i-ءamalah).

Retinues of the public officers, whether for protection or parade. An article in the rent-roll called tumar jemmeh, q. v. consisting of jaghire appropriations for the support of troops for guards and garrisons. v. Jaghire.

ASHAM SEPAYE, (P. احشام ِسپاهي ahshám-i-sipáhí).

Retinues of soldiers, military pomp or parade. Military jaghires, or assignments of land, for defraying military expenses.

ASHRUF DEWAN VIZARAT, (P.اشرف‌ديوانِ‌وزارت ashraf-diwán-i-wazárat).

Prime minister of the wazárat, or office of prime minister. High treasurer of the empire.

ASOPH, (A. آصف ásaf).

The prime minister of King Soliman, according to the Arabians and Persians. A title given by Tippoo Sultan to certain civil officers.

ASSAL, written also ASIL, AUSIL, AUZIL, (A. اصل asl).

Origin, root, foundation; capital stock, principal sum. Original rent, exclusive of subsequent cesses.

ASSUL TUMAR JAMMA, (P. اصلِ طومار جمع asl-i-tumár jamaء).

The original amount according to the rent-roll called tumar. v. Tumar Jamma.

ATCHKUTT. Rice fields. Lands prepared for the culture of rice.


ATHALS, Lands farmed or rented.

ATTI. The name of a deed by which the Jalmkars, or hereditary tenants of the soil in Malabar, pledge their lands, reserving to themselves two thirds of their value, besides a certain interest therein, amounting to about one third.

ATTI KEMPOORUM. The name of a contract in Malabar executed when an hereditary tenant has occasion to borrow an additional sum on a mortgage. v. Atti.

ATTI KULLY KANUM. The name of a contract or mortgage deed, nearly synonymous with ATTI, q. v.

ATTI PER. The name of a deed in Malabar, by which an hereditary tenant transfers the whole of his interest in his land to a mortgagee. v. Appendix, p. 800.

AUMANY, AUMANI, or AUMANIE, (A. اماني amání).

Trust, charge. Land in charge of an Ameen, or trustee, to collect its revenue on the part of government. N.B. In the peninsula the term is particularly applied to a settlement under which the government receives its share of the produce of the lands from each cultivator in kind, instead of stipulating for a pecuniary commutation, or farming them out to individuals by villages, or larger portions of territory. The same term appears to prevail in Behar.

AUMEEN, (A. امين amín).

Trustee, commissioner. A temporary collector, or supravisor, appointed to the charge of a country on the removal of a Zemindar; or for any other particular purpose of local investigation, or arrangement.

AUMIL, (A. ء عاملámil).

Agent, officer, native collector of revenue. Superintendent of a district or division of a country, either on the part of the government, Zemindar, or renter; the same as Aumildar, q. v.

AUMILDAR, (P. ء عمل دارamal-dár).

Agent, the holder of an office. An intendant and collector of the revenue, uniting civil, military, and financial powers, under the Muhammadan government. v. Aumil. N. B. The terms ء عاملámil and ء عمل دارamal-dár are synonymous.

AUMILLY or AUMILY, (P. ء عمليamalí).

The harvest year. v. Fussly.

AUMIL NAMAH, or, as sometimes written, OMULNAMA, (P. ء عملناماamal-námah).

A written order or commission to an Aumil or Aumildar, q. v.; also a commission to take possession of any land in the name of government.

AURUNG, (P. ارنگ arang).

The place where goods are manufactured.

AWURDAH NOVIS, (P. آورده نويس áwardah-navís).

A writer or recorder of what is brought. The title of certain accountants in the ceded districts, to whom the fair accounts of the surveys were delivered.

AYACRET. Total cultivable land.

AYACUT. Reputed measurement of land. Land prepared for cultivation.

AYENGANDEAS. Principal men or members of a village. The establishment of a village, as maintained for conducting the public concerns of it.

AYMA or AYMAH, (A. ايمه aimah).

Learned or religious men. A general designation of allowances to religious and other persons of the Muhammadan persuasion. An item in the muscorat (مذكورات mazkúrát), q. v.

AYMADARAN, (P. ايمه داران aimah-dárán, plur. of ايمه دار aimah-dár).

Learned or religious persons who hold or enjoy charitable dona tions. An article in the muscorat. v. Ayma.

AZMAYESH, (p. ازمايش azmáyish). Trial, examination.


BABOO. (H. بابو बाबु bábu).

Master, sir. A Hindu title of respect paid to men of rank, or high in office.

BAGAHAT, or BAJYHAT, or BAUGAYHER, or BAUGAYUT, (A. باغات bághát). Gardens; garden lands.

BAHADIRE, (P. بهادري bahádarí).

The name of a coin. A pagoda of a certain value.


BAJARY. The grain called millet.

BAJEH KHERCH, or, by mistake, KHERCK, v. Bazee Curtch.

BAJYHAT, see Bagahat.

BAKHSHI, (P. بخشي bakhshí). Paymaster; commander-in-chief.

BAKY, (A. باقي bákí). Remainder, what remains.

BAKY KEFFYET, (P. باقي كفايت báki kifáyat).

Remaining profit, or surplus profit. The balance of profit arising from the original selling price of salt, before appropriated to individual benefit; but afterwards resumed, and incorporated with the public revenue.

BANGA. A species of cotton.

BANI. A certain weight equal to eighty rupees.

BANYAN, (H. بنيا banyá, s. बनिजू banij).

A Hindu merchant, or shopkeeper. The corrupt term banyan is used in Bengal to designate the native who manages the money concerns of the European, and sometimes serves him as an interpreter. At Madras the same description of person is called Dubash, a corruption of Dwibáshí, one who can speak two languages: an interpreter.

BARIZ. Rent. A term used in Dindigul, equivalent to Jumma, q. v.

BATTA, (H. بتّا battá).

Deficiency, discount, allowance. Allowance to troops in the field.

BAUGAYHET, v. Bagahat.

BAUGAYUT, v. Bagahat.

BAUGAUM, (s. भागं bhágam). A share, or portion.

BAZAR, (P. بازار bázár). Daily market, or market place.

BAZEE, (A. بعضي baءzí). Sundry, various, miscellaneous.


KHERCK, (P. بعضي خرچ baءzí-kharach).

Sundry expenses. Various contingent disbursements, and indemnities allowed to Zemindars, in lieu of all expenses, otherwise unprovided for.

BAZEE DUFFA, (P. بعضي دفعه baءzí dafءah).

Sundry items; various items of taxation. Revenue derived from fruits, artificers, &c.

BAZEE JAMMA, (P. بعضي جمع baءzí jamaء).

Miscellaneous total; aggregate of revenue arising from sundry heads. Lands held by Brahmans and others.

BAZEE ZAMEEN, (P. بعضي زمين baءzí zamín).

Sundry, or miscellaneous lands. The term is particularly applied to such lands as are exempt from payment of publicrevenue, or very lightly rated; not only such as are held by Brahmans, or appropriated to the support of places of worship, &c., but also to the lands held by the officers of government; such as Zemindars, Canongoes, Putwarries, &c. &c.N. B. There formerly existed an office for registering these lands, called بعضي زمين دفتر baءzín zamín daftar. v. Dufter.

BEDRH-CUNDY. Pergunnah charge in Sylhet for providing mats, embaling silk, and packing treasure sent to Dehly.

BEEBEE, (H. بي بي bíbí). A lady or gentlewoman.

BEEBEE NUZZER, (H. بي بي نذر bíbí-nazr, from H. بي بي bíbí a lady, and A. نذر nazr a present.

A present to the lady. An annual present to the Begum or principal wife of the Cuddapah Navob.

BEEGARAH, and, by mistake, BAYARAH, (P. بيگاره bígárah, from P. بيكار bíkár).

One who has no work; an idle fellow. The Beegarahs, in the peninsula, are a wandering tribe of Seeks, who follow camps, and occasionally act as carriers.

BEGA, (H. بيگها bíghá, a corruption of the Sanskrit term विग्रह


A land measure equal, in Bengal, to about the third part of an acre; but varying in different provinces.

BEGUM, (T. بيگم bégam). A lady, princess, woman of high rank.

BEHRY BUNDY, v. Bhery Bundy.


BEKEE, (H. بهيكهي bhíkhí from بهيكهه bhíkhah, a corruption of the Sanskrit word भिक्षा bhikshá).

Begging, alms, charity. An item of taxation included in the Abwab, q. v.

BELLAD, (A. بلاد bilád plur. of بلد balad).

Cities, regions, districts, countries.

BENJARY, v. Bunjary.

BERY BUNDY, v. Bhery Bundy.

BHADOVY, (H. بهادوي bhádaví). The summer harvest.

BHAY KHELAUT, (P. بهاي خلعت bahá-i-khilءat).

Cost of robes of honour called khilat. A cess, or contribution, levied to defray the expense of providing such dresses, chargedunder the head zer mathote, q. v.


BUNDY, (P. بيربندي bír-bandí).

Well-building or repairing. Allowances for additional charges for repairing causeways and embankments unprovided for otherwise; being an item of the muscorat, q. v.

BHOGUM or BOGUM, (s. भोगं bhógam).

Enjoyment; possession.

BHOGYADHI, (s. भोग्याधि bhógyádi).

A species of mortgage in Canara, signifying pledge in possession.

BHOWLEY, (probably a corruption of the Sanskrit word बाहुल्य báhulya abundance).

The term, as applied to land, is used where the produce of the harvest is divided between the government and the cultivator.

BHOWLEY KHEEL. Land recently brought into cultivation, of the produce of which the cultivator has, on that account, a larger proportion.

BHOWLEY PAH. Land which, having been long cultivated, the cultivator's share of the produce is proportionally less than from Bhowley Kheel, q. v.

BICE, (H. بيس bais, s. वैश्य vaisya and विश vis).

A man of the third Hindu cast, who by birth is a trader, or a husbandman.

BILLA SHIRRET O MASHROOT, (A. بلا شرط و مشروط bilá shart wa mashrút).

Without stipulation or being stipulated. Unconditional, as applied to jaghire grants.

BILLER SHERIT, (probably a corruption of A. بلا شرط bilá shart).

Unconditional. v. Billa Shirret o Mashroot.

BILMUCTA. By estimate. A term used in the Northern Circars, for a kind of tenure where the land is held at a very low rent.

BIRJEBUSSIES or BIRJEBAUSIES, (H. برجباسي braj-bási, s. ब्रजवासी barja-vásí).

An inhabitant of the district of Hindustan called Braj. A description of men, armed with swords and shields, employed by the Zemindars, in the 24 Pergunnahs, to guard their property against Decoits or robbers.

BIRT or BIRTE, (H. برت birt, a corruption of the Sanskrit term वृत्ति vritti).

A maintenance. A small spot of land on which a dwelling is erected, generally with some ground around it, often granted to Brahmans.

BIRTE, v. Birt.

BISHNOWATTER, (s. विष्णुत्रा vishnutrá).

What is due to the god Vishnu; grants of land to Brahmans.

BOGAMY. The chief of the left-hand cast in the Dindigul province.

BOGUM, (s. भोगं bhógam).

Enjoyment; possession.

BRAHMIN, (s. ब्राह्मन Bráhman or Bráhmana derived from

ब्रह्म Brăhmă the Divinity). A divine, a priest.

BRAHMINEE, (s. ब्राह्मनी Bráhmaní).

A female of the Brahmin cast.

BREMHADY, v. Brumadayum.

BROMUTTER, (A corruption of s. ब्रहमत्रा Brahmatrá).

For the use of Brahma. Lands the produce of which is appropriated to Hindu temples, and for the performance of religious worship.


BRUMADAYUM, written also BREMHADAY, and BRU-

MADYA, (s. ब्रह्मदेयं Brahma-déyam).

What is due to Brahma. Grants of land to Brahmans for religious purposes.

BRUMADYA. The same as Brumadayum, q. v.

BUDRUCKA, (A. بدرقه badarkah).

A convoy, or guard upon the road. A tax for convoying goods, protecting the highways, and attending to the inland navigation.

BUKHSIAN AZAM, (P. بخشيان اعظم bakhshiyán-i-aء zam).

The most exalted commanders. A jaghire appropriation so called, for the support of the commanders of the royal armies.

BULLA. Probably a mistake for Butta, q. v.


Classes of artificers, v. Bulootch.

BULOOTCH. A bundle of corn, to which, in the Northern

Circars, each of the Bulutedars, or village artificers, was entitled.

BUMADYA. The same as Brumadayum, q. v.

BUND, (P. بند band).

A band, bond, or fastening. (From بستن bastan to bind.) An embankment against inundation.

BUNDEH WALLAH BARGAH, (P. بندهء والا بارگاه bandah-i-wálá bárgáh).

Servant of the exalted court. The dewanny delegate on the part of the king. An article of the jaghire appropriations in the tumar jammah for personal and official charges.

BUNDER, (P. بندر bandar). A port or harbour.

BUNDOOBUST, (P. بندوبست band-o-bast).

Tying and binding. A settlement. A settlement of the amount of revenue to be paid or collected.

BUNDY. The name of a certain dry measure in Canara.

BUNJARY, or BENJARY, (H. بنجارا banjárá a corruption, perhaps, of the Persian word برنجار barinj-ár, who brings or supplies rice).

A merchant; a grain merchant. The Bunjaries are merchants, who, in the peninsula, follow camps, and supply armies with grain and other provisions.

BURKANDAZES, v. Burgundasses.

BURKENDOSSES, v. Burgundasses.

BURKONDOSSES, v. Burgundasses.


DAZES, or BURKONDOSSES, (P. برقانداز bark-andáz darter of lightning).

Men armed with matchlocks.

BURSAUT, (H. برسات barsát a corruption of the Sanskrit term वर्षर्तु varshartu, compounded of वर्षा varshá rain, and ऋतु ritu season).

The rainy season, the periodical rains.

BUTTA, written also by mistake BULLAS, A certain land measure, called also Gooly.

BUTTAI, or BUTTEI, (H. بتاي batái, from the Sanskrit word बण्टनं bantanam dividing).

Portion, division, allotment. Rules by which the crop is divided between the government, or Zemindars, and the Ryots, where the public dues are received in kind.

BUTTEI, v. Buttai.

BYKENTAH, v. Bykunta.

BYKONT, v. Bykunta.

BYKUNTA, or BYKONT, or BYKENTAH, (s. वैकुण्ठ vaikuntha).

Heaven, paradise. Pits, so called, used as prisons in the time of Jaffier Khan, into which the Zemindars and renters were thrown, who were in arrears, to compel them to discover their resources.


CABOOLEAT, (A. قبوليت kabúliyat).

An agreement; particularly that entered into by the Zemindars and farmers, with the government, for the management and renting of the land revenues.

CADJAN, (Derivation uncertain).

A term used by the Europeans in the peninsula to denote the leaves of the fan palmira tree, on which the natives of the south write with an iron style. v. Pottah.


CALLAVASSUM, (TAM. kála-vásam, s. कालवासं kála-vásam, from kála time and vásam residence).

Temporary residence. A term applied to the Pariars and others who in the Company's jaghire are employed as labouring servants, and cannot acquire property in the soil.

CALYOOGUM, (s. कलियुगं kali-yugam).

The present, or fourth age of the world, according to the chronology of the Hindus.

CANIATCHIKIDAR, (TAM. kániyátchikidár).

An hereditary tenant v. Caniatchy.

CANIATCHY, or by mistake, CALIATCHY, (TAM. kániyátchi).

A term used in Malabar, signifying landed inheritance or property, having nearly the same signification as the Persian word Meerassee, q. v.

CANONGOE, (P. قانون‌گو kánún-gó, from A. قانون kánún a rule, regulation, law, canon, and P. گو go speaking, telling).

An officer of the government, whose duty was to keep a register of all circumstances relating to the land revenue, and, when called upon, to declare the customs of each district, the nature of the tenures, the quantity of land in cultivation, the nature of the produce, the amount of rent paid, &c. &c.

CAR. In Tinnevelly, the autumnal harvest, beginning with September and ending about the middle of December.

CARAH. The share of a pung or portion of landed property in a village. N. B. púm, in Tamul, signifies land, earth, ground.

CARAY. Four shares or pungs in the village tenure called Agraharah-vadiky.

CARREAH, (TAM. káriya, S. कार्य्य kárya).

Affair, business, employment. v. Tallum-cavel-carriah.

CAUZY or CAZI, (A. قاضي kází).

A Muhammadan judge or justice, who occasionally officiates also as a public notary, in attesting deeds, by affixing his seal thereto. He is the same officer whom in Turkey we call Cadi.

CAUZY'UL CAUZAT, (A. قاضي القضات kází'l kuzát).

Judge or judges. The chief judge or justice. v. Cauzy.

CAVEL, v. Cawel.

CAVELGAR or CAWELGAR, (TAM. kával-gár).

A guard or watchman. v. Cawel.

CAVEL lands, (TAM. kával). Lands, the rents of which were held to defray the expenses of guarding and watching. v. Cawel.

CAVELLY, v. Cawelly.

CAVEL TALLUM, v. Cawel Tallum.

CAWEL, or CAVEL, (TAM. kával).

Custody, charge, watching, ward, guard.

CAWEL, or CAVEL TALLUM, (TAM. kával-talam).

Watching the place. Village-watching fees, or perquisites, formerly received from the inhabitants by the petty Poligars; but which belonged to the Talliars, or public officers, of each village. v. Cawel, Tallum, and Talliar.

CAWEL DESHA or CAVEL DESHA, (TAM. kával-désa or désha, s. देश désa, a country).

Guarding the country. District-watching fees, or perquisites collected from the inhabitants by the Poligars for protecting those travelling the roads, and making good property stolen. v. Cawel.

CAWELLY or CAVELLY, (TAM. kávali).

What relates to guarding and watching. v. Cawel.

CAWNIE, (TAM. káni). Hereditary land or field.

CAZI, v. Cauzy.

CHACKERAN lands, (P. چاكران chákarán plur. of چاكر chákar a servant).

Lands allotted for the maintenance of public servants of all denominations, from the Zemindar down to those of the village establishments.


Tenant at will. v. Gueny.

CHANK, (s. संरव sankha). The conch shell.

CHANNEL MARAH. In Tinnevelly, the name of a readymoney tax.


CHANNEL VERY. In Tinnevelly, the name of a tax.

CHAYA. The name of a root yielding a fine yellow colour.

Oldenlandia umbellata, Rox.

CHELAH, written also by mistake CHELAK, (H. چيلا chílá).

A slave brought up in the house; a favourite slave.

CHERAGHY, (چراغي charághí, from چراغ charágh a lamp).

Allowances for oil for the lamps burnt in the tombs of reputed saints; an item under the head muscorat, q. v.

CHESTEREE, (a corruption of s. क्षत्रिय kshatriya).

A man of the second or military tribe of Hindus.

CHILLARY MAUNIUMS. Sundry mauniums or lands granted to temples, revenue officers, and the public servants of villages. v. Mauniums.

CHILLER or CHILLAR; also CHITTA. Small, petty.

Sundry small gratuities or enaums in Dindigul.

CHILLER ENAUMS. Sundry small gratuities. v. Chiller and Enaum.

CHOAR, (H. چوار choár). A mountain robber.

CHOKEEDAR, (P. چوكي دار chaukí-dár).

A watchman. An officer who keeps watch at a custom-house station, and receives tolls and customs. v. Choky.

CHOKIE, v. Choky.

CHOKY or CHOKIE, (H. چوكي chaukí).

A chair, seat. Guard, watch. The station of a guard or watchman. A place where an officer is stationed to receive tolls and customs.

CHOULTRY, (TAM. cháwari).

A covered public building, generally of hewn stone, often richly carved and ornamented, for the accommodation of travellers.

CHOUT, (H. چوتهه chauth, from s. चतुर्थ chaturtha).

A fourth: a fourth part of sums litigated. An item of the sayer. v. Chauttahy.

CHOUT MARHATTA, (H. چوتهه مرهتّه chauth marhattah).

The Mahratta's fourth. A subahdarry item of taxation, under the term abwab, introduced by Alli Verdi Khan, to make up for the decrease of revenue experienced by relinquishing to the Mahrattas a large portion of territory as a commutation of the tribute long demanded by that nation from the Mogul government; being a demand of a fourth of the yearly income of the landholders, but yielding in fact but 10 per cent. of the gross collections of the royal exchequer through out the peninsula.

CHOUTTAHY, (H. چوتهأي chautháyi, corrupted from the Sanskrit term चतुर्थ chaturtha). A fourth part.

CHOWDRY, (H. چودهري chaudharí, B. চৌধরী chaudharí, a Hindu term, probably from the Sanskrit, implying one who holds a fourth).

A permanent superintendent and receiver of the land revenue under the Hindu system, whose office seems to have been partly superseded, by the appointment, first, of the Crorie, and afterwards of the Zemindar, by the Muhammadan government.

CHOWKEEDARY, (H. چوكيداري chaukídárí).

The duty or pay of a watchman. A tax for defraying the expense of watchmen. v. Choky and Chokeedar.

CHUBDAR, (P. چوب دار chób-dár).

Staff-bearer. An attendant on a man of rank, one of whose employments is to announce the approach of visitors. He waits with a long staff plated with silver, and runs before his master, proclaiming aloud his titles.

CHUCKEES. Extra assessments in Canara under the former governments. v. Chucker.

CHUCKER, (s. चक chakra).

A wheel, a circle. Extra assessment in Canara of 1720.

CHUCKLA, (H. چكلا chaklá, B. চাকলা cháklá, probably a corruption of the Sanskrit term चक chakra, a wheel, circle).

A division of a country consisting of several pergunnahs, sometimes equal to a moderate-sized English county, and of which a certain number constituted a circar, or chiefship.

CHUNAM, (TAM. chunnámpu, H. چونا chúná, B. চূনা chuná).



CHUTTER, (s. छत्र chatra).

Umbrella, shed. The name of an assessment in Canara, made in the year 1725 by Buswapah Naigue, to defray the expense of erecting sheds and feeding pilgrims.

CIRCAR, (P. سركار sarkár, for سرِكار sar-i-kár).

Head of affairs. The state or government. A grand division of a province. A head man. N. B. This title is much used by Europeans in Bengal to designate the Hindu writer and accountant employed by themselves, or in the public offices.

CIRCAR ALI, (P. سركارِاعلي sarkár-i-aءlí).

The most exalted state; the government. The term is particularly used to denote the viceroyal establishment of the Nazim or Soubahdar of the three imperial provinces of Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa; and forms an article in the jamma tumary tashkees, consisting of the jageers or assignments of territory to defray a large portion of the military expenses of government, the Nabob's household, and certain civil list charges. v. Circar.

CIRCAR MARAMUT, (P. سركارمرّمت sarkár-marammat).

Repairs by government. Repairs performed at the expense of government to the rivers, and great water-courses.

CODEWARUM, (from the TAM. words kudi an inhabitant or tenant, and wáram a share).

The share of the tenants and of their labourers, in the net produce, either of the nunjah, or of the punjah; or of the sournadyem, or fruit and vegetable land. v. Nunjah, Punjah, &c.

COLLURIES, (H. كهلاري khalárí, B. খালাড়ী khálárí).

Places where salt is produced or boiled. Salt-works.

COMAR, v. Khomar.

COMBIES, v. Commewar.

COMMEWAR or COMBIES. In Telinga and Orissa, a tribe of husbandmen.

COMPTE BANIAS. In the Northern Circars, retail merchants.

CONICOPOLY, (TAM. kanakupilai). An accountant, writer, clerk.

COODEMARAMUT, (perhaps from TAM. kudí an inhabitant or tenant, and A. مرمّت marammat repair).

Repairs performed at the expense of the tenants themselves, to the small channels and to the banks or borders of the ricefields.

COODUMBON. A measure of grain.

COODY, (TAM. kudí). Inhabitant, tenant, cultivator.

COOLIES, sing. COOLY, (probably from the Tamul word kúli wages, hire; or a contraction of kúlí-káran a workman for hire). Labourers, porters.

COOLL GOOTAH. In the Ceded Districts, a term used to denote lands let at a low rent to different castes.

COOLL GOOTAH SHROTRIUM, (S. श्रोत्रिय: Srotriyah a Brahman learned in the Védas).

In the Ceded Districts, lands let at a low rent to learned Brahmans. v. Cooll Gootah.

COOLWAR or CULWAR, (TAM. kulwár).

A statement of the Ryots holding lands: or a settlement made with the Ryots individually.

COOTALLY. A species of cultivation in Tanjore.

COPASS, (B. কাপাস kápás, or কার্পাস kárpás).

Cotton, the growth of Bengal, in contradistinction to what is imported.

CORGE. A score.

COROOKUMS. In Dindigul, spots of land in the poricando, or hill fields, cultivated by labourers, and paid for by usage rent.

COSS, (P. كروه karóh, s. कोश krósa).

A corrupt term used by Europeans to denote a road measure of about two miles; but varying in different parts of India.

COWL, (A. قول kaul).

Word, saying; promise, agreement, contract, engagement. An engagement or lease of land to a Zemindar or large farmer.

COWL-NAMAH, (A. قول kaul and P. نامه námah).

An agreement in writing. v. Cowl and Namah. A proclam ation to Ryots, announcing the rules and principles by which the demands of government, on the lands in their occupation, are to be regulated.


COWRY, (TAM. kóri, B. কড়ী kărí).

A small shell which passes as money.

CRAMBO. Lands in which the long grass has grown, and the roots have gone deep under the earth, and thereby rendered the tillage difficult.

CRORE, (H. كرور krór a corruption of the Sanskrit word कोटि kóti). Ten millions.

CRORIE, (H. كروري króri, from كرور krór ten millions).

A collector of ten millions of dams. A permanent revenue collector of a portion of country, under the older Muhammadan government. He sometimes, for a trifling commission, made himself answerable for that amount. N. B. This officer appears to have been first appointed, A. D. 1574, by the Emperor Akbar.

CURNUM, (TAM. karnam).

Accountant of a village, who registers every thing connected with its cultivation and produce; the shares or rents of the Ryot, with the dues and rights of government in the soil. It answers to the term Putwarry in the Bengal provinces. The term is peculiar to the peninsula.

CUSBA, (A. قصيه kasbah).

A town or township. A town or village with its hamlets.

CUTCHA, (H. كچا kachá, B. কাঁচা kánchá).

Crude, unripe, immature, gross. An account wherein rupees of different sorts are not yet reduced to one denomination.

CUTCHERRY, (H. كچهري kach'harí, B. কাছারী káchhárí).

Court of justice; also the public office where the rents are paid, and other business, respecting the revenue, transacted.

CUTTA, (probably from A. قطعه kitءah a segment or piece).

A term used in Tanjore for a field.

CUTWAL, (P. كتوال kutwál).

The chief officer of police in a large town or city, and superin tendant of the markets.


In Malabar, a tenant who holds a piece of land under a lease called Cuy Kanum Patam, q. v.


In Malabar, tenure by labour, usufructuary tenure.


DADNY, (P. دادني dádaní, from P. دادن dádan to give).

Money given in advance to weavers and other manufacturers.

DADNY MOLUNGIAN, (P. دادنيئ ملنگيان dádaní malangiyán).

Advances to the salt-makers. An item of the muscorat, q. v. See also Dadny.

DAKOITS, v. Decoits.

DAR, (P. دار dár, from P. داشِتن dáshtan to hold, keep).

Keeper, holder. This word is often put after another, in a compound state, as an attributive of office or employment, connected with the preceding term; as Zamin-dar, Dih-dar, Chób-dár. By adding ي í to dár is formed the office, employment, or jurisdiction; as in Zemin-dárí, &c.

DARMA or DIRMA, (s. धर्म dharma).

Religion, justice, duty.

DAROGAH, (P. داروغه dáróghah).

A superintendant, or overseer, of any department; as of the police, the mint, &c. The Darogah of police, in Bengal, under late regulations, has a limited local jurisdiction, subor dinate to the European magistrate of a zillah or district, and has under him an establishment of armed men.

DARULZARB, (A. دارالّضرب dár-uz-zarb).

The house of striking; the mint. Receipts from duty on coinage at the several mints. The profits on coining.

DAUM, (H. دام dám).

A copper coin, the twenty-fifth part of a pisa; or, according to some, an ideal money, the fortieth part of a rupee.

DAUN, (s. धान्य dhánya). Corn, grain, rice.


DAUNMUDDY, (seemingly a Tamul corruption of s. धान्यमति dhánya-mati). Rice land.

DAVAYDYEN, v. Devadayem.

DECCAN JUMMA KHAUMIL, (P. دكهن جمع كامل dak'hanjamaء-i-kámil).

The Deccan complete total. A term substituted in the Deccan for assil toomar jumma (q. v.) or complete standard assessment begun in 1654, on the principle of Torel Mull's original rent roll, and finished by the Emperor Aurungzebe, in 1687.

DECOITS, (H. دكيت dakait, B. ডাকাইত dákáit a robber).

Gang robbers.

DECOITY, (H. دكيتي dakaití, B. ডাকাইতী dákáití).

Gang robbery.

DEH, (P. ده dih). A village.

DEHARAH, A Hindu term substituted in the Deccan for Dustoor ul Aumul, q. v.

DEHDAR, (P. ده‌دار dih-dár).

Village-keeper. An inferior officer of police in a village, one of whose duties was to distrain the crop, when necessary, to secure the rent.

DEHDARAH, (P. ده‌دار dih-dár). v. Dehdar.

DEHDARY, (P. ده‌داري dih-dárí).

The office of a Dehdar, q. v. Also, originally, the appropriated share of produce, or russoom of the Dehdar, then an article of the neakdarry, q. v. afterwards rendered an item of the abwab, q. v.

DEH-KHURCHA, (P. ده‌خرچه dih-kharchah).

Village-expense. Contributions for defraying certain expenses incurred in the villages for public purposes, a branch of the neakdarry, q. v.

DEH SALA, (P. ده‌ساله dah-sálah).

What relates to a period of ten years: decennial.

DEO KUTCH, for DEO KRUTCH, (s. देव déva god, and P. خرچ kharch expense, déva-kharch).

Disbursements for religious purposes, a zemindarry charge.

DEOWUTTUR, (apparently a corruption of the Sanskrit देवत्रा dévatrá).

For the gods. Land granted for religious purposes.

DEROBUST, (P. دروبست dar-ó-bast, compounded of در dar in, و ó it, and بست bast closed).

Whole, entire. Whole pergunnahs, in contradistinction to mutafarrikát, or scattered portions of territory.

DES, (s. देश désa, TAM. dés). Country, district.

DESHA CAVEL, or DESHACAWEL, (s. देश désa country, district, and TAM. kával watching).

District watching-fees.

DESIVANDAM ENAUM, (a provincial compound term used in the Ceded Districts in the peninsula, apparently derived from s. देश désa country, s. बन्ध bandha making fast, and A. انعامinءám a grant).

A grant or remission made for the repairs of tanks.

DESMOOK, (TAM. dés-muk from s. देश désa a district, and

s. मुख mukha mouth, face, front.)

Headman of a district. Collector of a district or portion of a country; an officer corresponding with Zemindar, but more antient.

DESMOOKEE, (TAM. dés-muki, s. देशमुखि désa-mukhi).

The office, or jurisdiction of a Desmook, q. v.


Register of a district, who, in the peninsula, performs the same duties as the Canongoe of the Bengal provinces.

DESPONDEE, v. Despondeah.

DESWAR, (TAM. déswár, P. ديشوار déshwár).

By districts or countries. Applied to a statement, the term means a village statement.


DEVADAYAM, DAVADYEN, or DAVADAYEM, (s. देवदेयं déva-déyam, compounded of देव déva a god, and देयं déyam to be given).

What is due to the gods. Grants of land for religious purposes.

DEWAN, (P. ديوان díwán).

Place of assembly. Native minister of the revenue department, and chief justice in civil causes within his jurisdiction; receiver-general of a province. The term has also, by abuse,been used to designate the principal revenue servant under anEuropean collector, and even of a Zemindar. By this titlethe East India Company are receivers-general, in perpetuity, of the revenues of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa, under a grant from the Great Mogul. See Dewanny.

DEWANNY, (p. ديواني díwání).

The office or jurisdiction of a Dewan, q. v.


A court for trying revenue, and other civil causes. v. Adawlut.

DEWASTAUN, or DEWUSTAN, (s. देवस्थानं déva-sthánam)

Place or station of the gods: a temple. Lands granted for the support of temples and other religious purposes.

DEWRA, (H. ديوهرا déwhrá for S. देवगृह dévagriha, literally, god-house). A Hindu temple.

DHIRMADEY, (S. धर्मदेय dharma-déya, from S. धर्म dharma religion, and S. देय déya to be given).

What is due to religion. Land held by Brahmins for religious purposes. v. Darma.

DIRMA, see Darma.


In the Ceded Districts, wells or embankments for irrigation. Mounds raised on the banks of rivers for drawing up water in buckets.

DOONY, (TAM. dóni).

A large boat, or coasting vessel, used by the natives.

DOWLE, (H. دول daul, B. ডৌল daul).

Form, manner. An estimate.

DOWLE BUNDOBUST, (H. دول daul a form, and P. بندوبست band-o-bast settlement: literally, estimate-settlement. Or, ifthe second word be read in the genitive case, the form or estimate of a settlement).

A sub rent-roll, or account of particular agreements with the inferior or under farmers or Ryots of a district for Mal and Sayer).

DUBASH, (from S. द्वि dwi two, and S. भाषा bháshá language, together forming the compound dwi-bháshá).

One who speaks two languages: an interpreter. The Hindu who, at Madras, manages the money concerns of the European, and serves him as a confidential agent in his private and public transactions with the other natives. v. Bannyan.

DUFFÀDAR, (P. دفعدار dafaء-dar).

The commander of a party of horse; also of Peons, q. v.

DUFTER, (P. دفتر daflar). Register, record, office.

DUFTER BUND, (P. دفتربند daftar-band, from دفتر daftar a register, and بند band shut).

An office-keeper. Allowance to the office-keepers of the cutcherries, an item of the muscorat, q. v.

DUFTER KHANAH, (P. دفترخانه daftar-khánah, from دفتر daftar a register, and خانه khánah a house).

A record office. Any office.

DUMBALAH DERON, (H. دنباله دهرنا dumbálah-dharná, from P. دنباله dumbálah the tail, and S. धरणं dharanam seizing).

Taking or seizing by the tail (as a cow, to urge her along, a common practice in India). An ultimate and positive order to the Ryots for reaping the harvest in the Northern Circars, when the season is far advanced.

DURBAR, (P. دربار darbár).

The court, the hall of audience; a levee.

DURBAR KHIRCH, (P. دربار خرچ darbár-kharch, from P. دربار darbár the court, and P. خرچ kharch charge).

Court charges.


DURMASANAM, DURMASENUM, (a corruption of S. धर्म dharma justice, religion, virtue, and आसनं ásanam a seat. धर्मासनं dharmásanam the seat of religion).

Places where water and rice are distributed gratis to travellers. Religious establishments. Lands granted for religious institutions at a low rent, during the Hindu government, at Tinnevelly.

DUSADES, (H. دساديس S. दशादेश das'ádésa, from दश dasa ten, and आदेश ádésa commanding).

A commander of ten: a tithing man. A village or petty officer of police.

DUSSARAH, (H. دسهرا dashará, S. दशहरा dasa-hará, from दश dasa ten, and हरा hará seizing, taking away, expiating ten kinds of sin or evil).

A Hindu festival in honour of Déi, or the goddess consort of Siva. It commences on the tenth day after the new moon in the month Asin, answering to the latter end of September, and lasts nine days.

DUSSORA KUTCH or KRUTCH, (from S. दशहरा dasahará the name of a Hindu festival, and P. خرچ kharch expense, charge).

Charges on account of the festival called Dussarah, q. v.

DUSTOOR, (P. دسَتور dastúr).

Custom, a customary fee or commission. v. Muscorat.

DUSTOOR CHACKERAN, (A. and P. دستورِچاكران dastúr-i-chákarán). SFees of servants. v. Chackeran.

DUSTOOR UL AUMUL, (A. دستورالعمل dastúr-ul-ءamal, from دستور dastúr custom, rule, ال al the article, and ء عملamal office, business).

Rule of business. Political and official regulations or institutions.

DUSWAHAH. The enaums or free lands of Chutters or Choultries, q. v.

DUSWANAH. A tenth. The name of an addition made to the standard rent in Bednore, in the year 1723.


EAHTIMAM, or, by mistake, EAHTIMAN, (A. اهتمام


Care, trust, charge. In the plural, Zemindarry trusts, or jurisdictions, of greater or less extent, into which the khalsa lands, or those paying rent, were divided by the Muhammadan.

EAHTIMAM BUNDY, (P. اهتمام بندي ihtimám bandi).

The settlement of a trust. Jamabundy, or a settlement of the revenue of a district annually concluded with the Zemindar. v. Eahtimam.

EAHTIMAMDAR, (P. اهتمام دار ihtimám-dár).

One who holds a trust. A Zemindar, q. v.

EJARAH, (A. اجاره ijárah).

A farm of land, or rather of its revenue.

EJARAHDAR, (P. اجاره دار ijárah-dár).

The holder of a farm of land, or rather of its revenue. v. Ejarah.

ENAUM, (A. انعام inءám).

Present, gift, gratuity, favour. Enaums are grants of land free of rent; or assignments of the government's share of the produce of a portion of land, for the support of religious establishments and priests, and for charitable purposes; also to revenue officers, and the public servants of a village. v. Mauniums.

ENAUMAT, also, by mistake, ENAUMAL, (A. انعامات inءámát plur. of A. انعام inءám).

Grants, gratuities. v. Enaum.

ENAUMDAR, (P. انعام دار inءám-dár).

Holder of any thing as a favour. A person in the possession of rent-free, or favourably rented, lands; or in the enjoyment, under assignment thereof, of the government dues from a particular portion of land, granted from charity, &c. v. Enaum.

EYEEDEIN, (A. dual, ء عيدينidain).

Two religious festivals of the Muhammadans.

EZAFA, (A. اضافه izáfah).

Addition, augmentation, increase. Increase of revenue from districts effected, by hastabood investigations, under Sultan Sujah, in 1689, on the accession of the Emperor Alemgheer (Aurungzebe); being a new valuation of the ancient land revenue,as settled by the assul tumar jammah of Torell Mull, in 1582, and, in subsequent years, added to by the gradual improvement of the lands, and by periodical enquiries, reducible to three general heads, viz. Abwab, Keffyet, and Towfeer.



FAQUEER, (A. فقير fakír).

A poor man, mendicant, or wandering beggar of the sect of Muhammad.

FAQUER UL TEJAR, (A. فاخرالتّجّار fákhir-ut-tujjár).

Noble merchants. A description of Mogul merchants.

FARIGH KHUTTY, (P. فارخ خطّي fárigh-khattí).

A written release.

FASL or FASAL, (A. فصل fasl or fasal).

Season, crop, harvest.

FEELKHANEH, (P. فيل‌خانه fíl-khánah).

Elephant house or stable. An article charged under the soubahdarry abwab.

SFEROOSH NEMMUCK, (P. فروشِ نمك farósh-i-namak).

Sale of salt (by a contract called mobai).

FERROAY. Fines and confiscations. v. Foujdarry.

FIRMAUN, (P. فرمان farmán).

Order, mandate. An imperial decree, a royal grant or charter.

FOUJDAR, (P. فوجدار fauj-dár, from فوج fauj an army, and دار dár keeper, holder).

Under the Mogul government, a magistrate of the police over a large district, who took cognizance of all criminal matters within his jurisdiction, and sometimes was employed as receiver-general of the revenues.

FOUJDARRAN, (فوجداران faujdárán, plur. of P. فوجدار faujdar). Foujdars. An article in the tumar jammah roll, being a jaghire appropriation for the civil and military expenses of inferior Nabobs and deputies of government; or, as the name imports, of the Foujdars.


FOUJDARRY, (P. فوجداري faujdárí).

Any thing appertaining to a Foujdar, as his office, jurisdiction, court, and the like. Also the produce of fines, confiscations, and chout, in the Foujdarry courts. v. Chout.

FOUJDARRY ABWAB, (P. فوجداري ابواب faujdárí abwáb). Foujdarry assessments. Assessments made by the Foujdars. Also a soubahdarry impost established by Sujah Khaun, being in the nature of a territorial assessment, levied from the Foujdars in the frontier districts, which were imperfectly explored, or brought into subjection to the ruling power of the state.

FOUJDARRY Court, (from P. فوجدار faujdár, q. v.).

A court for administering the criminal law.

FOUJ SEBUNDY, (فوج ِسهبندي fauj-i-sehbandí).

Provincial troops, native militia employed in the police, convoying treasure, protecting the revenues, &c. v. Moulach.

FUSLY, (فصلي faslí, from A. فصل fasl or fasal).

What relates to the seasons: the harvest year.

FUSILY KHEREEF, (S. فصلِ خريف fasl-i-kharíf).

The autumnal season, or harvest for rice, millet, &c.

FUSLY RUBBY, (P. فصلِ ربيع fasl-í-rabíء).

The spring season, or harvest for peas, wheat, &c.

FUTWAH, (A. فتوي fatwa).

A judicial decree, sentence, or judgment; particularly when delivered by a Mufti or doctor of Muhammadan law.


GAM, (B. gán, H. گانو gáw, with slight nasal before the ω, corruptions of s. ग्राम gráma).

A village.

GANGANAH, (P. گانگانه gángánah, from s. ग्राम gráma a village).

By villages, a settlement by villages. A term; equivalent to mouzawar, used to designate a village settlement.

GATWALL, (H. گهات‌وال ghát-wál).

Who has charge of a pass in the mountains, or a landing place on a river.


GAUTWAR, (H. گهاتوار ghát-wár). v. Gatwall.

GENTOO, (probably a corruption of the word Gentile).

Indian. One of the aborigines of India. At Madras our countrymen use this term to designate the language and people of Tellingána.

GHEE, (H. گهي ghí). Clarified butter, in which state they preserve that article for culinary purposes.

GHEECOTTAH, written also GHEEGOOTA, (from H. گهي ghí).

A village monopoly, the renter of which has the exclusive right of buying and selling ghee in retail. v. Ghee.

GIRDAWAR, or GIRDWAR, (P. گردآور girdáwar or گردوار girdwár).

An overseer of police, under whom the Goyendas or informers act, and who has the power to apprehend those whom the latter point out.

GODOWN, (European corruption of the Malay term گدغ gadong or گدوغ gadóng). A warehouse.

GOLAWER, (from s. गो a cow).

A tribe of cowherds in Telinga and Orissa.

GOMASTAH, (P. گماشته gumáshtah, perfect part, of گماشتن gumáshtan to send forth upon any particular business).

A commissioner, factor, agent.

GOOROO, (s. गुरु guru).

Grave, a grave man; the spiritual guide of a Hindu.

GOOTOO, (TAM. gúntu or déna-gúntu honeycomb).

A license by custom paid for as much of honey and bees' wax as may be found by the renter in particular forests or mountains.


A petty officer in a village, whose chief duty was to guard the crop. v. Pasbaun. He acted under the native collector, and his office is described to have been somewhat like that of a common Peon.

GOSHWARAH, (P. گوشواره góshwárah).

The abstract of an account.

GOUR. In Coimbatore, head men of villages: Potail and

Meekassadars, q. v.

GOYENDA, (P. گوينده góyandah, from P. گفتن guftan to speak, say, tell, inform).

An informer, a spy to discover public offenders.

GRAM or GRAMA, (S. ग्राम gráma). A village.


(From S. ग्राम gráma a village, and P. خرچ kharch expense).

Village charges, or expenditure. v. Khirch Gram.


(TAM. grámátan, s. ग्रामधान grámadhána).

A villager, head man of a village, or Potail, q. v.


Broken uneven land brought into cultivation by the hand. A species of landholders in the Ceded Districts who hold their lands at a reduced rent.

GUENI or GUENY. Tenant.


In Canara, a tenant at will. The same as Chalie Gueny, q. v.


In Canara, a proprietor of land. The same as Nairmul Gueny, q. v.


In Canara, a tenant for ever. The same as Shudmul Gueny, q. v.


The resumption of an allowance of land given up to the Ryots, being the tenth of a begah.

GUNGE, (P. گنج ganj).

A granary, a depôt, chiefly of grain, for sale. Wholesale markets held on particular days, and resorted to by petty venders and traders. Also commercial depôts.

GURNY, v. Gueny.



HACKIKUT, (A. حقيقت hakíkat).

Statement, explanation, particular account.

HACKIKAT JUMMA, (P. حقيقتِ جمع hakíkat-i-jamaء).

A statement, or the particulars, of the jumma, or sum total of an account. An historical detail of the tumary rent-roll down to the acquisition of the Dewanny.

HAKIM, (A. حاكم hákim).

Commander, ruler, governor, master. The governing authority in a province.

HALDAREE, (P. حال داري hál-dárí from A. حال hál state, condition, situation, circumstance, and P. دار dár keeping, holding).

A tax on marriages, an item of the abwab or cesses. N. B. This term may also mean a tax on ploughs, from s. हल hala a plough, and p. داري dárí holding, or keeping.

HAL HACKIKUT, written also by mistake, HAK-HACKUT, (P. حال حقيقت hál-hakíkat).

The present state. An account of the present state of the revenue as established in the hustabood, q. v.

HAREES, (A. حارس háris).

A guard, centinel, or watchman. A petty officer of police in a town or village.

HASIL, (A. حاصل hásil).

Produce, result, proceeds, revenue, duties.

HASIL KHALARY, (P. حاصلِ كهلاري hásil-i-khalárí).

Produce of the salt-works. A head of salt-revenue collections, including the original ground rent of the salt lands. v. Khalary.

HASIL-NEMUCK, (P. حاصلِ نمك hásil-i-namak).

Proceeds of salt. Duties on salt.

HASTABOOD, (P. هست وبود hast-ó-búd).

Literally, what is and was. A comparative account. An examination by measurement of the assets or resources of the country, made immediately previous to the harvest. Also,in a more general sense, a detailed enquiry into the value of lands financially considered.

HAVELLY, (A. حويلي havílí).

House, habitation, domain. In Bengal the term is applied to such lands as are held by a Zemindar for his own benefit; but at Madras it designates such as are under the immediate management of government, without the intervention of Zemindars or Jaghiredars, the revenues of which are either farmed out on short leases, or collected by its own officers, without any other agency. v. Khas, which in Bengal is the term used in the sense of Havelly as applied at Madras.

HAUT. (s. हट्ट hatta, B. হট hát or হট্ট hatt, H. هات hat).

A weekly market held on stated days. N. B. A bazar is a daily market.

HAZARY, (P.هزاري hazárí from هزار hazár a thousand).

The commander of a thousand men.

HAZARIAN, (A. هزاريان hazáriyán plur. of هزاري hazárá, q. v.).

The commanders of a thousand men each. The expense of ten regiments of standing troops under English officers. v. p. 683. for two regiments read ten.

HINDOO or HINDU, (P. هندو Hindu).

One of the aborigines of India, by the Persians called Hind.

HISSA, (A. هصّه hissah).

Share, portion, division, part. Hissa lands are such as are divided, with respect to the rent, into shares, payable to two or more Zemindars, who are called Hissadars or shareholders.

HISSAWB, (A. حساب hisáb).

An account, computation, calculation.

HISSAWB KORCHA, (P. حساب خِرچه hisáb-i-kharchah).

An account of disbursements.

HOBLY. In Canara, a district.

HOODUD, (A. حدود hudúd plur. of A. حدّ hadd a limit or boundary).

Prescribed penalties by the Muhammadan laws.

HUSBULWOSOOLEE MAROCHA, (p. حسب الوصولي hasb-ul-wasúlí).

A tax according to what may be collected. Estimated receipts on marriages, being a head of revenue introduced in Dinagepore in 1762.

HUZZOOR, (A. حضور huzúr).

The presence. The seat of government, or of the European authority in a collectorship. v. Sudder.


HUZZOOREE, (P. حضوري huzúrí from A. حضور huzúr, q. v.).

Relating to the presence, or chief station of European authority. Applied to Talookdars, &c. the term indicates that they pay their revenue immediately to the European officer of govern- ment, and not through Zemindars.

HYUM. Is a term used in Coimbatore to designate a branch of soornadyem, or rents payable in money, which is fixed, or at least subject to little variation; such as the produce of trees, the rent of collections made from ginger, &c. on the hills.


IJARAH, (A. اجاره ijárah).

A farm, particularly of the revenue of a district.

IJARAHDAR, (P. اجاره دار ijárah-dár).

The holder of a farm. A farmer of the revenues of a district.

ISTEMERAR, (A. استمرار istimrár).

Continuity; the being constant and continuous; perpetuity.

ISTEMERARY, (P. استمراري iśtimrárí).

Of or relating to Istemerar, q. v. An Istemerary Pottah is a lease in perpetuity.

ISTEMRARDAR, (P. استمراردار istimrárdár).

The holder of a grant in perpetuity.

ISTIMRAREE, (P. استمراري istimrárí).

Perpetual, continuous. v. Istemerary.


JABESTAN, by mistake for TABESTAN, q. v.

JAGGERY, (TAM. jakarai). Sugar. Sugar in its unrefined state.

JAGHEER NOWARAH, (P. جاي گير ناواره jáy-gír-i-náwárah).

A jagheer for the support of an establishment of boats at Dacca.

JAGHEER TANAJAUT, (P. جاي گيِرتهانه جات jáy-gír-i-t'há-nahját).

The same as Jaghire Tanahaut, q. v.

JAGHIRE or JAGHEER, (P. جاي گير jáy-gír, from جا place, and گير gír taking, the two words being united by ي y, here the sign of the genitive case).

Literally the place of taking. An assignment of the government share of the produce of a portion of land to an individual. There were two kinds of Jaghires, one called جاي گيرتِن jáy-gír-i-tan, bodily or personal jaghire, being for the support of the person of the grantee; the other جاي گِيرسر jáy-gír-i-sar, Jaghire of the head, or an assignment for the support of any public establishment, particularly of a military nature.

JAGHIRE BUCKSHEE, (P. جاي گيربخشي jáy-gír-i-bakshí).

A jaghire for the support of a general or commander-in-chief.

JAGHIRE CIRCAR, (P. جاي گيرسِركار jáy-gír-i-sarkár).

The jaghire of the government: i.e. the Company's jaghire under the presidency of Fort St. George.

JAGHIRE DEWANNY, (P. جاي گيردِيواني jáy-gír-i-díwání).

The jaghire of the Dewanny, i.e. of the office of Dewan held by the company.

JAGHIRE TANAHAUT, (P. جاي گِيرتهانات jáy-gír-i-t'hánahát).

Jaghires for the support of tanahs, or small garrisons of sebundy troops.

JAMMA, (A. جمع jamaء).

The whole, total, sum, amount, sum total, assembly, collection.

The total of a territorial assessment.

JAMMABUNDY, (P. جمع بندي jamaء-bandí).

A settlement of the total of an assessment, or a written statement of the same.

JAMMABUNDY NUCKDY, (P. جمع بنديِ نقدي jamaء-bandinakdí). A money settlement of the total of an assessment.

JAMMADAR, (P. جمعدار jamaء-dár).

A native officer so denominated. v. Jamma and Dar.


JAMMA KAUMIL, (P. جمع ِكامل jamaء-i-kámil).

The complete or perfect jamma, or total of an assessment. The complete standard assessment of the Deccan on the principle of Toorell Mull's original rent-roll.

JAMMA KHIRCH, (A. جمع خرج jamaء-kharj).

Receipt and payment. Applied to an account, a statement of receipts and disbursements.

JAMMA TUMARY, (p. جمع ِتوماري jamaء-i-túmári).

The total according to the tumar or rent-roll. v. Tumar.

JAMMA WAUSIL BAKY, (A. جمع واصل باقي jamaء-wásil-bákí).

Total-received-balance. An account in three columns, stating the totals of the revenues expected according to the settlement, the amount received, and the balances outstanding.

JANAJAUT, (H. جناجات janáját, from s. जन Jana person, and s. जात játa sect).

Man by man, individual. This term, applied to a Pottah, means a lease to each individual Ryot.

JANGLE, (H. جنگل jangal, s. जंगल jangala).

A wood or thicket, a country overrun with wood or long grass, in a rude and uncultivated state.

JANGLY, (from s. जंगल jangala).

Overrun with jungle, or situated in the midst of jungles. v. Jangle.

JAREBIAN, (p. جريبيان jaríbiyán plur. of جريبي jaríbí a personal noun from A. جريب jaríb a certain land measure).

Land measures in the Northern Circars.

JELM, (a Malabar corruption of s. जन्म janma).

Birth, birthright. v. Jemnum.

JELMKAR, the same as JEMNUMKAR, q. v.

JELMKAR GUENY. See Jelmkar and Gueney.

JELNUM PONNUJAM, (a Malabar corruption of s. जन्मंपुनर्ज्जं janmam punarjam).

Literally, birth again born. The term is particularly applied to a mortgage deed, upon the execution of which the proprietor parts with almost his whole interest in the land.

JEMNUM, (a Malabar corruption of the Sanskrit word जन्मनू janman).

Birth, birthright. Hereditary or proprietary right in the soil.

JEMNUMKAR, (a Malabar corruption of s. जन्मनू janman birth, and the personal termination kár).

A proprietor by inheritance.

JIZEA, (A. جزيه jizyah).

A tax imposed by Muhummadans on infidels and idolaters.

JODIGA. A branch of the sornadyem, q. v., consisting of a quitrent paid by Brahmans for enaum lands held by them.

JORE. Quit rent.

JOWARY. Indian corn. Sort of millet. Holcus sorghum, L.

JUMMUM, the same as JEMNUM, q. v.

JYARUM. In the Carnatic, a register of lands.


KADEEM, (A. قادم kádim).

Head, head man. One of the numerous terms used in the peninsula to designate the head man of a village.

KAM WASSOOL. See Kham-Wossool.

KANUM, (Mal. kánam). Mortgage, usufructuary property acquired by mortgage. See Canum and Kanum Patum.

KANUMKAR, (Mal. kánamkár). A mortgage of land. v. Kanum.

KANUM PATUM, (Mal. kánam-pátam). A mortgage deed. A form of conveying land in leasehold, and by which a mortgagee gets possession of land.

KAN WASSOOL, by mistake for KHAM WASSOOL, q. v.

KAPOO, KAPOOR, written also KAN POOR. On0e of the terms used in the peninsula to denote the head man among the Meerassadars of a village.


KARAR, (A. قرار karár).

Firmness, stability. Agreement, engagement, contract.

KARAR JAMMA DEH SALA, (P. قرار جمعِ ده‌ساله karár-jamaء-i-dahsálah).

The engagement for a ten year's jamma. The decennial settlement of the Bengal provinces, as made in the administration of Lord Cornwallis.

KARIAKARAM, (Tal. kárya-káram, from s. कार्य्यकारः kárya-kárah).

The performer of a business, an agent. The principal Meerassadar of a village, appointed by the rest to act as their common agent.

KATE, (a provincial corruption of s. क्षेत्र kshétra). A field.

KATE PUNJAH, (Tam. ket-punjai, from két, a corruption of s. क्षेत्र kshétra a field, and Tam. punjai, q. v.).

Land which from situation cannot be irrigated, and which, strictly speaking, depends upon the falling rains.

KAUMIL or KAMUL, (A. كامل kámil).

Perfect, complete. v. Jummah.

KAWELI, (Tam. káwali). Watching, guarding, protecting. The office or employment of guarding and protecting a district. v. Cawel.

KAWELIGAR. v. Cawelgar.

KAWELI RUSSOOM. v. Kaweli and Russoom. Fee or Kaweligar. See Cawelgar.

KAY-KANUM-PATUM, (Mal. kai-kánam-pátam). Conveyance of a spot of land, in Malabar, to one who undertakes to fence it with mud walls, and plant it with trees, being insured in the possession of it for a specified period.

KEEL. A lake.

KEFFYET or KEFFAYET, (A. كفايت kifáyat).

Surplus, profit, advantage. Profit resulting from the revenue investigations of Meer Cossim, being an item of the soubahdarry abwab, or cesses arising from jaghires and other lands held at reduced rate by the principal officers of the Nazims, which were added to the public rent; also increase of revenue from hastabood enquiries into the resources of the khalsa lands.

KEFFYET HUSTABOOD, (P. كفايتِ هستوبود kifáyat-i-hast-o-búd).

Profit of the hastabood, q. v. An item of the soubahdarry abwab, or cesses of Ali Verdi Khan, consisting of resumptions of land, and discovered resources in khalsa lands brought to account in the frontier districts, under the charge of foujdars, which they had concealed.

KEFFYET SAYER, (P. كفايتِ ساير kifáyat-i-sáyir).

Profit of the sayer, q. v. Profit or increase of revenue derived from bringing to public account fraudulent or other irregular emoluments or abuses in the branches of the sayer duties. See Baky and Panchoutra.

KEFYAL, a mistake in the print for KEFFYET, q. v.

KEHDAH, (H. كهيدا khéda).

The trap or enclosure in which wild elephants are caught.

KEHDAH AFEAL, (P. كهيداي افيال khédáyi-afyál).

The traps or enclosures for catching elephants. v. Kehdah. An article in the tumar, or assessment roll, of jaghire appropriations, to defray the expense of catching elephants in Tipperah and Sylhet.

KERP, (B. কার্পাস kárpás). Cotton.

KERPAS, (B. কার্পাস kárpás). Cotton.

KESSEMWAR, (p. قسم وار kismwár).

According to its kind, sort, or quality.

KESSEMWAR GOSHWARAH, (P. قسموارگوشواره kismwár-goshwárah).

An abstract account of lands specifying their different qualities.

KETEENEE, (B. কাটনী kátaní). A spinner of cotton, &c.

KEZANCHEE, (P. خزانچي khazánchí). A treasurer.

KHAHOON, (B. কাহন káhan, H. كهان kahán or H. كاهن káhan, corruptions of s. कार्षापण kárshápana).

Twelve hundred and eighty cowries, equal, as money, to about four annas, or the fourth of a rupee.


KHALSA, (A. خالصه khálisah).

Pure, unmixed. An office of government, in which the business of the revenue department is transacted: the exchequer. When this term is applied to lands, it signifies lands the revenues of which are paid into the exchequer, as contradistinguished from jaghire, or other descriptions of lands, the government share of whose produce has been assigned to others.

KHALSA SHEREFA, (P. خالصه شريفه khálisah-i-sharífah).

The royal treasury or exchequer.

KHAM, written also KAM, (P. خام khám).

Unripe, crude, immature, gross.

KHAM CHITAH, (H. خام چتِها khám-chithá).

A rough statement or account. v. Kham.

KHAM WOSSOOL, (P. خام وصول khám-wasúl).

Gross receipt, as of revenue; also the record exhibiting it.

KHANABARRY, (from P. خانه khánah a house, and B. কাড়ী bárí, from S. बाटी bátí a dwelling).

A house with its appurtenances, such as gardens, orchards, and the like: domain. v. Nancar.

KHAN WOOSEL. For Kham Wossool, q. v.

KHAREGE JUMMA, (P. خارج ِجمع khárij-i-jama).

What is excluded from the jumma, or amount of the rental. Rents from the Ryots enjoyed by particular individuals under assignments or grants from government, such as the nancar of Crories and Zemindars.

KHAS, (A. خاص kháss).

Private, peculiar; particular, proper. Revenue collected immediately by government, without the agency of Zemindars. Under the Company's government in Bengal, the term is generally applied when there is an immediate division of the actual produce between the government and the Ryots; and also where the revenues of smaller portions than zemindaries are let to farm.

KHASNOVEESEE, (P. خاص نويسي kháss-navísí, from A. خاص kháss, q. v. and P. نويسي navísí writing).

What relates to the government clerks and accountants. An article of the soubahdarry abwab, or cesses introduced by Jaffier Khan; being originally a russoom or fee exacted from the Zemindars, at the renewal of their annual leases, by the Mutseddies, or clerks of the khalsa; but afterwards extended to other objects. v. Khalsa.

KHEREEF, (A. خريف kharíf). Autumn, autumnal harvest.

KHERYAUT, (A. خيرات khairát).

Good deeds, charities, alms. Allowances for occasional charity to the poor of all persuasions; an item of the Muscorat, q. v.

KHETERY, (a corruption of S. क्षत्रिय kshatriya, pronounced khetri in the vulgar dialects).

A man of the second or military tribe.

KHILAUT, (A. خلعت khilaءt).

A robe of honour with which princes confer dignity. An item of the abwab or imposts. See Zyr Mathote.

KHIRCH GRAM, (P. خرج گِرام kharj-i-grám, from P. خرج kharj expense, and S. ग्राम gráma a village).

Expense of the village. Contributions levied in the villages, professedly to defray the expenses incurred by the Potails, or their servants, and by others, in travelling to the cutcherry of the district on the public affairs of the villages.

KHODE KHOSHT, (properly P. خود كاشت khúd-kásht, from خود khúd self, and كاشتن káshtan to sow seed).

Self-sown or cultivated. Applied to Ryots, the term means those who cultivate land in the village where they reside, and by hereditary right; also the land so cultivated.

KHOMAR, (B. খামার khámár).

Threshing-floor. Lands, the Ryots of which do not pay a money rent, but divide the produce at certain rates of share with the Zemindar; contradistinguished from rioty lands, in which the government dues are paid in money.

KHOOSHBASH, by mistake, CHOOOBASH, (P. خوش باش khúsh-básh).

One who lives happily or at his ease. A description of inhabitants in the Ceded Districts.

KHORAK AFFIAL, (P. خوراكِ افيال khúrák-i-afyál).

Food of elephants. An allowance in Sylhet for maintaining ele phants when caught.

KHUDIAN. (From TAM. kudi). A cultivator. v. Coodi.


KHURCH or KHIRCH or KURTCH, (A. خرج kharj, P. خرچ kharch).

Expense, expenditure. Casual expenditure for public purposes in the business of revenue arrangement.

KHURCHA, (A. خرجه kharjah, P. خرچه kharchah).

Disbursement, expenditure.

KHURCHA SUDDER, (P. خرچهءسدر kharchah-i-sadar).

Expenses of the chief station or seat of government, in contradistinction to Kharchah-i-mofussil, or expenses of the country or interior.

KIDMUTDAR, probably for KIDMUTGAR, (P. خدمتگار khidmat-gár). A servant, an in-door servant.


KILLADAR, (P. قله دار kilءah-dár).

Warder of a castle. Commander of a fort.

KIMUT KHESHT GOUR, (P. قيمتِ خشتِ گور kímat-i-khisht-i-gaur).

Price of bricks of Gour. v. Kist Gour. A soubahdarry impost established by Ali Verdi Cawn to defray the expense of conveying away bricks from the ruins of the ancient city of Gour, once the capital of Bengal.

KISMUL, a mistake for KISMUT, q. v.

KISMUT, (A. قسمت kismut).

Division, proportion, share, part. A division of country, some times forming part of a circar, and including several districts, more or less: but more generally, part of a pergunnah. N. B. The proportions of such divisions are distinguished by the number of annas or sixteenth parts they contain.

KISSA, a typographical error for HISSA, q. v.

KISSAS, (A. قصاص kisás). The Muhammadan law of retaliation.

KIST, (A. قسط kist). Stated payment, instalment of rent.

KISTBUNDY, (P. قسطبندى kist-bandí).

A contract for the payment of a debt or rent by instalments. v. Kist.

KIST GOUR, (P. خشتِ گور khisht-i-gaur).

Bricks of Gour. The expense of bricks from the ruins of the city of Gour, once the capital of Bengal: one of the soubahdarry abwab or cesses.

KOKUMNAMA, by mistake for HOOKUMNAMA, q. v.

KOLKAR. The same as Peon, in Malabar.

KOODI, (TAM. kudi). Inhabitant, tenant, Ryot, q. v.

KOODIMANER. A contract, in Malabar, the effect of which is to convert the tenure of mortgage by pledge into a kind of freehold.


A village accountant, in the Northern Circars, who is generally a Brahman.

KOORI KANUM. (MAL. kurí kánam).

A lease on favourable terms for the improvement of land.

KOOT, (H. كوت kút).

Estimate, appraisement, valuation. Valuation of the crop. v. Anchumna.

KORAN, (A. قران kurán).

The book containing the religious precepts of Muhammad.

KOSHAM, (S. कोष kósha, TEL. and TAM. kósham).

Case, repository, treasury, register. A village register in which are entered the lands held by Brahmans in the southern poligar districts.

KOYT, (a provincial corruption of s. कायस्थ káyashtha).

The name of a mixed tribe of Hindus, whose profession is generally writing and accounts. Most of the Banians and Sircars of Calcutta are of this class.

KRORIE. v. Crorie.

KUDDUM RUSSOOL, (P. قدمِ‌ رسول kadam-i-rasúl).

The footstep of the prophet. Allowance for preserving the impression of the foot of Muhammad, or the place of worship where it is preserved; an item of the Muscorat, q. v.

KULGOOTASON. In Tinnavelly, a fixed sum so called for which the punjah land was given up.

KULLAR. In the Ceded Districts, barren land.


KULWAR, (P. كلوار kulwár).

According to all, general. The term is applied to a settlement of the land revenues, when the rent of each individual Ryot is fixed and collected by the officers of government, without the intermediate agency of Zemindars or farmers of the revenue. See Ryotwar.

KUMENATUM. The farming stock of an individual, such as his ploughs, bullocks, slaves or servants, &c.

KUMI, (p. كمي kami).

Deficiency. Deficiency in the weight or value of coin; interior crutch or expenditure. N.B. Kumisagon in p. 682. should have been divided by a comma, being two words, namely, kumi and sagon.

KUMPLI. In the Ceded Districts, a draw-well.

KUNGANUM. Fees paid to the Company as an indemnity for the expense of overseeing the just appropriation of the podooshelawo, and the cutting and division of the crop.

KUNKAL, (H. كنگال kangál).

Poor, miserable. Kunkal lands are lands the revenues of which are appropriated for the support of poor persons.

KURCHA, (A. خرجه kharjah, P. خرچه kharchah). Expenditure.

KURNUM, (TEL. karnam, S. करण: karanah).

A secretary, writer, clerk. See Curnum.

KUSHEM. In the Ceded Districts, a streamlet or water-course from a spring.

KUSSOOR, (A. قصور kusúr).

Want, defect, deficiency. An item of the abwab formerly levied as part of the deh kurcha, or village charges, to make up for the deficiency in the rupees collected in the mofussil, or interior of the country, which, under the Mogul government, were required to be paid into the treasury at an equal standard.

KUTCHA, (H. كچا kachá, B. কাঁচা kánchá).

Raw; crude, immature. v. Cutcha.

KUTCHA BALLANNY, BALUNNY, or BEKENNY. A term used, in Dinagepore. A resumption of one-tenth proportion of land held by the Ryots. v. Kutcha and Cutcha.

KUTKENA, (B. কটকিনা katkiná). An under farm.

KUTKENADAR, (B. কটকিনাদার katkinádár).

An under-tenant, farmer, or renter.

KUTLAI. In the Ceded Districts, a field.

KUTTEI. v. Kutlai.

KYAL, (A. كيال kayál).

A weighman. The person who weighs out the respective shares of the crops in a village.

KYVEDOOTH. A form of mortgage and transfer of landed property in Malabar.


LAC, (a provincial corruption of s. लक्ष laksha).

One hundred thousand. N. B. A lack of Bengal sicca rupees is, at 2s.6d., equal to pounds sterling 12,500.

LAKERAJE, (A. لاخراج lá-khiráj, compounded of the privative particle لا and خراج khiráj rent).

Rent-free. Lands rent-free; or lands the government dues from which are assigned to any person for his own benefit, or are appropriated to any public purpose. The term is used in ontradistinction to Malguzary, q. v.

LINGUMUT, (s. लिंगमत linga-mata).

One who worships the Lingam.

LOMBALLIES. v. Beegarah.

LOMBARDIES. v. Beegarah.

LOONTABURDARS. A typographical mistake for Soonta-Burdars, q. v.


MAAL. See Mal and Mehal.

MADESTRUM, (TAM. madiyastam, for S. मध्यस्थं madhyastham).

Standing between: mediation. The mediation of a Poligar to protect a Circar village from any breach of faith on the part of government or its officers.


MADRASSA, (A. مدرسه madrasah). A college.

MADRISSA. See Madrassa.

MAGANY, (TAM. mágánam). A district.

MAGANNY. See Magany.

MAGAUN. See Magany.

MAHAJANACUM. See Mahajanum.

MAHAJEN. See Mahajanum.

MAHAJANUM, (TAM. mahá-janam, s. महाजन mahájana).

A great person; a merchant. Proprietor of land equivalent to Mehrassadar, q. v.

MAHL. See Mehal.

MAHMOOL. See Mamool.

MAHOOTERAN, (مهتران mahattarán a Persian corruption in the plural number of s. महत्रा mahattrá).

Lands given for the maintenance of respectable persons, not Brahmans.

MAHSOOL, (A. محصول mahsúl).

Collected. The produce or sum of any thing. The amount or produce of the sayer duties on salt imported, manufactured, and consumed.

MAHSOOL SAYER, (p. محصولِ ‌ساير mahsúl-i-sayir).

The produce of the sayer duties. v. Mahsool.

MAHSOULY PEON, (p. محصولي mahsúli, from A. محصول mahsúl).

A Peon employed in the collections. v. Mahsool.

MAL, (A. مال mál).

Wealth, property. Revenue, rent; particularly that arising from territory, in contradistinction to the customs and duties levied on personals, called SAYER, q. v. See also Mehal, with which term this is often confounded by Europeans.

MALGUZAR, (P. مالگذار mál-guzár).

Who pays rent or revenue. The term is applicable to every description of person who holds land paying a revenue to government, whether as tenant, Zemindar, or farmer.

MALGUZARRY, (p. مالگذاري mál-guzárí, from A. مال mál wealth, property, revenue, and P. گذاشتن guzáshtan to quit, leave, discharge, pay).

Paying revenue. A term applied to assessed lands, or lands paying revenue to government; also the rent of such lands.

MALGUZARRY TEHSIL KOOL, (p. مالگذاري تحصيلِ كّل malguzárí-tahsíl-i-kull).

The rent, or land revenue, according to the whole collections. Net revenues levied from Zemindars and farmers, and on officers of government.

MALZAMIN, (p. مالضامن mál-zámin).

Bondsman for the discharge of a debt, or payment of rent. See Malzaminee.

MALZAMINEE, (p. مالضامني mál-záminí).

Written security for the due payment of a debt or revenue.

MALIK, (A. مالك málík).

Master, lord, proprietor; owner.

MALIKANA, (p. مالكانه málikánah, from A. مالك málik, q. v.).

What relates or belongs to a person as master or head man. The malikana of a Mocuddim, or head Ryot, is a share of each Ryot's produce received by him as a customary due, forming an article of the Neakdarry, q. v. The term is also applicable to the nancar, or allowance to village collectors, or Mocuddims of such villages as pay rents immediately to the khalsa, being an item of the Muscorat, q. v. See also Mocudims.

MAMOOL, (A. معمول maءmúl).

Practised, established, usual, customary.

MANGUN, (B. মা৹গন mángan).

Begging, request; one of the cesses or abwab. A tax or imposition formerly levied by the officers stationed at the chokies and ghauts.

MARAH. Perquisites from the crop, fees in kind, so called in

the Northern Circars, the same as Russoom, q. v.

MARAMUT, (A. مرمت marammat).

Mending, repairing.

MAROCHA. A tax on marriages.

MATAFURRUCKAT, (A. pl. متفرّقات mutafarrikát).

Separate, scattered, dispersed, various. Scattered divisions or portions of land.

MATAYENAH. See Mutanieh.

MATHOOT. See Mathote.

MATHOOT FEEL KANEH, (P. متهوتِ فيل خانه mathot-i-fíl-khánah).

An imposition for the elephant house or stable. A soubahdarry article of the abwab or cesses established by Sujah Khaun, being a contribution to defray the expense of feeding the elephants of the Nazim and Dewan.

MATHOTE, spelt also MATHOOT, MATHOOL, and MUTHOTE, (H. متهوت mathót).

Capitation, contribution, imposition. An occasional impost or tax, sometimes included in the Abwab, q. v. See also Zyr Mathote.

MAUNIUM, (TAM. mániyam, from s. मान्य mánya, respectable, honourable).

A grant of land, or assignment of the government share of the produce therefrom, to the revenue officers, and the public servants of the villages in the Northern Circars. See Enam, Sunnud, Turrabuddy, and Pitchay.

MAUZA, (A. موضع mauzaء). A place, a village.

MAUZAWAR, (P. موضعوار mauzaء-wár, from A. موضع mauzaء a place, a village).

By villages. A village settlement, where the officers of the government farmed out the lands of the whole village to an individual, or to the community of a village.

MEDDUD. See Muddud.

MEDDED MASH. See Mudded Mash.

MEERASS, (A. ميراث mírás or míráth). Heritage, patrimony.

MEERASSADAR, (P. ميراثدار mírása-dár).

The holder or possessor of an heritage. v. Meerass. The proprietor of land.

MEERASSEE, (A. ميراثي mírásí).

Hereditary, hereditary property. The land of a Meerassadar, q. v.

MEHAAL. See Mehal.

MEHAL, MAHL, MHAL, MAAL, MOHAUL, MEHAUL, MEHAAL, MAL, (A. محالّ maháll plur. of محلّ mahall properly a place).

Places, districts, departments. Places or sources of revenue, particularly of a territorial nature: lands. N.B. This term should not, as is often the case, be confounded with مال mál another Arabic word, to an incorrect ear something like it in sound. Maháll denotes the places or lands yielding a revenue; but mál is the rent or revenue itself arising from the lands. See Mal.

MEHAUL. See Mehal.

MEHMANY, (مهماني mihmání, from P. مهمان mihmán a guest).

What relates to a guest; hospitality. Allowance for entertaining pilgrims, travellers, and strangers in general; an item of the Muscorat, q. v.

MELWASSY. In the peninsula, extra produce partly appropriated to the use of temples and other religious purposes.

MEN-AUTISTY. Grand master of artillery.

MENEWAR. In Malabar, a person who keeps the district accounts called hobly.

MAHL. See Mehal.

MOHALZAMINEE. See Malzaminee.

MHASOOL. See Mahsool.

MHASOOL SAYER. See Mahsool Sayer.

MILKEUT, (A. ملكيت milkíyat). Property, proprietary right.

MILKEUT ISTIMRAR, (P. ملكيتِ استمرار milkíyat-i-istimrár).

Proprietary right in continuation.

MILKUIT. See Milkeut.

MINHA, (A. من ها min-há).

Literally, from that. Deduction, subtraction.


MOBAI, (A. مبيعي mubíءí).

By purchase or sale. Manufacture of salt by contract purchase.

MOCASAU. See Mocassau.

MOCASSA. See Mocassau.

MOCASSAU. Peons, in the Northern Circars, who were paid by grants of land, subject to a quit rent only. v. Peon.

MOCUDDIM, (A. مقدّم mukaddam).

Placed before, antecedent, prior, foremost. Head Ryot, or principal man in a village, who superintends the affairs of it, and, among other duties, collects the rents of government within his jurisdiction. The same officer is in Bengal called also Mundul, and in the peninsula Goad and Potail.

MOCUDDIMY, (P. مقّدمي mukaddamí, from A. مقدّم mukaddam).

What relates to a Mocuddim. The russoom or share of each Ryot's produce received by the Mocuddim, an article of the neakdarry: also the nancar or allowance to village collectors or Mocuddims of such villages as pay rents immediately to the khalsa, being an article of the muscorat. See Malikana.

MOCUDMY. See Mocuddimy.

MOCUM. See Mokeem.

MOCURRER, (A. مقّرر mukarrar).

Fixed; established; permanent. What is fixed or settled.

MOCURRERY, (P. مقّرري mukarrarí, from A. مقرر mukarrar).

As applied to lands, means lands let on a fixed lease. The term is also applied to the government dues from the Cavel, q. v.

MOCURRERYDAR, (P. مقّرري‌ادر mukarrarí-dár).

Possessor of a lease or grant for a fixed period. v. Mocurrer and Mocurrery.

MOCURREY. See Mocurrery.

MOCURREYDAR. See Mocurrerydar.

MODAKIL, (A. مداخل madákhil pl. of مدخل madkhal).

Introductions, annexations, additions. Annexations or additions of lands to a particular financial division; or lands acquired, considered with reference to revenue. See Mokharije.

MOFUSSIL, (A. مفصّل mufassal).

Separated, particularised, distinguished, divided into distinct parts, detailed. The subordinate divisions of a district, in contradistinction to the term saddur, which implies the chief seat of government; also the country, as opposed to town: the interior of the country. As applied to accounts, the term signifies detailed, or those accounts which are made up in the villages and pergunnahs, or larger divisions of country, by the Putwarries, Canongoes, or Serishtadars. As applied to charges, it signifies the expense of village and pergunnah officers employed in the business of receiving, collecting, settling, and registering the rents; such as Mocuddims, Putwarries, Peons, Pykes, Canongoes, Serishtadars, Tehsildars, Aumeens, &c. &c.

MOFUSSIL DEWANNY ADAWLUT, (P. مفصّل ديواني عدالت mufassal díwání ءadálat).

Provincial court of civil justice.

MOGANY. See Magany.

MOGGS. See Mugs.

MOHAUL. See Mehal.

MOHIR. See Mohrer.

MOHRER, MOHIR, MOHUR, MORAH, MOHERRIE, (A. محّرر muharrir). A writer, a clerk in an office.

MOHTEREFA, (A. محترفه muhtarifah).

Artificers. Taxes, personal and professional, on artificers, merchants, and others; also on houses, implements of agriculture, looms, &c. a branch of the Sayer, q. v.

MOHTERFA. See Mohterefa.

MOHUR. See Mohrer.

MOHURRIE. See Mohrer.

MOKEEM, (A. مقوّم mukavvim).

Who fixes or settles. An appraiser.


MOKHARIJE, (A. مخارج makhárij pl. of مخرج makhraj).

Expenses, deductions, exclusions. Territory dismembered and lost to the revenue, forming a head of deductions from the collections of the Zemindars in their accounts, under the general term Wazeat, q. v. The reverse of Modakil, q. v.

MOLAVY. See Moolavy.

MOLUNGEE, (H. ملنگي malangí). Manufacturer of salt.

MONIGAR, (TAM. maniyakár). A surveyor. A supravisor, or manager.

MOOFTY, (A. مفتي muftí).

The Muhammadan law officer who declares the sentence.

MOOLAVY, (A. مولوي maulaví).

A learned and religious man. An interpreter of the Muhammadan law.

MOOLGUENY. v. Mul Gueny.

MOOLVY. See Moolavy.

MOONSHEE, (A. منشي munshí).

Letter-writer, secretary. N. B. Europeans give this title to the

native who instructs them in the Persian language.

MOOTAH, (probably for TAM. mótai a heap or parcel).

In the Northern Circars, a small district or subdivision of a country, consisting of a certain number of villages more or less. A farm of several villages.

MOOTAHDAR. The holder of a Mootah, q. v. A person on whom the Zemindarry rights of a mootah are conferred by the

government, under the conditions of a perpetual settlement.

MOOTAHDARRY. What relates to a Mootahdar, q.v.

MOOTANIEH, (A. متعيّنه mutaءayyanah).

A military station, post, or command. Stationed troops. Sebundy or provincial corps.

MOPILLAS. A tribe of Arabs settled on the Malabar coast.

MORACA. See Marocha.

MORACHA. See Marocha.

MORAH. In Canara, rent in kind. A field, let to a tenant at will, is reckoned and called a field of so many morahs.

MOSHAIRA, (A. مشاهره musháharah).

Monthly stipend, pension, salary, pay, or wages. A monthly allowance granted by the state to a Zemindar when suspended from his office.

MOTERPHA. See Mohterefa.

MOTRARPHA. See Mohterefa.

MOULACHO. Native militia. Sebundy corps.

MOUZA, (A. موضع mauzaء).

A place; a village; the cultivated lands of a village.

MOUZAWAR, (P. موضع وار mauzaء-wár, from A. موضع mauzaء a village).

By villages. A term employed to designate a village settlement.

MOUZERA. See Muzera.

MOUZERAH. See Muzera.

MOVEN or MOYEN ZABITAH, (A. معيّن ضابطه muءayyan zábitah).

Established custom. Charges, collections so called in the Ceded Districts.

MUCHELKA, (T. مچلكه muchalkah).

A solemn engagement or declaration in writing.

MUCHELKA IN DARUD, (P. مچلكه اين دارد muchalkah in dárad).

"The engagement contains this." The title of a written declar ation, which, under the Muhammadan administration of the Northern Circars, was produced by the Aumildar or collector general, signed jointly by the Desmooks and Despondeahs, pur porting that they had not, in the way of bribery or otherwise,

paid any thing to the agent of government, except what is specified in the public accounts of receipts.

MUCURRERY, (P. مقّرري mukarrarí).

Relating to what is fixed or established; as mucurrery leases, mucurrery grants, &c. v. Mocurrery.


MUDDUD, (A. مدد madad). Aid, help, assistance.

MUDDUD MASH, (P. مددِ معاش madad-i-maءásh).

Aid for subsistence. An article in the rent-roll called tumar jumma, consisting of allotments of land, as a subsistence to religious and learned men; an item of the muscorat, and a branch of ayma grants.

MUDHOOR, (s. मधुर madhura, from s. मधु madhu honey).

Sweet, fresh.

MUDHOORY, (from s. मधुर madhura. See Mudhoor).

Applied to lands, means fresh, in contradistinction to nemucky, or salt lands.

MUFTI. See Moofty.

MUGS. Pirates from the coast of Arracan, who formerly committed great depredations in the river Ganges.

MUJERA, or MUJERAH. See Muzera.

MUJERAI, (P. مجيرايي mujráyí, from A. مجرا mujrá allowance, premium; obeisance, respect).

Who pays respect. Acknowledgments made to the Zemindars in the vicinity of the hill-people of Rajehmhal, to prevent robberies, being an item of the Muscorat, q. v.

MUJMUDAR, (P. مجموعه دار majmúءah-dár, from A. مجموعه majmúءah and P. دار dár).

Who has in charge the whole collection. A temporary revenue accountant of a district or province.

MUL GUENY, (perhaps from s. मूल्य múlya purchase; price, wages, hire; and CAN. gueny a tenant).

In Canara, a tenant by purchase, or for ever, at a fixed rent.

MULLA, (A. ملاّ mullá). A learned man, a schoolmaster.

MUNDUL, (S. मण्डल mandala, B. মণ্ডল mandal).

A circle, a division of country so called. The head man of a village; the same as Mocuddim, q. v.

MUNEWAR, (Manai-wár from TAM. manai a piece of ground,

and P. وار wár).

An officer who keeps the hobly or district account in Malabar.

MUNNIMS. Jungle possessions in the Northern Circars.

MUNNOVERTY, (s. मनोवृत्ति manó vritti, from मनः manah the mind, and वृत्ति vritti profession, livelihood, maintenance).

A class of military tenants of a higher order, in the Northern Circars, who were bound to bring their adherents with them into the field.

MUNNY CAVELLY, (TAM. manai-kávali).

A term used in Mysore for village-watching fees.

MUNSIFF, (A. منصف munsif).

A just and equitable man. Native justice or judge, whose powers do not extend farther than to suits for personal property not exceeding fifty rupees.

MUNSUB, (A. منصب mansab).

An office of dignity and title, generally of a military nature.

MUNSUBDAR, (P. منصب دار mansab-dár).

Holder of a Munsub, q. v. A military officer of rank holding this title under the Musalmán governments.

MUNSUBDARAN, (P. منصب داران mansabdárán plur. of عنصب دار mansabdár. See Munsubdar).

The Munsubdars or military officers of rank, an article in the roll called tumar jummah, consisting of jaghire appropriations to military officers, on the condition of service.

MURRAMUT, (A. مرمّت murammat).

Repairing, mending. Charges for repairs.

MUSCOOR, (A. مذكور mazkúr).

Mentioned, before mentioned; a matter before mentioned.

MUSCOORAT, MUSCORAT, (A. مذكورات mazkúrát pl. of مذكور mazkúr).

Matters or items which have been before mentioned or specified. Dustoors, or customary deductions, allowed to Zemindars from their collections, at the close of their settlements, applied to a variety of petty moffusil disbursements, of which the russoom zemindarry and nancar lands are a part: and including charitable donations originally unprovided for; an item or head of revenue account of comparatively modern institution.


MUSCOORY, (P. مذكوري mazkúrí, from A. مذكور mazkúr).

Small or single pergunnahs, zemindarries, and petty mahls, or talookdarries, paying rent through a superior Zemindar. v. Muscoor.

MUSHAIRA, (A. مشاهره musháharah).

A bargain by the month. Monthly pay, salary, wages, or stipend.

MUSHAIRA KOOLKERNAIN, (P. مشاهره كلكرنان musháhahrah-i-kulkarnán).

Monthly allowance to Brahman accountants in the Northern Circars.

MUSHAOOL, A mistake for Mushroot, q. v.

MUSHROOT, (A. مشروط mashrút).

Stipulated, conditional. As applied to grants of lands, it signifies that the grants are, either wholly or in part, to be appropriated to particular uses.

MUSHROOT TANNAJAUT, (P. مشروطِ تهاناجات mashrút-i-t'hánáját).

Conditional appropriations of land in jaghire for garrisons, and pensions.

MUSNUD, (A. مسند masnad).

The place of sitting: a seat. A throne or chair of state.

MUTAH. See Mootah.

MUTAHDAR. See Mootahdar.

MUTHOTE. See Mathote.

MUTSEDDY, (A. عتصدّي mutasaddí).

Intent upon. Writer, accountant, clerk in a public office.

MUTT, (S. मठ mat'ha). A college, a convent.

MUZCOORAT. See Muscoorat.

MUZERA, (A. مزرع mazraء).

A cultivated field sown or ready for sowing. In the Northern Circars the term implies a component part of a mouza or village.

MUZOONAT, (A. موزونات mawzúnát pl. of A. موزون mawzún).

Weighed, adjusted; settled or balanced, as an account. What has been adjusted settled. Allowed deductions applied to a variety of disbursements, such as the nankar or allowance to the Zemindar, &c.


NABOB. See Nawab.

NAIB, (A. نايب náyib). A deputy.

NAIB NAZIM, (P. نايبِ نانظم naib-názim).

Deputy Nazim or governor.

NAIG. See Naik.

NAIK, (s. नायक náyak or náyaka).

Leader, conductor, chief; petty military officer.

NAIKWAR, (from s. नायक़ náyaka or náyak, and the Persian possessive participle وار wár, together forming náyak-wár).

Possessing a náyak. A village under the management of a náyak. See Naik.

NAIKWARRY, (from s. नायक náyaka and P. واري wáarí forming náyak-wárí).

Any thing connected with a village, &c. under a Naik, q. v. Establishment of village Peons.

NAIR. Chief, headman. The Nairs are a peculiar description of Hindus, principally of the military class, who hold lands in Malabar.

NAIR GUENY, (probably from nair chief, head, and gueny, a tenant. Or, it may be from nair a plough, and gueny a tenant; a plough tenant).

A kind of soccage tenure in some parts of Canara. See Gueny.

NAIR MUL GUENY. See Gueny Nair Mul.

NAMBYA. A cast of Brahmans in the peninsula.


NAUNCAR, or NANCAR, (P. نانكار nánkár, from P. نان nán bread).

Allowance or assignment for bread or subsistence. An assignment of land, or the government dues from a particular portion of land, calculated to yield 5 per cent. on the net receipts into the treasury, held by a Zemindar. The term is also applied to the official lands of the Canongoes and other revenue servants.

NAUT or NAUTUM, (s. नाथ nátha, TAM. nátam).

Lord, master, headman.

NAUTAWAR, (from s. नाथ nátha lord, master, and the Persian possessive particle وار wár, together forming nátha-wár).

Having a lord or master. Certain villages superintended by headmen called Nauts or Nautums, on the part of government.

See Naut. The term is also used for headman.

NAUTSELLAVOO, (TAM. náta-silavu).

Expenses or charges account the headman. See Naut.

NAUTAM KAR, (TAM. nátam-kár).

Headman or cultivator of a village. See Naut.

NAUT CURNUM. Head village accountant. See Naut and Curnum.

NAWAB, (A. adj. sup. degree نّواب nawwáb or nawáb, from A. نايب náyíb a deputy).

Very great deputy, vicegerent, viceroy. The governor of a province under the Mogul government, whom we call Nabob. N.B. The title of Nawab, by courtesy, is often given to persons of high rank or station.

NAYEL CAVELLY. See Desha Cavel.

NAZIM, (A. ناظم názim).

Composer, arranger, adjuster. The first officer or governor of a province, and minister of the department of criminal justice; styled also Nawab and Soubahdar.

NAZIR, (A. ناظر názir). A supervisor or inspector.

NAZIR JEMMADAR, (P. ناظرجمعدار názir-jamaءdár).

Inspecting captain or officer. A head Peon.

NEABUT, (A. نيابت niyábat).

Lieutenancy, vicegerency. The office, administration, and jurisdiction of a Nawab, q. v.

NEAKDARRY, (P. نيكداري nék-dárí).

Holding or keeping safe or well; safeguard. Perquisites or fees received or collected from the Ryots; being shares of the produce of their lands appropriated to particular public officers in the village, or other persons.

NEEMSALY, (P. نيم سالي ním-sálí). Half-yearly.

NEEM TUCKY, or NEEM TANKA, (from P. نيم ním half, and B. টাকা táka or ট৹কা tangka a rupee).

A perquisite of half a rupee in the hundred on the assul jamma, an additional allowance to the Canongoes; being an item of the Muscorat, q. v.

NEEMUCKY, (P. نمكي namakí, from نمك namak salt).

Saline, salt. Salt lands.

NEERGANTEE. Distributor of water for irrigation in the peninsula.

NEER MOODUT, or NER MOODUT. A contract by which a mortgagee in Malabar advances a further sum on a landed estate at the expiration of the former term.

NEERNALLY. The offering to the deity upon commencing the measurement.

NEGABAUN, (P. نگابان nigáh-bán).

A watchman or guard. A petty officer of police.

NEKDY. v. Nuckdy.

NESF NAICKWARIAN, (P. نيسفِ نايكواريان nésf-i-náyakwárián).

Literally, half of the naikwarries. Half the wages of the village Peons. See Naikwarry.

NESHT, or NISHT, (s. नष्ट nashta).

Lost, deficient. Extra assessment in Canara for deficiencies of rent.

NIRK, (P. نرخ nírkh).

Price; price settled by the police, price current. Standard rate by which lands are assessed, formed on the produce and measurement of them at so much per bega. In some districts each village has its own. The abwab or cesses are additions to the nirk, sometimes included in it, and sometimes not; but always levied in certain proportions to it.

NIRKBANDY, (P. نرخبندي nirkh-bandí).

Fixing the price. The record exhibiting the Nirk, q. v.


NIZAM, (A. نظام nizám).

Order, arrangement. An arranger. Nizám ul Mulk, the administrator of the empire.

NIZAMAT, (A. نظامت nizámat).

Arrangement, government. The office of the Nazim, or Nizam, q. v. The administration of criminal justice.

NIZAMAT ADAWLAT, (P. نظامت عدالت nizámat-adálat).

The court of criminal justice.

NOONJEE. See Nunjah.

NOWARRAH, (H. نوارا naw-árá, from s. नौ nau or naw a boat or ship, and P. آرا árá, from P. آراستن árastan to set in order, prepare).

An establishment of boats, or a naval establishment.

NOWARRAH OMLEH, (P. نواراي عمله nawárá-i-ءamalah).

The nowarrah or boat establishment of the officers. An article in the rent-roll tumar jummah; being a jaghire appropriation for the naval establishment.

NUCKD, (A. نقد nakd). Ready money, cash, specie.

NUCKDY, (P. adj. نقدي nakdí from A. نقد nakd, q. v.).

Ready-money, ready-money payment. A settlement made for the payment of rent or revenue in specie. The term is also applied to signify provision for household expenditure.

NULLA, (H. نالا nálá). A streamlet, rivulet, water-course.

NUNJAH, (TAM. nanjai).

Wet land. Land which, from its situation, may be irrigated, and therefore fit for the cultivation of rice. Wet land cultivation. Rice.

NUNJAH MAIL PUNJAH, (TAM. nanjai-mél-punjai).

Dry land cultivation upon wet. In Tinnevelly, when, from an accidental deficiency of water, land, which is usually cultivated with rice, happens to be unfit for that grain, they plough up the stubble, and sow it with the best sorts of dry grain. See Nunjah and Punjah.

NUNJAHMEL, (TAM. nanjai-mél).

Probably a contraction of Nunjah Mail Punjah, q. v.

NUNJAH TAUM PUNJAH, (TAM. nanjai-taram-punjai).

Wet land like dry. The least value of Nunjah land, from the uncertainty as to water for irrigation.

NUNJEE. See Nunjah.

NUNJEE TERIM, TENUM, or TAUM PUNJEE. See Nunjah Taum Punjah.

NUNKAB ZAMY, (a mistake for P. تقب زني nakab-zaní).

Literally, striking a mine; undermining, burrowing. The practice of robbing by making holes through the wall of a house.

NURGUNTY. See Neergantee.

NUZZER, (A. نذر nazr).

A vow; an offering. A present made to a superior.

NUZZERANAH, (P. نذرانه nazránah, from A. نذر nazr).

By way of offering or present; any thing given as a present, particularly as an acknowledgment for a grant of lands, public office, and the like. See Nuzzer.

NUZZERANAH HAL, (P. نذرانه حال nazránah-i-hál).

A present or recent Nazzeranah, q. v. An item of the soubahdarry abwab.

NUZZERANAH MOCCURRERY, (P. نذرانه مقرّري nazránah-i-mukarrarí).

A fixed nuzzeranah. An item of the soubahdarry abwab introduced by Sujah Khaun, being fixed pecuniary acknowledg ments paid by Zemindars for improper remissions, indulgences, favours, and protection, forbearance from hastabood investigations; or for being freed from the immediate superintendence of Aumils; but ostensibly to defray the charge of nuzzers or presents sent to the court on Mussulman festivals, &c. The practice existed from ancient times, but was rendered permanent by Sujah Khaun.

NUZZERANAH MUNSOOR GUNGE, (P. نذرانه منصورگنج nazránah-i-mansúrganj).

A nuzzeranah or present on account of the grain market called munsoor gunge. An item of the soubahdarry abwab established by Alli Verdi Khaun.


OMLAH, (A. ء عملهamalah, plur. of ء عاملámil).

Officers, the civil officers of government. A head of zemindarry charges. See Nowarrah, and Ahsham.

OOL, (probably a corruption of Tam. ólai).

The leaf of the Palmira tree on which they write: a letter, deed, lease.


OOLCOODY or OOLKOODY, (Tam. ólai-kudi, from ólai the leaf of the Palmira tree on which they write: a letter, a lease, and kudi a tenant or husbandman).

Hereditary tenant, and, perhaps, proprietor of the land. See Meerassadar, q. v.

OOL PARACOODY, (see Ool and Paracoody). The fixed and permanent tenant of the Meerassadar. He has no property in the soil.

OOL PYAKOODY, (see Ool and Pyakoody). The same as Ool Paracoody, q. v.

OOTAR, (H. اتار utár). Abatement, deduction. Rate of decrease of rent in different classes of land.

ORCH. A handful of grain by which the measurement of grain into cullums or heaps is marked.

OTTY or OTTI. A form of mortgage and transfer of landed property in Malabar.

OTTY KEMPUNUM or KEMPOONUM. A similar contract in Malabar to Otty, q. v.

OTTY KOOLLY KANUM. A form of mortgage, in Malabar, nearly similar to Otty, q. v.

OTTYPER or OTTYPAR. A deed by which the Jalmkar or proprietor of land, in Malabar, transfers his property to another.


PADDY, (M. پادي pádí). Rice in the husk.

PAGODA, (perhaps from pagod an idol, which is itself a word of doubtful origin).

A term, unknown to the natives of India, given by Europeans to Hindu temples; also to a gold coin, often with an image on it, properly called Hun or Hoon.

PAIBAKY, (P. پايباقي páy-bákí, from P. پاي páy foot and باقي bákí balance).

Under the head of balances. Jaghire appropriations for sundry purposes.

PAIKAN, (P. پيكان paykán, plur. of P. پيك payk).

Foot messengers; village guards. Allowance for increased establishment of the Pykes, or village guards; being an item of the Muscorat, q. v.

PAINAM, (P. پاينام páynám).

Heads of the grand financial divisions of the soubah of Bengal, of which zemindarries, and other separate jurisdictions, form the subdivisions.

PAITHEE SHURREEK, (H. پيتي شريك pétí sharík).

A belly, or internal, partner. A copartner in land in Tinnevelly.

PALABHOGUM, (Tam. pala-bhógam, from Tam. palamany, several, and s. भोगं bhógam enjoyment).

In the possession of several. Villages, the landed property of which is held in common by all the hereditary proprietors, or Meerassadars, of those villages; each, however, possessing his own land, as a separate property, and always holding the same spot of land.

PANCHOUTRA, (H. پنچوترا panchútrah, s. प्रंवोत्तरpanchótara).

A custom-house for collecting the inland sayer duties.

PANCHOUTRA KEFFYET, (H. پنچوترا كفايت panchótará-kifáyat).

Increase of revenue derived from bringing fraudulent emoluments or abuses to account in the branches of sayer duty inland. It also signifies inland sayer duties. See Panchoutra and Keffyet.

PANDARAH VADIKY. See Pundarah Vadiky.

PANDARUM. In the peninsula, a kind of travelling religious mendicant.

PANDARY. Tax on shops of Muhammadan workmen and retail merchants of that religion; and on temporary stalls in fairs held at places of Mussulman pilgrimage, or Hindu worship, being a branch of the sayer.

PANDERY. A tax on shops and retail merchants in towns in the Northern Circars. See Pandary.

PANMALA. See Paunmala.

PARACOODY, (Tam. para-kudi, from s. पर para another, a stranger, strange, and Tam. kudi a villager or husbandman).

A temporary tenant from another village, who cultivates the land of a Meerassadar; the same as Pyacarry, Pykaust, and Pyacoody, q.v.

PARACOODY OOL. See Paracoody and Ool, a fixed and permanent tenant under a Meerassadar, or as holding of government. See Ool Paracoody.


PARAGOODY. See Paracoody.

PARAGOODY WARUM, (Tam. para-kudi-wáram).

The share of a Paracoody, q. v. See also Warum.

PARBUNNY, (s. पर्वनि parvani).

What relates to the Hindu festivals at the new and full moon. A tax sometimes levied by Zemindars and farmers on the tenants.

PARIAR. A term used by Europeans in India to designate the outcasts of the Hindu tribes, and the vilest things of their kind.

PASBAUN, (P. پاسبان pás-bán).

A watchman or guard. See Gorial.

PASHENGARY. The same as Palabhogum, q. v.

PATAM, (Tam. pátam a corruption of s. पत्रं patram a leaf).

A lease, or simple lease, in Malabar, the same as Pottah in Bengal. See Warum Patam.

PATNA CHITTY and BOGAMY. Tax upon the heads or chiefs of the right and left hand casts, who each collected from their casts certain impositions. Patna Chitty, or Shitty, also means the head merchant of a town who settles disputes of casts, and frequently collects the taxes from them.

PAULBHOGUM. See Palabhogum.

PAUN, (H. پان pán).

Leaf of the piper betel plant, which the natives chew with the araca nut and a small quantity of prepared shell-lime.

PAUNMALA, (H. پان مالا pán-málá).

Betel-leaf-garden. Ground suitable to the culture of the piperbetel plant. Nunjah garden lands. v. Nunjah.

PAUNMALEE. See Paunmala.

PAYMELE, (P. پاي مال pay-mál).

Trampling under foot. Deductions for the devastations occasioned by the march of an army.

PEEROOTER, (from P. پير pír an old man, a Muhammadan sage or saint, with a Hindu termination).

Allowances to Muhammadan sages. A particular description of lands held rent free, or assignments of the government dues from particular lands enjoyed by such persons. N. B. A term not in common use.

PEISHWA, (P. پيشوا péshwá).

Guide, leader. The prime minister of the Mahratta government.

PELAJURY. A species of grain.

PELEAMUNAUM, (probably a mistake for TAM. puliyamarum).

Tamarind tree.

PEON, (probably a corruption of p. پياده piyádah).

A footman, a foot soldier. An inferior officer or servant employed in revenue, police, or judicial duties. He is sometimes armed with a sword and shield.

PERGUNNAH, (P. پرگنه parganah). A small district consisting of several villages, being a subdivision of a Chuckla, q. v.

PERGUNNAT EL JUMMA, (A. پرگنات الجمع parganát-ul-jamaء).

A term intended to denote the accounts showing the revenues of a pergunnah, and the aggregate of the rents of the villages, after deducting the Mofussil charges. N. B. The term is not in general use.

PERMARREE LAND. Land in which the thorn and other shrubs have grown, requiring to be cut up and cleared by the hatchet.

PESHANUM, (Tam. pisanam). A species of fine rice; the peshanum harvest begins about the latter end of January, and ends about the beginning of June.

PESHCAR, (P. پيش كار pésh-kár for پيشِ كار pésh-i-kár, from پيش pésh before, and كار kár work, business, affair).

Chief agent or manager; chief assistant.

PESHCUSH, (P. پيش كش pésh-kash, from پيش pésh before, and كش kash draw).

A present, particularly to government, in consideration of an appointment, or as an acknowledgment for any tenure. Tribute, fine, quit-rent, advance on the stipulated revenues. The tribute formerly paid by the Poligars to government. The first-fruits of an appointment, or grant of land.

PETTAH, (Tam. pettai). The suburbs of a fortified town.

PICOTAH. A machine for raising water to irrigate the fields in the peninsula.


PILLWANY, (Tam. pillu and pullu grass, pilwări and pulwări grassy). A tax on grass or pasture; grass land.

PLAKETA. Uncultivated, waste or deserted land.

POITAL. See Potail.

POLLIGAR, (Tam. pálaiya-gáran or pálaiya-gár).

Head of a village district. Military chieftain in the peninsula, similar to hill Zemindar in the Northern Circars; the chief of a Pollum, q. v.

POLLUM, (Tam. pálaiyam, from s. पाल्यं pályam to be protected).

In the peninsula, means a district held by a Polligar, q. v. Also a town.

PONICANDO. Hill fields.

POOLIAPUT, (probably for s. पाल्यपति pálya-pati).

Head of the pályam (pollum). Lands in the hands of Poligars or Zemindars, and not under the immediate management of government. See Puliaput.

POOLBUNDY, (P. پلبندي pul-bandí).

Repairing the embankments.

POONAS or POONASS FUSSIL. Cotton harvest. Small grain harvest in the Northern Circars.

POONJEE. See Punjah.

POONYUM PATAM, (Tam. punyam-pátam, s. पुण्यं पत्रं punyam patram).

Literally, a fair or equitable pottah, or written engagement. A lease where the rent and interest of the sum advanced by the tenant to the landlord seem security for each other; and nearly the same as Kannum Patum, q. v.

POOROOPA. Enaums or grants of land paying a fixed money rent or tribute in the Dindigul and Tinnevelly provinces. See Poroopoo.

POOSHTEE BUNDY, (P. پشته بندي pushtah-bandí from P. پشته pushtah or P. پشتي pushtí a prop or buttress, an embankment, and P. بندي bandí making fast or repairing).

Repairing the embankments. An article of the Zyr Mathote, q.v.

POREMPOCO. Barren land wholly uncultivated, and not to be cultivated. See Purrampoke.

POROOPA. See Pooroopa and Poroopoo.

POROOPOO. Nunjah or wet grain land paying a fixed money rent in Tinnevelly. See Nunjah and Pooroopa.

POTAIL. Head man of a village, who collects the rents from the other ryots therein, and has the general superintendence of its concerns. The same person who in Bengal is called Mocuddim and Mundul, q. v.

POTALIES. See Potail.

POTEEL. See Potail.

POTTAH, (H. پتّا pattá, probably a corruption of s. पत्र patra a leaf, a leaf of paper, &c.).

A lease granted to the cultivators on the part of government, either written on paper, or engraved with a style on the leaf of the fan palmira tree, by Europeans called cadjan. See Patam.

POTTAHS JANAJAT, (H. پتّا جناجات patta-janáját).

Pottahs or leases given to the cultivators individually. See Pottah and Janajat.

POTTAHS TUCKA, (probably for Pottahs Teecka). Pottahs granted to small farmers. See Pottah and Tucka.

PUCKALLY. A man who, in the peninsula, carries water in leathern bags or skins on a bullock.

PUGDI. An extra assessment imposed in 1711 in Canara.

PULATHY. Damaged produce.

PULIAPUT, (Tam. pálaíyavat, s. पाल्यवतू pályavat, or s. पाल्यपति pálya-pati).

Literally belonging to a Pollum, q. v. Lands in the hands of Poligars, or Zemindars, and not under the immediate management of government. See Pooliaput.

PULLEE, (Tam. palli).

The name of a cast, who, in the jaghire, either by custom or rule, have an hereditary right of service under the Meerassadars, and are entitled to one third of the share which the latter receive of the crops.

PULLER, (Tam. pallar).

The name of a low cast of people who till the land in Tanjore, and are considered the slaves of the soil.

PULLERWURRY. The name of a tax levied on the Puller cast in the Dindigul province. See Puller.


PULLIUM. See Puttiam.

PULLOO PAIRA. Labouring Pullers. v. Puller.

PUNAHE, (s. पुण्याहः punyáhah).

Literally, a holiday. The name of a Zemindarry charge in Burdwan. See Puneah and Puneah Kurtch.

PUNCHAIT, (s. पंचायित pancháyita).

Five assembled. An assembly or jury of five persons to whom a cause is referred for investigation and decision; an ancient Hindu establishment.

PUNDARA. See Pundarah Vadiky.

PUNDARAH VADIKY. Villages in the southern pollams of which the absolute proprietary right is chiefly held by inhabitants of the fourth or lowest Hindu tribe, called Soodras.

PUNDARAH VANDIKY. See Pundarah Vadiky.

PUNDARY VADIKY. See Pundarah Vadiky.

PUNDIT, (s. पण्डित pandita). A learned Brahman.

PUNDLE KRUTCH. An article of Zemindarry charges in Dinagepore.

PUNEAH, (s. पुण्याहः punyáhah).

Literally, a holiday. The day when the settlement for the new year is made.

PUNEAH KURTCH, (H. پنيا خرچ punyá-kharch).

Expenses incurred at the Puneah, q. v. An item of Zemindarry charges.

PUNG, (Tam. pangu).

Part, portion, dividend, lot, share. A portion or share of a village in Tanjore, the same as Baucham, q. v.

PUNJA. See Punjah.

PUNJAH, (Tam. punjai).

Land that cannot be easily watered by artificial means, depending chiefly on the falling rains for irrigation, and therefore unfit for the cultivation of rice. See Nunjah.

PUNJAI. See Punjah.

PUNJAYET. See Punchait.

PUNJEE. See Punjah.

PURRAMPOKE. Land utterly unproductive, such as sites of towns and villages; beds of rivers, and, in some cases, of tanks; roads and extensive tracts of stony and rocky ground, where no plough can go.

PUTTAH. See Pottah.

PUTTEE. The share of a village Zemindar in the district of Benares.

PUTTEEDAR. The holder of a share in the property of a village in the district of Benares. See Puttee.


PUTTI. An extra assessment made in addition to the standard rent in Bednore in the years 1718 and 1758.

PUTTIAM, (Tam. patiyam).

A written engagement, the same as Patam and Pottah, q. v.

PUTTIOM. See Puttiam.

PUTTOOKUT RYOTS. The same as Meerassadars, q. v.

PUTTUCKDAR, (H. پتكدار patakdár).

Literally, book-keeper, accountant. A species of Zemindar or collector in Tanjore, who had the charge of a greater or less number of villages, and resembling the Nautwars in the Jaghire.

PUTWARRY, (H. پتواري patwárí).

Village accountant, the same as the Curnum of the peninsula.

PYACARRY, (H. پايكاري páy-kárí from P. پاي páy the foot, and كاريدن kárídan to cultivate, to labour).

A sub-tenant or husbandman, who cultivates the land of another for one or more years by agreement, for which he is entitled to a certain proportion of the produce, the same as Pyacoody, Paracoddy, and Pykaust, q. v.

PYACOODY, (from P. پاي páy the foot, and Tam. kudi a peasant or cultivator).

An under or sub-tenant, the same as Paracoody, q. v.

PYCARRY. See Pyacarry.

PYCOTTAH. See Picotah.


PYKAUST, (H. پايكاشت páy-kásht, from P. پاي páy the foot, and كاشتن káshtan to cultivate).

An inferior or under-tenant. The term, applied to lands, means cultivated by an under-tenant or peasant belonging to another village. See Pyacarry.

PYKAUST RYOTS, (from H. پايكاشت páykásht).

Under-tenants or cultivators. Those who cultivate lands in a village to which they do not belong, and hold their lands upon a more indefinite tenure than the khode khost ryots, the pottahs or leases under which they hold being generally granted with a limitation in point of time. See Pykaust.

PYKE, (H. پيك payk from S. पादिक pádika).

A foot messenger. A person employed as a night watch in a village, and as a runner or messenger on the business of the revenue.


RACHEWAR, (a corruption of P. راجوار ráj-wár, from S. राज rája, and P. وار wár).

Related to kings or nobles. A warlike tribe, from which a part of the Zemindars of the Northern Circars are descended. The same as Rawwars.

RAHBERAN, (P. راه بران ráh-barán, pl. of راه بر ráh-bar, from P. راه ráh road, way, and بر bar carrying, conducting).

Road conductors or way guides. Allowance for an increased number of guides for the convenience and protection of merchants and travellers, being an item of the Muscorat, q. v.

RAHDARRY, (P. راه داري ráh-dárí, from P. راه ráh road, way, and P. داري dárí from داشتن dáshtan to keep).

Keeping the roads. The term, applied to duties, means those collected at different stations in the interior of the country from passengers, and on account of grain and other necessaries of life, by the Zemindars and other officers of government, being a branch of the Sayer, q. v.

RAJAH, (S. राजा rájá, from the radical राजू ráj shine).

King, prince, chieftain, nobleman. A title in ancient times given to chiefs of the second or military Hindu tribe only.

RAJE, (S. राज्य rájya).

The title, office, or jurisdiction of a Rajah, q. v.

RAJEPOOT, (a corruption of S. राजपुत्र rajaputra).

Literally, son of a king. The name of a warlike race of Hindus.

RANNY, (a corruption of S. राज्ञी rájní, fem. of राजा rájá).

Queen, princess; wife of a Rajah, q. v.

RAWWAR, (a corruption of P. راجوار ráj-wár, from s. राज rája, and P. وار wár). See Rachewar.

RAYEL. A title equivalent to Rajah, given to the sovereigns of Bijnugger, or, more correctly, Vijayanagara.

RAZENAMAH, (P. راضي نامه rází-námah, from A. راضي rází satisfied, and P. نامه námah a writing).

A written testimonial given by a plaintiff, upon a cause being finally settled, that he is satisfied. The defendant gives a Safee Namah, q. v.

RECMY, (P. رقمي rakamí, from A. رقم rakam kind, sort, species).

Of different sorts. Rupees of various denominations and value.

REDDY. See Reddywar.

REDDYWAR, (probably from S. ऋध्दि rìddhi wealth, and P. وار wár possessing). Wealthy, rich; a rich man. A chief.

REKA. Standard rent in Canara.

RHEDDYWAR. See Reddywar.

ROBOCAR, (P. روبكار rú-ba-kár).

Literally, face to the business. Intent upon or ready for business.

ROBOCARRY, (P. روبكاري rú-ba-kárí, from P. روبكار rú-ba-kár).

A form of instructions for proceeding in a particular business. See Robocar.


ROWANAH, (P. روانه rawánah, from P. روانيدن rawánídan to cause to go, to despatch).

A despatch. A pass, passport, permit.

ROY ROWAN or ROY ROYAN, (P. راي رايان ráyi-ráyán, literally rajah of rajahs, or noble of nobles).

A Hindu title given to the principal officer of the khalsa, or chief treasurer of the exchequer.

ROZEENAH. See Rozinah.

ROZENAH. See Rozinah.

ROZINADARAN, (P. روزينه داران rózínah-dárán, pl. of P. روزينه دار rózínah-dár).

Who hold or enjoy a daily allowance; an item of the Muscorat, q. v. The same as Rozinah, q. v.

ROZINAH, (P. روزينه rózínah, from P. روز róz a day).

Daily; daily allowance. Daily allowance to the Brahmans, &c. an item of the Muscorat, q. v.

RUBBA, (A. ربع rubuء).

A fourth part. The fourth share of the yearly produce of lands received by the Muhammadan government, which was commuted, in the time of the Emperor Ackbar, for a fixed payment, or money rent, according to the Assul Tumar Jamma, or assessment of Toorell Mull.

RUCKBAH, (A. رقيه rukbah). Collar: enclosure, boundaries.

Measurement, or statement of measured lands of villages.

RUPEE, (H. روپيه rúpyah, from s. रुप्य rúpya silver).

The name of a silver coin of comparatively modern currency; for it is remarkable that there do not exist any specimens in that metal of a date anterior, to the establishment of the Muhammadan power in India; while a great many in gold have been preserved of a far higher antiquity. The imaginary rupee of Bengal, called the current rupee, in which the Company's accounts were formerly kept, was rated at the nominal value of two shillings, and the real coin called sicca, rupee, sixteen per cent. better than the current rupee.

RUSHUM. See Russoom.

RUSSOOM, (A. رسوم rusúm, pl. of A. رسم rasm).

Customs, customary commissions, gratuities, fees, or perquisites. Shares of the crops and ready-money payments received by public officers, as perquisites attached to their situations.

RUSSOOM NEZARAT, (P. رسم ِ نظارت rusúm-i-nazarát).

Perquisites of the office of Nazir; an item of the Zyr Mathote, q.v.

RUSSOOM ZEMINDARRY, (P. رسم ِزميندارن rusúm-i-zamín-dárí).

Customary perquisites attached to the office of a Zemindar. Perquisites or shares of the sayer duties allowed to Zemindars; and deductions from the collections equal to about five percent. on the net receipts in the mofussil treasury, enjoyed by the Zemindars in addition to their nancar or saveram lands.

RUSSUD, (P. رسد rasad). Augmentation, applied to land rents.

RUSSUD JAMMA, (P. رسد جمع rasad-jamaء).

A rent progressively increasing. See Russud and Jamma.

RYOT, (A. رعيّت raءíyat, from A. رعي raءyí to graze, feed, or guard cattle).

Peasant, subject; tenant of house or land. N.B. The Hindu term is Prajá.

RYOTTY, (P. رعيّتي raءíyatí; from A. رعيّت raءíyat).

Relating to a Ryot, q. v. Ryotty lands are those in which the Ryots pay the government dues in money; contradistinguished from khomar lands in which they are paid in kind.

RYOTWAR, (P. رعيتوار raءíyatwár).

According to or with Ryots. A Ryotwar or Kulwar settlement is a settlement made by government immediately with the Ryots individually, under which the government receives its dues in the form of a money rent fixed on the land itself in cultivation, and not being a pecuniary commutation for its share of the produce, varying as the extent of the produce may vary in each year: but under an aumanee settlement the government receives its dues in kind from each cultivator.


SABRACAR, (for P. سربراه كار sar-ba-ráh-i-kár).

The head in the way of business. A manager; the managing owner of an undivided estate. Manager appointed to take charge of the lands of Zemindars and independent Talookdars, being in their minority, or females.

SABRAKAR. See Sabracar.


SADERWARED, (A. صادر وارد sádir-wárid).

Ready-money collections made in each village from the Ryots for supplying the cutcherry, or office of public business, with lamps, oil, and stationery.

SADWANIAN, (P. سدوانيان sadωániyán).

A company of pikemen consisting of one hundred men. The expense of an establishment of pikemen of different tribes, stationed in pergunnahs, and employed under Desmooks or Zemindars, in the Northern Circars.

SADWARAIN. See Sadwanian.

SADWARIAN. See Sadwanian.

SAFEE NAMAH, (P. صافي نامه sáfí-námah, from A. صافي sáfí clearness, and P. نامه námah a writing).

A testimonial given by the defendant, upon the final settlement of a cause, that the matter in dispute has been cleared up or settled.

SAGARTHUM, (s. साकार्थं sákártham).

A term denoting the Hindu era of Sáliváhanah. See Sawliva GANAH.

SAGNALLY. In the Dindigul province, means cultivated lands.

SALAM, (A. سلام salám).

Salutation; or the form of saluting, generally by touching the forehead with the right hand.

SALAMY, (P. سلامي salámí, from A. سلامّ salám).

What relates to salutation. A free gift made by way of compliment; or in return for a favour.

SALIANEH, (P. ساليانه sáliyánah).

Annual. An annuity or annual allowance, whether as a salary or gratuity.

SALIANAHDAR, (P. ساليانه دار sáliyánah-dár).

One who enjoys an annual allowance; an annuitant.

SALIANAHDARAN, (P. ساليانه داران sáliyánah-dárán, pl. of P. ساليانه دار sáliyánah-dár).

Annuitants. An article in the rent-roll called tumar, consisting of annual allowances in the nature of jaghires, in Sylhet.

SALIS, (A. ثالث sális). One of three; an umpire or arbitrator.

SALISAN, (P. ثالثان sálisán pl. of A. ثالث sális).

Arbitrators, umpires. See Salis.

SALLIANDARAM. See Salianahdaran.

SALWAR JULHAI. Telinga and Orissa tribe of weavers.

SAMADAYUM, (s. समादायं samádáyam, from शं sam with, together, and s. आदायं ádáyam receivable).

Lands the produce of which is receivable by the tenants in copartnership. Applied to villages, the term denotes that the landed property therein is held in common by all the Meerassadars or Ulcudies of the village, each possessing his proportion of the common stock; but not having a claim to any particular spot of land beyond the period for which it is usual to make a division of the whole cultivation.

SATANTRUM. See Sotantrum.

SAVANAGAR, (from H. سب sab, or s. सर्व्व sarva all, and P. نگار nigár painter or writer).

Who writes or represents every thing. A news writer or spy on the Aumildar in the Northern Circars.

SAVANNAH NEGAR. See Savanagar.

SAVERUM, (T. ساوره sávarah, TEL. sávaram).

An allotment of land, or of the government's revenue thereof, held by Zemindars, and other principal revenue officers, rent free, as part of the emoluments of their offices; a term used in the peninsula answering to nancar in the Bengal provinces.

SAWLIVAGANAH, (a corruption of s. शालिवाहन sálívá-hana).

The name of a Hindu prince whose era commenced A.D. 78.

SAWMY, (s. स्वामी swámí).

Lord, master, owner, proprietor. A title given also by the Hindus of the peninsula to their gods.

SAWMY BOGUM, (s. स्वामी भोगं swámí-bhogam).

The lord's enjoyment or possession. The lord's right as proprietor. Quit rent, or acknowledgment of proprietary right in the peninsula.

SAYEH BUNJER. Uncultivated lands divided into fields. See Bunjer.


SAYER, (A. ساير sáyir, part. act. of A. سير sair to walk, move about).

What moves. Variable imposts, distinct from land rent or revenue, consisting of customs, tolls, licenses, duties on mer chandise and other articles of personal movable property; as well as mixed duties, and taxes on houses, shops, bazars, &c.

SAYRE. See Sayer.

SEASUT, (A. سياست siyásat). Punishment.

SEBUNDY, (P. سه بندي seh-bandí).

An irregular native soldier employed in the service of the revenue and police.

SEBUNDY FUSLY, (P. سه بندي فصلي sehbandí-faslí).

Irregular military employed at harvest time, or in collecting the revenues. See Sebundy.

SEDWARRAIN. See Sadwanian.

SEERAB. An article in the tumar assessment of jaghire appropriations.

SEMAPATTY. See Senapatty.

SENAPATTY, (s. सेनापति séná-pati, from s. सेना séná an army, and s. पति pati master, lord, commander).

Commander-in-chief of an army.

SER, SAR, and SIR, (P. سر sar). Head, chief.

SERF, (A. سرف sarf). Exchange, discount.

SERF SICCA, (P. سرفِ سكّه sarf-i-sikkah).

Exchange on coin. Discount or batta on the exchange of rupees; an item of the soubahdarry abwab, or cesses established by Alli Verdi Khaun.

SERI. See Buttei.

SERINJAMMY, (P. سرانجامي saranjámí, from P. سرانجام saránjám materials).

What belongs to materials. Charges on account of materials, or necessaries. Charges of collection; also those attending the manufacture and sale of salt.

SER TERRIM, (from P. سر sar head, and TAM. tiram value or rate).

Head assessor of land in the Ceded Districts. See Terrim and Terrimdar.

SER TERRIMDAR. Head Terrimdar or assessor. See Terrimdar.

SEY KAUL TURSO. Lands not cultivated for a certain number of years.

SEZAWAL, (T. سزاول sazáwal, probably a corruption of p. سازاوّل sáz-áwwal).

The first or chief in any business. A native officer employed, on a monthly allowance, to collect the revenues.

SHAHBUNDER, (P. شاه بندر sháh-bandar).

The royal or king's port. The government custom-house at Dacca.

SHAIKDAR, (P. شيخ دار shaikh-dár).

Title of an Aumildar, in the Northern Circars, in his capacity of Dewanny, or financial delegate.

SHAIKDARRY, (P. شيخ داري shaikhdárí).

The office of a Shaikdar, q. v.

SHAKDAR. See Shaikdar.

SHAMBOGUE, (s. संभोग sam-bhóga, from s. सं sam with or together, and s. भोग bhógá enjoying, possessing).

One who enjoys or partakes with others. A term for the Curnum, or village accountant, in the south of India.

SHAMUL, (A. شامل shámil).

With, together with; united, put together. Assessments added to the shist, or standard rent, in the peninsula.

SHAROGAR. In the southern pollams, an officer of Peons, or militia generally; but also an officer of any kind.

SHASTER, (s. शास्त्र sástra, from the root शासू sás rule, govern, instruct).

The instrument of government or instruction. Any book of instruction; particularly containing divine ordinances.

SHASTRY. Of or belonging to a Shaster. See Shaster. N.B. Shastries, in Report, p. 87., is evidently a mistake for Shasters.


SHAVEE. Withered or damaged corn.

SHAVUL. See Shevul.

SHERISTAH, (properly P. سر رشته sar-rishtah).

A public record.

SHERISTADAR, (properly P. سررشته دار sarrishtah-dár).

Keeper of the records; or one who keeps a record of accounts or particular transactions. The recorder in a court of justice under the Company's government. A revenue accountant of a district, who checks the accounts of the regular village Curnum or accountant.

SHEROGAR. See Sharogar.

SHEVUL or SHEWUL. A description of land so called in Tanjore.

SHIST, (s. शिष्ट sishta).

Remainder. Balance of standard rent, after deductions in Canara.

SHOTRIUM or SHROTRIUM, (probably from s. श्रोत्रियं srótriyam, appertaining to a Brahman learned in di nity).

Land allowed to be held at a favourable rent by an individual, either as a reward for services, or as a compensation for duties to be discharged; being similar in its application to Maunium, q. v.

SHOTRIUMDAR or SHROTRIUMDAR. The holder or possessor of a Shotrium, q. v. See also Dar.

SHROF, (A. صراّف sarráf). A banker or money changer.

SHUD-MUL-GUENY. A tenant by simple purchase in Canara

SHUDRA, (s. शूद्र súdra).

A Hindu of the fourth or lowest tribe.


SHYA, (A. شيعه shíءah). One of the sect of Ali.


SIMPERTY. See Sumpardy.

SIRCAR. See Circar.

SIRDAR, (P. سردار sár-dar, from سر sar the head and دار dár holder or keeper).

Chieftain, captain, head man.

SIRDAR FOUJE, (P. سردارِ فوج sardár-i-fauj).

Captain of the military. Title of an Aumildar in his military capacity.


The head Potail or farmer of a district, in the Ceded Districts.

SIST. See Shist.

SONAR, (H. سنار sunár, from s. स्वर्णाकार swarnakára).

A worker in gold; a goldsmith.

SONEE, (A. سنّي sunní).

The name of the sect of Muhammadans who revere equally the four successors of Muhammad. See Shya. The Turks are Sonees, and the Persians Shyas.

SOORNADAYEM. See Sornadyem.

SOOROOTHAL, (P. صورت حال súrat-hál, or more grammatically correct, súrat-i-hál).

The statement of a case in writing.

SORNADYEM, (S. स्वर्णादेयं swarnádéyam, from स्वर्ण swarna gold, and आदेयं ádéyam to be received, receivable).

What is receivable in money. Rent receivable in money, not in kind.

SOTUNDRUM. See Sotuntrum.

SOTUNTRUM, (from s. स्वतंत्र swatantra).

Unrestrained, at liberty, free. Free land.

SOUBAHDARRY, (P. صوبه داري súbah-dárí).

The office or jurisdiction of a Subahdar.

SOUCAR, (H. ساهوكار sáhu-kár).

A merchant or banker. A money lender.

SOUCAR TEEP. A banker's bill. See Soucar and Teep.

SOUNARDYEM. See Sornadyem.

SOURNADYEM. See Sornadyem.

SOURNYDIAM. See Sornadyem.


STULWAR, (from s. स्थल st'hala land, dry land, and P. وار wár).

By fields. Estimation made according to the quantity of land, or by fields.


SUAVERUM. See Saverum.

SUBAH, (P. صوبه súbah).

A province, such as Bengal. A grand division of a country, which is again divided into circars, chucklahs, pergunnahs, and villages. N. B. The term is, in this sense, peculiar to India. Europeans are apt to confound this term with Subahdar, q.v.

SUBAHDAR, (P. صوبه دار súbah-dár).

The viceroy or governor of a province. See Subah. The title is also used to designate a native military officer, whose rank corresponds with that of a captain.

SUBAHDARRY ABWAB, (P. صوبه داري ابواب súbahdárí-abwáb).

The imposts or cesses of the Subahdar or viceroy. Viceroyal imposts of Jaffier Khan, Soujah Khan, Aliverdi Khan, and Cossim Ally, levied on the land and sayer to the amount of the tumar or standard assessment; the Zemindars who paid them being authorised to collect them from the Ryots, in the same proportions to their respective quotas of rent.

SUBDHARRY. See Soubahdarry.

SUCCOWASHEE, (s. सुख वासी sukha-vásí).

Who resides at pleasure. A sojourner. A resident Pyacarry in the jaghire.

SUDDER, (A. صدر sadr or sadar).

The breast; the fore-court of a house. The chief seat of government, contradistinguished from mofussil or interior of the country. The presidency.

SUDDER DEWANNY ADAWLUT, (P. صدر ديواني عدالت sadar-díwání-ء-adálat).

The chief civil court of justice under the Company's government, held at the presidency.

SUDDER NIZAMUT ADAWLUT, (P. صدر نظامت عدالت sadar-nízámat-ء-adálat).

The chief criminal court of justice under the Company's government.

SUMMADAYUM. See Samadayum.

SUMMUT. A division or district in the Ceded Districts.

SUMPARDY, (Tam. sampradi).

A public accountant. The register of a district in the southern pollams.

SUNNUD, (A. سند sanad).

A prop or support. A patent, charter, or written authority for holding either land or office.

SUNNUD MAUNIAM. See Sunnud and Maunium. Small portions of land held by sunnud, or written authority, renewable from year to year, and if not renewed the title ceases.

SURNADAYUM. See Sornadyem.

SWASTRIUM, (perhaps from s. स्वस्त्रियं swastriyam or s. स्वस्त्रं swastram).

One's own property. Landed property or inheritance, answering to caniachy (kániyádsi) in the Tamul, and meerassee in the Persian languages.

SWASTRIUMDAR, (from s. स्वस्त्रियं swastriyam, and P. دار dár). The holder or proprietor of a Swastrium, q. v.

SWASTRUM. See Swastrium.

SYCURGHAL. Jaghire assignment, usually for life, on certain lands for the whole or part of their assessed revenue.

SYCURGUL JAGHIRES. Charitable or religious jaghires to the Muhummadans.


TADDUL. See Teddul.

TADDUL PUNJAH or PUNJA. See Teddul Punjah.

TADDUL PUNJAH TEERVA. See Teddul Punjah Teerwa.

TAHEEREER, (A. تحرير tahrír). Writing. Fee for writing.

TAHSEELDAR. See Tehsildar.

TAKSEEM. See Tuckseem.


TALAM CAVEL. See Tallum Cawel.

TALLARI, (Tam. talaiyári). A watchman. See Talliar.

TALLIAR, (Tam. talaiyár). A guard or watchman. A village police officer in the peninsula, who gives information of crimes and offences, and escorts and protects persons travelling to neighbouring villages.

TALLUM, (Tam. talam, for s. स्थलं sthalam).

A place, dry land.

TALLUM CAWEL, (Tam. talam-cawel).

Place or village watching. See Tallum and Cawel Tallum.

TALOOK, (A. تعلّق taءalluk).

The being dependent, dependence, a dependency. A district the revenues of which are under the management of a Talookdar, q. v. and are generally accounted for to the Zemindar within whose jurisdiction it happens to be included; but sometimes paid immediately to government.

TALOOKDAR, (P. تعلّق دار taءalluk-dár).

The holder of a Talook, q. v. Talookdars are petty Zemindars; some of whom pay their rent, or account for the collections they make from the Ryots, through a superior Zemindar; and others direct to government. Those denominated Muscoory are of the former description; and the latter are called independent Talookdars.

TALOOKDARRY, (P. تعلّق داري taءalluk-dárí).

The jurisdiction of a Talookdar, q. v.

TALOOKEH, (A. تعلّقه جديد taءallukah).

Dependence, dependency. See Talook.

TALOOKEH JUDDEED, (P. تعلّقه قديم taءallukah-i-jadíd).

New dependencies or acquisitions, mostly by conquests, in the Northern Circars.

TALOOKEH KUDEEM, (P. تعلّقه مال ضامني taءallukah-i-kádím).

Old dependencies, or acquisitions. Original zemindaries in the Northern Circars.

TALOOKEH MHALZAMINEE, (P. تعلّقه زبردستي taءal-lukah-i-mál-záminí).

Dependencies of pecuniary security. Pergunnahs of neighbouring Zemindars in the Northern Circars, for the annual rent of which security had been given.

TALOOKEH ZEBBERDESTY, (P. تهانه taءallukah-i-zabardasti).

Dependencies or acquisitions made by violence, without any authority, in the Northern Circars.

TANNAH, (H. تهانه t'hánah or H. تهانا t'háná, a provincial corruption of s. स्थान st'hána).

A station. A military post or station, often protected by a small fort. A petty police jurisdiction, subordinate to that of a Daroga, q. v.

TANNAHDAR, (H. تهانه دار t'hánah-dár).

The keeper or commandant of a Tannah, q. v. A petty police officer, whose jurisdiction is subordinate to that of a Darogah, q. v.

TANNAHJAT or TANNAHAUT, (H. تهانه جات t'hánah-ját, or H. تهانهات t'hánahát, plur. of تهانه thánah).

Small provincial stations or garrisons for sebundy corps.

TARBUND. A grove or plantation of palmira trees.

TATOODARRY. A land tenure in the Northern Circars at a low unalterable rent.

TAWFEER, (A. توفير taufír). Increase.

TAZEER, (A. تعزير tazzír). Punishment, correction.

TEDDUL PUNJAH. The highest land in the country, and dependent entirely on the falling rains. See Punjah.

TEDDUL PUNJAH TEERWA. The rate or rent payable for the highest land, dependent entirely on the falling rains. See Teddul, Punjah, and Teerwa.

TEECKA, (H. تهيكا t'híká). Hire, fare, contract, job.

TEECKADAR, (H. تهيكا دار t'híká-dár).

One who has engaged or contracted to cultivate a spot of ground under a Teecka Pottah, q. v.


TEECKA POTTAH or TIKA PUTTAH, (H. تهكا پتّا thíka-pattá). A contract or farming lease. See Teecka.

TEEP, (H. تيپ típ).

A note of hand. A promissory note given by a native banker or money-lender to Zemindars and others to enable them to furnish government with security for the payment of their rents.

TEERSEY, TERSEY, or TERSEE. Waste cultivated land.

See Appendix, p. 755.

TEERVA. See Teerwa.

TEERWA, (TAM. tírwai). Rate, custom, toll, rent. Money rent.

TEERWAH. See Teerwa.

TESHIHA DAROGHAHY, (P. تصحيحهِ داروغهي tas'híhahi-dáróghahí).

Literally, superintendence of the verification. Superintendence of the office for examining and marking the horse: jaghire appropriations to the officers who have the charge of that department.

TEHSIL or TEHSEEL, (A. تحصيل tahsíl).

Acquisition, attainment. Collection of the public revenues.

TEHSILDAR, (P. تحصيلدار tahsíl-dár).

Who has charge of the collections. A native collector of a district acting under a European or Zemindar. See Tehsil.

TEHSIL DEWANNY, (P. تحصيلِ ديواني tahsíl-i-díwání).

Collection of the revenues payable into the public treasury.

TEHSIL SERINJAMMY, (P. تحصيل ِسرانجامي tahsíl-i-saranjámí).

Collection on account of contingent expenses; being in the nature of abwab or cesses. See Serinjammy.

TERF, (A. طرف tarf or taraf).

Side, quarter. Division of a Pergunnah, q. v.

TERFEY. See Teersey.

TERRIM, (TAM. taram). Sort, kind, rate.

TERRIMDAR, (from TAM. taram sort, kind, rate, and P. دار dár holder, keeper). An assessor of land.

TERRIM MUTASEDDY, (from TAM. taram sort, kind, rate, and A. متصدّي mutasaddí a writer or clerk).

An assessor of land.

TERWA. See Teerwa.

TERWAR. See Teerwa.

TESHKEES JUMMABUNDY. See Tucksees Jummabundy.

TESKEES JUMMABUNDY. See Tucksees Jummabundy.

TIKA PUTTAH. See Teecka Pottah.

TOAHIDY, (a corruption of A. تعهّد tasahhud).

An agreement, a contract.

TODDY, (H. تاري tárí or tádí).

The juice of the palm tree, which, in a fermented state, is intoxicating.

TOLLIAR. See Talliar.

TOMERACA. A species of tree.

TONDEWARUM, (TAM. tondi-wáram).

Literally, belly share. Share of the tenantry in the division of the crop. See Codewarum.

TOOKEM REZEE, (P. تخم ريزي tukhm-rézí, from P. تخم tukhm seed, and P. ريزي rézí shedding).

Sowing seed. An account of seed sown, taken by the village accountant or Curnum, q. v.

TOORHADI, (a corruption of A. تعهد taءahhud).

An agreement, contract. See Toahidy. A species of mortgage in Canara, which does not give the mortgagee any right of interference in the management of the estate, but entitles him to a quantity of rice equal to the interest due on his loan.

TOPE, (TAM. tópu). A grove of trees.

TOPE (T. توپ tóp). A cannon or great gun.


TOPEKHANAH, (P. توپ خانه tóp-khánah from T. توپ tóp a cannon or gun, and P. خانه khánah a house).

The ordnance; the artillery. The place where artillery and military stores are kept.

TOTACUL. See Totycaul.

TOTICAL. See Totycaul.

TOTIE. A village police officer, whose duties are confined more immediately to the village; but who also guards the crops, and assists in measuring them.

TOTYCAUL. Garden produce. See Vanpyar.

TOWARY. A mistake for Jowary, q. v.

TOWFEER, (A. توفير taufír). Increase.

TOWFEER JAGHIREDARAN, (P. توفيرِ جاگيرداران taufír-i-jágírdárán).

Increase of or from jaghiredars. An item of soubahdarry abwab, or cesses; consisting of an increase of revenue from jaghires appropriated to the support of troops; sometimes to military officers, and to other public individuals.

TOWJEE, (A. توجيه taujíh).

Calling attention. A statement or circumstantial account delivered every month.

TUCKA. See Teecka.

TUCKADAR or TUKADAR. See Teeckadar.

TUCKAIR. See Tuccavy.

TUCKA POTTAH. See Teecka Pottah.

TUCKAVY and TUCCAVY, (A. تقاوي takáví).

Strengthening, corroborating, assisting. Assisting tenants with an advance of money for cultivation when the necessary means are wanting.

TUCKAY, a mistake for Tuccavy, q. v.

TUCKSEEM, (A. تقسيم taksím).

Division, distribution. The divisions or constituent parts of the assessment called tumar jamma, and comprehending not only the quota of the greater territorial divisions, but of the villages, and of the individual Ryots; and applied by some to designate other standard assessments.

TUCKSEES, (A. تخصيص takhsís).

Appropriating, appropriation, particularising.

TUCKSEES JUMMABUNDY, (P. تخصيص جمعبندي takhsís-jamaء-bandí).

A particular roll or statement of the net annual settlement concluded with the Zemindars, Talookdars, and renters. It also signifies the tumar jummabandy of Turell Mull, as corrected by Jaffier Khan in 1722.


TUMAR, (A. طومار túmár). A roll, volume, book.

TUMAR JAMMA, (A. تومار جمع túmár-jamaء).

The roll amount. The sum total of an assessment inrolled or recorded in the public register. The term is particularly applied to a standard money assessment, by measurement of the land revenues, formed by Turell Mull about A.D. 1582, during the reign of Ackbar, by collections, through the medium of Canongoes, and other inferior officers, the accounts of the rents paid by the Ryots, which formed the basis of it. It is also used to designate the same standard assessment as it was reformed under Sultan Sujah in 1658, and by Jaffier Khan in 1722, during the reign of the Emperor Mahomed Shah. See Assul; also Deccan Jamma Khaumil.

TUNCAW, (P. تنخواه tan-kháh, from P. تن tan the body, and P. خواه kháh want).

An assignment on the revenue for personal support, or other purposes.

TUNKEE. Small island.

TUNKHA. See Tuncaw.

TUPPAH, (H. تپّا tappá). A small division of a country.

TURRABUDDY MAUNIAMS, (from TAM. tarabaddi settled dimensions of the fields or villages, and TAM. mániyam a field tax free). A term used in the jaghire to designate lands exempted from the payment of the government dues at the original measurement of the lands. See Mauniam.

TURREFDAR, (P. طرف دار taraf-dár, from A. طرف taraf a side or quarter, and P. دار dár keeper).

One who has charge of a portion of a pergunnah called a taraf. See Terf.

TYACUT. In the Dindigul province, land.


TYAGEE, (s. त्यागी tyágí).

One who has forsaken all worldly objects to lead a religious life. One of a privileged cast.

TYARGAR. Privileged casts in the Ceded Districts.

TYCUL. A description of jaghire grant to an individual for maintaining a military force, and other particular services, in the Northern Circars.

TYNAUT, (A. تعينات taءínát, plur. of A. تعين taءín).

Appointments. Troops appointed or stationed on particular service.


UL. See Ool.

ULCOODY. See Ool Coody.

UL PARACOODY. See Ool Paracoody and Paracoody.


VACKEEL, (A. وكيل wakíl or vakíl).

One endued with authority to act for another. Ambassador, agent sent on a special commission, or residing at a court. Native law pleader under the judicial system of the Company.

VANPYAR or VANYPAR. Lands yielding garden produce in Tinnevelly, cultivated in back yards or select spots; consisting of plantains, sugar cane, tobacco, chilies, &c. Toticaul or totycaul is another name for this kind of produce.

VEDS or VEDAS, (s. plur. वेदाः védáh, s. sing. वेदः védah).

Science, knowledge. The sacred scriptures of the Hindus.

VEESPADDI, (TAM. vísapadi, from TAM. visam a sixteenth part).

Villages so called from the land and rent being divided into sixteenth shares, the sharers of which settle among themselves the exact proportion of the whole rent that each is to pay.

VEKKHUS. In the Northern Circars, the net statement of the rents actually to be paid into the public treasury.

VELLAVERSY RYOTS. Resident or sojourning cultivators or Ryots of a village, such as Paracoodies and Pyacarries, q. v.

VELMA, (probably a corruption of s. वर्म्म varmma armour).

A Telinga tribe descended from, or adopted into, the families sprung from the ancient princes of Worungul, being similar to the Nairs of Malabar, and Naigs of Canara. Of this tribe are many of the Zemindars in the Northern Circars.

VELMA DHORAS, (S. pl. वर्म्म धराः varmma-dharah).

Who wear armour. A body of military men formerly introduced into the Northern Circars to support the government.


WAKENEGAR, (P. واقه نگار wakiءah-nigar).

News-writer, intelligencer. Remembrancer of transactions in the Dewanee department.

WARAKUM. The name of a certain village charge in the peninsula.

WARRA TONDOO. Term by which the Meerassadars are designated in the Carnatic.

WARUM, (TAM. waram).

Share. Share of the produce, or the rate by which the division of it is made between the cultivator and government.

WARUM PATAM, (TAM. waram-patam). A simple lease in Malabar, the same as Patam, q. v. See also Warum.

WASIL, (A. واصل wasil).

What is received. Head of revenue under the assil tumar jamma derived from the annexation of territory, discovery of concealed sources of rent from the lands, and resumption of jaghires and undue alienations.


WASIL BAKY, (A. واصل باقي wasil-bakí).

Receipt and balance. An account stating the amount received and outstanding. See Jumma Wausil Baky.

WAZEAT, (A. وضيعة wazíءat).

Abatement. Deductions which were allowed in the accounts of the Zemindars, &c. from the collections under the general heads of Mokharije and Muscorat, q. v.

WOJOOHAUT, (A. وجوهات wajúhat plur. of A. وجهه wajhah).

Wages, salaries, allowances. Extra collections for the mainte nance of Zemindars.

WOJUHAUT KHASNOVEESY, (P. وجوهاتِ خاصنويسي wa-júhat-i-khas-navísí).

Fees or dues to the government writers, originally exacted on the renewal of a sunnud. See Wojoohaut.

WOOLIAH. Grants of land.

WOOLIUM MAUNIAM. Personal service rent free lands.

See Mauniam.

WOORIAR. A certain tribe of Hindus.

WURTUCK. Manufacturer who carries on his trade at home.


YAFT KEDMAT, (P. يافتِ خدمت yiaft-i-khidmat).

Attainment of office or employment. Fees on the grant of a zemindarry or other office.

YAWANNAH, (perhaps s. यवन yavana a Muhammadan, or foreigner).

The name of a certain fee in Tinnevelly. See Appendix, p. 966.

YEKAB'HOGUM, (s. ऐकभोगं aika-bhógam, from s. एक éka one, and s. भोगं bhógam enjoyment).

Applied to villages, means those in which one individual holds the entire undivided lands as his sole property.

YERWADDY. Yerwaddy ryots are those who cultivate or occupy land in a neighbouring village in which they do not reside. The same as pyacarries and paracoodies.

YETMANNEE, (probably for A. اهتمامي ihtimamí, from A. اهتمام ihtimam diligence, care).

Land under the care or superintendence of a Zemindar. See Eatiman.


ZATEE, (P. ذاتي zatí).

Natural, personal. A jaghire is so distinguished when granted for the private use of the grantee, or for life only.

ZEBT, (A. ضبط zabt). Restraint, confiscation, sequestration.

ZEBTY, (P. ضبطي zabtí, from A. ضبط zabt).

Relating to restraint or confiscation; what has been confiscated. See Zebt. Lands resumed by Jaffier Khan which had been appropriated in jaghire.

ZEMEEN CHACKERAN, (P. زمينِ چاكران zamín-i-chakaran).

Land of servants. Lands allotted for the maintenance of public servants of all denominations, from the Zemindar down to those of the village establishments. See Chackeran.


ZEMINDAR, (P. زمين دار zamín-dar, from P. زمينِ zamín earth, land, and P. دار dar holder, keeper, one who has charge of the thing expressed in the preceding noun; the last word, in com position, serving to form personal nouns of office or employment, as in numerous examples to be found in this Glossary).

Land-holder, land-keeper. An officer who, under the Muhammadan government, was charged with the superintendence of the lands of a district, financially considered, the protection of the cultivators, and the realisation of the government's share of its produce, either in money or kind; out of which he was allowed a commission, amounting to about ten per cent. and, occasionally, a special grant of the government's share of the roduce of the land of a certain number of villages for his subsistence, called Nauncar, q. v. The appointment was occasionally renewed; and as it was generally continued in the same person, so long as he conducted himself to the satisfaction of the ruling power, and even continued to his heirs; so, in process of time, and through the decay of that power, and the confusion which ensued, hereditary right (at best prescriptive) was claimed and tacitly acknowledged; 'till, at length, theZemindars of Bengal in particular, from being the mere superintendents of the land, have been declared the hereditaryproprietors of the soil, and the before fluctuating dues of government have, under a permanent settlement, been unalterably fixed in perpetuity. See Eatiman and Eatimamdar.

ZEMINDARAN, (P. زمينداران zamíndaran pl. of P. زميندار za-míndar).

Zemindars. An article in the rent roll called tumar jumma, consisting of fiefs in the nature of conditional jaghires conferred on a few frontier Zemindars.

ZEMINDARRY, (P. زمينداري zamíndari).

The office or jurisdiction of a Zemindar, q. v.

ZER MATHOTE, (from P. زير zér under, and H. متهوت mathót contribution).

Under the head mathote. An item of soubahdarry abwab, or cesses, established by Sujah Khan, consisting of four articles: 1st, Nuzzer poonah, or presents exacted from Zemindars by officers of the exchequer at the festival of the annual settlement, properly called punyahah, or holiday, resumed by government. 2d, Bhay khelaut, or price of robes bestowed at the same time on considerable Zemindars, as tokens of investiture. 3d, Pushta bundy, keeping up the river banks in particular places. 4th, Russoom nezarut, or commission of 10 annas per mil. exacted by the nazir jemmadar, or head peon, on the treasure brought from the mofussil or interior. It formerly existed, but was rendered permanent by Sujah Khan. See Mathote.

ZILLAH, (A ضلع zilaء).

Side, part, district, division. A local division of a country, having reference to personal jurisdiction.

ZOOR TULLUB, (P. زور طلب zór-talab, from P. زور zór force, and A. طلب talab demand, requisition).

A compulsory exaction.

ZUNGEER ZAMIN, (P. زنجير ضامن zanjír-zámin).

Chain-security. Several persons linked in security for each other.

ZYMN, (A. ضمن zimn).

The interior of any thing; what is included or contained; contents. The inventory, schedule, or described particulars accompanying a sunnud or grant of land.

ZYR MATHOTE. See Zer Mathote.