BHO

Coal Trade: Minutes of evidence, 01 March 1830

Pages 1457-1466

Journal of the House of Lords: Volume 62, 1830. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, [n.d.].

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In this section

Die Lunæ, 1 Martii 1830.

[73]

The Lord President in the Chair.

Mr. William Drummer is called in, and examined as follows:

What is your Occupation?

I am Clerk to the Board of Sea Coal Meters.

Of how many does the Board of Sea Coal Meters consist?

Of Fifteen.

Are they Members of the Corporation of the City of London?

They are.

Are they Aldermen or Common Councilmen?

Common Councilmen.

Do they receive any thing for performing their Duties?

No.

They receive no Salary whatever?

No; there is an Allowance to the Board, consisting of Fifteen Gentlemen, of 300£. a Year for their Expences.

Does that 300l. a Year cover all their Expences of every sort?

Yes.

Do they appoint the Labouring Meters?

No.

Who appoint the Labouring Meters?

The Committee of Control over the Coal and Corn Meters.

How many Labouring Coal Meters are there?

One hundred and fifty-eight.

Is that Number fixed by Act of Parliament?

No.

Has the Number of Labouring Meters been increased of late Years?

It has; some Five or Six Years back the Committee made Forty in addition to the former Number; they were then 118, and the Forty additional made them 158. I hold in my Hand a Document containing their Names and the Dates of their Appointment.

Is the Amount they receive for their Labour fixed by the Committee to which you have referred?

By Act of Parliament they receive One Fourth of the prescriptive Metage.

That is One Fourth of the Four-pence?

Yes.

Is that equally divided among those 158 Persons?

It is divided among them according to the Quantity of Coals they do, at a Penny a Chaldron.

[74]

Do they receive Pay for their Labour besides?

They receive for their daily Labour 3s. 6d. per Score of Twentyone Chaldrons.

That is for Twenty Chaldrons and the Ingrain?

Yes.

Under the Act of Parliament they are directed to be provided with Victuals during the Time, are they not?

No; they receive in lieu of Food 3s. per Day besides, and, on the Clearance of each and every Collier, One Guinea.

Is that under the Act of Parliament?

It is.

There are some Persons called Assistants, are there not?

The Deputy Meters Men.

Who appoints them?

The Deputy Meter appoints them.

Is it necessary that an Assistant Meter should be a Freeman of the City of London?

Yes.

Of any particular Class of those Freemen?

No, none that I know of; they are all obliged to be free of the City, and Fellowship Porters.

The Fellowship Porters are a Company in the City of London?

They are.

The Appointment of those Coal Meters is in the Committee you have referred to?

It is.

Do the Committee interfere at all with the Mode and Rotation of the Meters to the Ships?

No; the Committee of Control appoint them, but the Board of Sea Coal Meters have the Superintendence of the Body of Deputy Meters.

Explain to the Committee how a Meter is appointed to a Ship on her coming into the River?

A Ship arrives in the Port of London, and when she arrives to the Westward of Blackwall, she sends her Papers up to the Factor; the Factor then enters the Ship at the Custom House, and passes the Papers through the Clerks of the Market, and those Papers are exhibited on the Public Market for Sale, mentioning the Name of the Ship, and the Sort of Coals and so forth. When that Ship is sold, the Warrant from the Custom House, with other Documents, comes to the Sea Coal Meters Office, and a Meter then is appointed to the Ship.

Is it by regular Rotation?

Exactly as it appears upon that List; the first Man first, the second, third, fourth, and so on; then we begin with the Extra; that is, supposing there were 158 clear Men, or unemployed Deputy Meters, they would be appointed exactly as that List specifies, in their Rotation; that is, on the Supposition that every Man was clear or unemployed.

Do the Meters make any Return to the Coal Meters Office of the Quantity?

They do.

[75]

How soon are they bound to make such Return?

As soon as the Ship is clear.

Did you ever hear a Distinction made among those Meters of Heavy and Light?

I do not know that I have.

Do you mean to say you never have heard among the Captains or the Meters any Mention of certain of the Meters being called Heavy Meters, and certain of them being called Light Meters?

I think I have heard the Observation made.

What do you imagine that to allude to?

Really I cannot tell, unless it alludes to one Meter giving more Measure than another, or less. I presume it may be intended to convey that Idea.

From what you know upon the Subject, was it not intended to convey that Idea?

I should think it was.

Can you suggest, or have you suggested, to the City or to the Committee, any Mode by which the present measuring of Coals might be improved, so as to do away with any Part of the Expence?

I have not.

Have there never been any Complaints made on the Subject of the heavy Expences to which the Public are put in consequence of this Metage?

I have never heard of any.

There was another Office called the Land Coal Meters Office; that is abolished now, is it not?

I believe not.

Is it to be abolished?

I know nothing about that; I am not at all connected or acquainted with that Office.

Has not there been a Vote of the Corporation of London upon that Subject?

I really do not know.

The Witness is directed to withdraw.

Mr. James Pearsall is called in, and examined as follows:

What Situation do you hold?

One of the Clerks of the Coal Market.

Do you attend constantly at the Coal Market in performance of the Duties of the Office you hold?

I do.

Will you state to the Committee the Mode in which you conduct that Business?

On Market Days we receive from the Factors their Certificates of every Description of Coal that comes to the Market; we copy them, and put them up in the Market for Sale. After Two o'Clock, or rather before Three o'Clock, the Returns are made by the Factors of those Sales, which we record in the different Books which are necessary to record those Transactions: that is the principal Business, as far as regards the Operations of the Market, on that Day.

[76]

Are those Operations prescribed by the Act of Parliament?

They are.

No Bargain can be made for the Purchase of a Cargo of Coals except on the Coal Exchange?

Certainly not.

And when made on the Coal Exchange it must be entered in your Book?

Yes.

For that you receive a Fee?

The Factors give us a Fee for the general Accommodation they receive from the Office.

How much?

Eighteen-pence per Ship. The Accommodation which they have is daily and hourly Access to the various Documents in the Office, and Facilities given for the Dispatch, in regard to putting their Papers forward.

Is that Eighteen-pence per Ship taken under the Act of Parliament?

No; it is a voluntary Gift on the Part of the Factors for the Accommodation they have.

Has that been increased or diminished?

It was, I understand originally, many Years ago, One Shilling, before my Time; and afterwards, before I came, it was raised to Fifteen-pence. I found it Fifteen-pence Six Years ago, when I went to the Office; since that, about Three Years ago, it was advanced to Eighteen-pence.

On what Ground did that last Advance of Three-pence take place?

I believe they thought we were entitled to it for the Accommodation we gave them; it is a voluntary Thing.

Was there any additional Duty put upon you previous to that Advance of Three-pence in the Fee?

I am not aware of any additional Duty, except that of going down upon the Market at Two o'Clock, if possible, to enforce the Act more distinctly as to closing the Market at Two o'Clock. At that Time we have a considerable Labour imposed upon us, and that may have induced the Factors to give us that additional Fee. Previous to that Time, Two Years before that, the Market very seldom began 'till after the Time prescribed by Act of Parliament, which was Two; they seldom began before Half past Two; but the Factors were aware of the Impropriety of that; they were desirous of conforming, as far as possible, to the Act, and requested that I would, as one of the Clerks, and Mr. Butcher my Colleague, go down at Two o'Clock to endeavour, if possible, to enforce the Act; this also was sanctioned by the Committee of the Common Council, to which I am attached as their Officer.

Is there any Penalty imposed by the Act of Parliament, in case a Bargain is made after Two o'Clock?

Yes; 100l.

Is not that Provision in the Act of Parliament evaded in the greater Part of the Bargains that are made on the Coal Exchange?

Not at this Time; I think the greater Part of the Bargains, I am justified in saying, are made by Two o'Clock; there are certainly some Irregularities, but I think not to any Extent at present.

What is the Advantage that arises from their being forced to make their Bargains before Two o'Clock, under that Penalty?

[77]

It appears to me there should be a fixed Time, that the Buyers may know what Bargains to make; otherwise, if there is not a fixed Time, the Factors may be induced to keep back their Ships, and sell them at a different Rate afterwards; that, unless there is a Time prescribed, there will be more Irregularities in the Market than there are by a fixed Time.

Might not that Object be attained by the Clerk of the Market going away at a certain Time, without any Penalty being imposed upon making the Bargain after Two o'Clock?

According to the Act of Parliament we must receive the Papers by Three o'Clock; they have that Time to make their Returns.

What Inconvenience would arise, supposing those Provisions in the Act of Parliament were wholly repealed-the Penalty and the whole Regulation?

I think there would be great Uncertainty as to the Manner or the Time of the Buyers coming to the Market; there would be no Regularity in regard to the Sales or the Purchases.

What Disadvantage would it be to the Buyer, supposing he made his Bargain, after the Market was closed, at the Coal Factor's House?

That would depend upon the Satisfaction he gave to his Employers, whether he sold his Coals cheaper or dearer than his Neighbour; at present the Factors appear very anxious that their Terms should be satisfactory to their Employers.

Do you think a Factor would have any Difficulty in finding the real Price of Coal?

I think neither the Buyers or the Sellers would be so well satisfied.

You think that it is necessary, for the Purpose of Information being obtained by the Coal Factor, that there should be some regular Time for the closing the Market?

Certainly; that is my Opinion.

Besides the 1s. 6d. per Ship Fee to the Clerk, there is 1d. per Chaldron paid?

Those are the Market Dues paid into the Chamber of London.

Those were originally raised to defray the Expences of the Coal Exchange?

Yes.

Supposing the Expences of the Coal Exchange paid, what Objection would there be to taking off that Penny?

There must be some Fund to discharge the Expences of the Establishment, I presume; according to the Act, as it now stands, that Penny may be reduced when the Debt is discharged, which I understand it is, to One Halfpenny a Chaldron.

Has there been any Talk about reducing it?

I have not heard any Conversation upon it; the Debt was discharged only last Year, I think.

Has there been any Idea of increasing the Size of the Coal Exchange?

Yes, there has, on the Part of the Coal Factors, and Coal Buyers also. I have heard several Buyers state that they would rather the Penny was continued, for the Purpose of erecting a larger and more commodious Place for the Business.

Is that the general Feeling among them?

I believe it is.

[78]

In your Judgment, is there any Want of Room in the Coal Exchange?

I think there is, considering the Number of Persons who daily resort there; there are many Persons who have no Business there, but, it being a Public Market, they cannot be turned out. There has been a great Desire on the Part of the Buyers and Factors, who are incommoded by the Men called Whippers, and the Men employed in the unloading the Ship, and Captains, and other Persons interrupting Business, but it is impossible, being a Public Market, to keep them out. If those Men were excluded, there is Room for all those who have Business in the Market; but as that cannot be done, there is a Want of Room, notwithstanding great Accommodation was given, Two Years ago, by Alterations.

Can you state the Necessity of keeping a Register of all Bargains made on the Coal Exchange?

I think it is necessary; because, on every Market Day between Twelve and Two o'Clock, the Documents in our Possession are accessible to any Individual, be he who he may; and we have had frequently very suspicious Characters come to examine our Documents; that those Papers would be very easily abstracted from their Situation by a designing Man, which they cannot be when they are recorded in a Book; and the Books are more accessible if they are copied, particularly for Years back, than the Documents themselves would be.

For what Purpose is Reference made to your Register?

Frequently by the Factors themselves for some Purpose; I cannot explain their Objects; and also in case of any Action being brought to recover Debts contracted, then this Book is resorted to as Evidence in a Court of Justice.

Have you prepared an Account of the whole Number of Ships that have passed the Market each Year for the last Ten Years?

I have.

The Witness delivers in the same, which is read, and is as follows:

An Account of the Number of Ships entered at the Coal Market for each of the following Years.
1819 5,602
1820 5,924
1821 5,735
1822 5,904
1823 6,485
1824 6,876
1825 6,564
1826 6,810
1827 6,491
1828 6,750
1829 6,992
Office of Clerks of the Coal Market,
1st March 1830.
James Pearsall.

Have you prepared any other Account?

I have got an Account of the Number of Ships that have been at Market every Day, and sold, and also of Cargoes remaining unsold, for 1828, 1829, and up to the present Time.

The Witness delivers in the same, which are read, and are as follow:

[79]

[80]

An Account of the Number of Ships at Market, sold, and remaining unsold, on each Market Day, from 1st Jan. to 31st Dec. 1828.
DATE. Number of Ships at Market. Number sold. Number remaining unsold.
1828.
Jan. 2 208¼ 37½ 170¾
4 177¾ 35½ 142¼
7 174½ 47 127½
9 151 56½ 94½
11 96¾ 29 67¾
14 70¾ 66
16 71 17¾ 53¼
18 66¼ 12½ 53¾
21 54½ 11¾ 42¾
23 42¾ 12¾ 30
25 58 27¾ 30¼
28 133¼ 66¾ 66½
30 166½ 44½ 122
Feb. 1 171 45 126
4 148¼ 43¾ 104½
6 184½ 40¾ 143¾
8 167¾ 47¾ 120
11 166¾ 36 130¾
13 137¾ 60½ 77¼
15 79 16½ 62½
18 76¾ 28¾ 48
20 56 25 31
22 82 39¾ 42¼
25 70¼ 28½ 41¾
27 55¾ 37¾ 18
29 29 20¼
Mar. 3 181¾ 87¼ 94½
5 138¾ 62¼ 76½
7 127¼ 52 75¼
10 101¼ 27 74¼
12 76 29¼ 46¾
14 111¾ 43½ 68¼
17 93¼ 45 48¼
19 93¼ 48¼ 45
21 107 31 76
24 100 50¼ 49¾
26 138¾ 49¾ 89
28 96 37½ 58½
31 58½ 43 15½
April 2 21½ 18½ 3
7 116¾ 69¼ 47½
9 110 75¾ 34¼
11 51¾ 32½ 19¼
14 26¼ 17¼ 9
16 33 24 9
18 60 32 28
21 108¼ 73 35¼
23 106¼ 63½ 42¾
25 52¾ 32¾ 20
28 55 32¼ 22¾
30 63 35¼ 27¾
May 2 69¾ 42¾ 27
5 77 47¾ 29¼
7 41¼ 30¾ 10½
9 129½ 75½ 54
12 74¼ 43½ 30¾
14 115¾ 39¾ 76
16 86 44¼ 41¾
19 78¾ 40 38¾
21 80 39¾ 40¼
23 82¾ 28½ 54¼
26 87½ 46¼ 41¼
28 76¼ 38¼ 38
30 44 26 18
June 2 44 22 22
4 87 40¾ 46¼
6 91¼ 62¾ 28½
9 120½ 68 52½
11 96½ 45¾ 50¾
13 70¾ 46¼ 24½
16 94¾ 44½ 50¼
18 89¼ 38 51¼
20 56¼ 36½ 19¾
23 35½ 27¾
25 77¾ 52 25¾
27 48¾ 24½ 24¼
30 56¼ 44¼ 12
July 2 43 33¼
4 35¾ 29¾ 6
7 53 41½ 11½
9 125½ 74 51½
11 62½ 43½ 19
14 61 42¼ 18¾
16 38¾ 29
18 73¾ 47¾ 26
21 63 44¾ 18¼
23 23¼ 18
25 106¼ 80¾ 25½
28 75½ 50½ 25
30 115¼ 67¾ 47½
Aug. 1 54½ 38 16½
4 41½ 25¼ 16¼
6 21¼ 16
8 83¾ 68 15¾
11 42¼ 35¼ 7
13 9
15 137½ 97¼ 40¼
18 120¼ 74¾ 45½
20 56½ 36¾ 19¾
22 94¾ 49¾ 45
25 139 56¾ 82¼
27 123¼ 63¼ 60
29 75½ 48¾ 26¾
Sept. 1 88 56½ 31½
3 97½ 45½ 52
5 63 36 27
8 63 38½ 24½
10 26½ 17½ 9
12 25 17 8
15 196 119 77
17 111 71¾ 39¼
19 42¼ 32¼ 10
22 16 10¾
24 16¼ 12
26 55¼ 41¼ 14
29 145 102 43
Oct. 1 63 38¼ 24¾
3 33¾ 25¼
6 110¼ 69½ 40¾
8 52¾ 38½ 14¼
10 55¼ 28¼ 27
13 156 83¾ 72¼
15 165¼ 78¾ 86½
17 126½ 65 61½
20 109¾ 46 63¾
22 107¾ 62½ 45¼
24 64 38¼ 25¾
27 125¾ 57½ 68¼
29 108¼ 65¼ 43
31 59 32¼ 26¾
Nov. 3 84½ 42½ 42
5 116 60¼ 55¾
7 59¾ 38 21¾
10 24½ 17½ 7
12 2
14 52 28 24
17 31 20 11
19 11¼
21 159½ 133 26½
24 126½ 96½ 30
26 82 58¼ 23¾
28 84¾ 39¾ 45
Dec. 1 111 61 50
3 167 76 91
5 92 35¾ 56¼
8 83¼ 19¼ 64
10 77 40½ 36½
12 73½ 30¼ 43¼
15 169¾ 47¾ 122
17 169 57 112
19 125½ 45¾ 79¾
22 112¾ 29 83¾
24 211¾ 36 175¾
26 238¾ 22½ 216¼
29 240¼ 54¼ 186
31 195 33 162
Office of Clerks of the Coal Market,
1st March 1830.
James Pearsall.

An Account of the Number of Ships at Market, sold, and remaining unsold, on each Market Day, from 1st Jan. 1829 to 27th Feb. 1830.

[81]

DATE. Number of Ships at Market. Number sold. Number remaining unsold.
1829.
Jan. 2 166¼ 36 130¼
5 155¼ 33½ 121¾
7 165¾ 40 125¾
9 130¾ 32 98¾
12 105¾ 31¼ 74½
14 79½ 17¾ 61¾
16 61¾ 17¼ 44½
19 45¾ 17 28¾
21 31¾ 14¼ 17½
23 114¼ 35¼ 79
26 81¾ 77¼
28 78¼ 29½ 48¾
30 50¼ 24¼ 26
Feb. 2 55 36¾ 18¼
4 32¾ 23
6 96¾ 47 49¾
9 217¾ 86¾ 131
11 178¾ 77½ 101¼
13 128 49 79
16 91¼ 43 48¼
18 130¼ 58¼ 72
20 95¾ 42 53¾
23 59½ 35 24½
25 116½ 52¼ 64¼
27 96¼ 65¾ 30½
Mar. 2 53½ 38½ 15
4 20 15¾
6 85¼ 62 23¼
9 130½ 84¾ 45¾
11 126½ 79 47½
13 119½ 47¾ 71¾
16 133½ 42 91½
18 96½ 47¼ 49¼
20 52¼ 24¼ 28
23 32 21 11
25 48 34½ 13½
27 56½ 42¼ 14¼
30 132¼ 77½ 54¾
April 1 139¼ 72½ 66¾
3 121½ 65¼ 56¼
6 83½ 42¾ 40¾
8 57¾ 34¼ 23½
10 113½ 72¾ 40¾
13 89¼ 64 25¼
15 62¾ 44¾ 18
20 30 21¼
22 259¾ 157½ 102¼
24 136¾ 70¾ 66
27 99 51½ 47½
29 47¼ 32¼ 15
May 1 87 54¼ 32¾
4 85¾ 56½ 29¼
6 82¼ 45 37¼
8 59¼ 27¾ 31½
11 101½ 39¾ 61¾
13 133¾ 53¾ 80
15 91 56 35
18 63 37½ 25½
20 67½ 38¼ 29¼
22 111¼ 49¼ 62
25 101 55¼ 45¾
27 141¾ 43½ 98¼
29 111¼ 61 50¼
June 1 74¼ 40 34¼
3 46¼ 22 24¼
5 35¼ 21¼ 14
June 8 46 20½ 25½
10 33½ 21½ 12
12 23 15¼
15
17 10½
19 75 52¼ 22¾
22 92¾ 66¼ 26½
24 31½ 26
26 33½ 28
29 86½ 70 16½
July 1 179½ 126 53½
3 70¾ 49½ 21¼
6 23½ 15¾
8 41¾ 24 17¾
10 117¾ 72 45¾
13 89¾ 50¾ 39
15 41 32 9
17 27 16½ 10½
20 70½ 53¼ 17¼
22 118¼ 79½ 38¾
24 97¾ 52 45¾
27 122¾ 66¼ 56½
29 88 48¼ 39¾
31 41¾ 31½ 10¼
Aug.3 121¼ 81¼ 40
5 51 38¼ 12¾
7 93¾ 53¼ 40½
10 61¼ 31¼ 30
12 72 47½ 24½
14 62½ 42¼ 20¼
17 70¼ 52 18¼
19 29¼ 22¾
21 17½
24 151¾ 97½ 54¼
26 77¼ 59¼ 18
28 51 36 15
31 134 83¾ 50¼
Sept. 2 82 55 27
4 83 45½ 37½
7 92½ 34¾ 57¾
9 84¾ 34 50¾
11 61¾ 24½ 37¼
14 85¼ 46½ 38¾
16 106¾ 46¾ 60
18 112 57 55
21 80½ 35¼ 45¼
23 94½ 50¼ 44¼
25 54¼ 37½ 16¾
28 59¾ 43¾ 16
30 72 45½ 26½
Oct. 2 89½ 50½ 39
5 54 35¼ 18¾
7 57¾ 36¾ 21
9 106 72¼ 33¾
12 49¾ 39¾ 10
14 59 37½ 21½
16 80½ 36½ 44
19 71 36¾ 34¼
21 44½ 19¾ 24¾
23 48 26¼ 21¾
26 158¾ 109¼ 49½
28 75½ 46½ 29
30 145 84½ 60½
Nov. 2 145½ 64 81½
4 116¾ 42¾ 74
6 85 34 51
Nov.9 120 56 64
11 161 56¼ 104¾
13 126¼ 54½ 71¾
16 109¾ 57¼ 52½
18 123½ 63½ 60
20 81 48¼ 32¾
23 38 22½ 15½
25 128½ 73¾ 54¾
27 86¾ 39½ 47¼
30 56¼ 24¼ 32
Dec. 2 45¼ 27¾ 17½
4 34¾ 24½ 10¼
7 19¼ 14¾
9 18½ 15¼
11 57¼ 52
4 42¼ 32¼ 10
16 69 53¼ 15¾
18 221¾ 152¾ 69
21 214 114¼ 99¾
23 144¾ 68 76¾
28 93¾ 40½ 53¼
30 62¼ 12¼ 50
1830.
Jan. 1 83 80¼
Jan.4 149¾ 140¼
6 171¾ 24¾ 147
8 215 46 169
11 204 51¼ 152¾
13 168½ 47 121½
15 124½ 22¼ 102¼
18 107¼ 32¾ 74½
20 75¾ 72¼
22 72¼ 10¾ 61½
25 61½ 32¼ 29¼
27 30¾ 13½ 17¼
29 18½
Feb.1 101¾ 66¾ 35
3 160 41½ 118½
5 134½ 21 113½
8 123¾ 46¼ 77½
10 102½ 30¼ 72¼
12 105¼ 43¾ 61½
15 156½ 55 101½
17 111½ 71¼ 40¼
19 96 59¼ 36¾
22 169¾ 71¾ 98
24 112 45 67
26 100¼ 34 66¼
Office of Clerks of the Coal Market,
1st March 1830.
James Pearsall.

[82]

You publish a printed Return monthly of the Quantities brought to Market and sold?

I do.

Has there been, in the Years 1828, 1829 and 1830, any Market Day in which there has been a Deficiency of Supply?

I believe it will appear, by the Documents I have just laid on your Lordships Table, that there have been Quantities left each Market Day; that there has been no clear Day.

Are you aware that a Regulation has been made affecting the Coal Owners in the North at the End of the last Year?

I have understood so.

Since that Regulation came into Effect, has there been any Want of Ships at the Coal Market?

I do not think there' has.

You say there has been a Regulation established lately among the Coal Proprietors in the North; has the Price of Coal risen since that Regulation?

It has.

How many Years have you been a Clerk of the Market?

From the latter End of the Year 1823.

Have you any other Paper to produce?

I beg to lay before your Lordships an Account of Coals imported into the Port of London for the last Year, with a particular Description of each Quality; it is similar to that I have been in the habit of printing each Year.

The Witness delivers in the same, which is read, and is as follows:

[83]

[84]

Account of Coal, Culm and Cinders imported into the Port of London during the Year 1829.
Ships. Chalds. Vats.
NEWCASTLE.
90 Adair's 26,059 0
3 Bede's Main 600 2
41 Beaumont 12,598 3
8 Bishop's Main 915 0
14 Boundary Moor 2,521 0
26 Burdon 6,064 1
21 Charlotte 4,262 2
3 Clavering 516 3
5 Coxlodge 920 2
38 Dean's Primrose 7,425 1
48 East Percy 9,275 3
26 Felling 6,570 1
5 Forest 959 2
6 Garesfield 1,685 2
2 Gray's Steam 444 0
97 Heaton 23,865 1
89 Hebburn 20,916 2
93 Holywell 28,375 0
2 Howard Main 449 3
1 Jarrow Low Main 177 3
20 Kenton West 4,139 2
204 Killingworth 51,306 2
65 Liddell's Main 16,248 1
12 Newburn 3,637 0
1 Old Walker 236 3
30 Ord's Redheugh 9,776 0
120 Pelaw 27,407 0
14 Percy Main 2,913 2
4 Percy Main Bensham 719 2
1 Pitt's South Moor 145 2
54 Pontop Windsor 14,370 0
1 Seghill 175 2
2 Sheriff Hill 222 2
47 Shipcote 13,574 1
97 Tanfield 22,560 0
32 Tanfield Lea 8,585 0
80 Townley 26,276 3
1 Townley & Tanfield 78 0
2 Usworth 304 3
8 Wade's Eighton Moor 1,705 2
1 Walbottle 81 1
87 Willington 21,488 2
1 Willington Best Bean 240 1
1 Wharncliffe 246 3
74 Wylam 22,134 1
1,577 403,175 2
NEWCASTLE, Walls End.
1 Bean 239 0
59 Bell and Brown 13,929 1
98 Bell, Robson and Co. 23,360 0
197 Bewicke 46,875 1
17 Bensham 3,387 1
31 Boundary 5,137 1
86 Burraton 17,017 2
157 Brown's 40,267 2
120 Carr and Co. 27,399 0
132 Clark and Co. 28,960 2
80 Cramlington 18,591 1
12 Ellison 2,630 0
95 Heaton 23,344 3
3 Heworth 399 1
107 Hilda 30,804 3
108 Hotspur 25,784 2
13 Jesmond 2,191 0
13 Newcastle 1,998 0
179 Newmarch 41,656 1
185 Northumberland 44,210 2
79 Peareth 17,750 0
162 Perkins 40,440 2
227 Riddell 54,763 3
188 Russell 48,299 1
104 Walker 26,235 3
5 Wharton 926 2
2,458 586,598 2
SUNDERLAND.
1 Bean 171 1
1 Beamish South Moor 106 2
1 Denmark Main 84 0
24 Eden Main 4,587 2
14 Fawcett 2,814 3
1 Harraton 142 0
143 Lambton's Primrose 27,255 0
156 Nesham 33,239 0
3 Nut 127 1
1 Primrose Moor Main 181 1
1 Russell's High Main 113 0
62 Russell's Lyons 10,056 3
1 Springwell 268 0
1 Stobart's Bowses Main 122 3
2 Stobart's Eden Main 430 3
1 Wade's Eden Main 145 2
2 Wade's Springwell 259 2
415 80,104 3
SUNDERLAND, Walls End.
638 Hetton 139,574 1
76 Lambton 15,661 3
263 Lyons 48,548 2
23 Lumley 4,676 3
123 Russell's Hetton 24,902 1
2 Simpson 228 1
636 Stewart 139,952 1
1 Stobart's 169 3
1 Springwell 217 2
4 Wade's Springwell 798 1
1,767 374,729 2
BLYTH, SCOTCH, WELCH and YORKSHIRE.
1 Alloa 10 2
1 Astley 38 2
1 Blackburn Bank 12 0
1 Blackboy Bean 64 3
8 Blackboy Main 875 2
12 Blyth 1,365 3
- Cannell 2 3
1 Cairnhill 40 3
44 Cowpen 7,438 3
- Coal Dust 2 2
1 Eldon Main 31 2
1 Elgin Main 75 0
1 Flockton 35 0
4 Fordell 584 0
2 Gawthorp 338 0
156 Hartley 38,715 2
1 Hartley and Northumberland 266 1
2 Kirkaldy 24 3
1 Ledger Bridge 139 1
1 Lancashire 12 0
12 Land Shipping 2,033 3
41 Llangennech 5,165 3
1 Old Park Gate Main 13 0
1 Old Etherley and Black Boy 134 2
1 Park Gate 10 0
1 Parsons Abbey 76 2
1 Pemberton's Old Fiery Vein 212 2
2 Scotch 24 1
108 Silkstone 11,225 0
4 Smithson's Old Haigh Moor 176 1
2 Smith's Margam 16 3
22 Stone 4,039 2
2 Swallow Wood Main 161 2
1 Taffs Well 90 1
1 Tinsley 25 1
26 Warde's Llanelly 4,125 1
1 Welch 78 3
- Welch Coal in Culm Ships 39 0
1 Yorkshire 41 0
Walls End.
27 Elgin 4,763 2
3 Greenwich Hospital 158 2
5 Henderson 1,510 1
6 New Etherley 341 2
4 Old Etherley 205 0
512 84,740 2
SMALL.
3 Beamish South Moor 334 3
3 Beaumont 913 1
1 Bourn Moor 237 2
1 Dean's Primrose 171 1
5 Durham's Hutton Seam 1,193 2
1 Eden 186 3
1 Etherley 52 1
8 Ellison 1,633 3
2 Heaton 688 0
14 Hebburn 3,406 1
2 Killingworth 383 1
1 Lougher 176 0
2 New Etherley 95 3
1 Newmarch and Heaton 279 2
21 Old Etherley 1,013 2
1 Old and New Etherley 133 3
1 Old Etherley and Shildon 56 0
2 Old Etherley and Black Boy 88 0
1 Pelaw 159 3
1 Pembrey 61 1
3 Small 258 0
19 Tyne 4,453 2
3 Willington 696 1
SMALL, Walls End.
1 Bell and Brown 162 3
1 Durham 323 0
19 Hetton 3,929 0
2 Jesmond 368 1
26 Lambton 5,847 2
31 Londonderry 6,918 0
1 Northumberland 202 3
20 Russell 5,401 3
30 Walls End 7,273 1
7 Walker 1,784 3
1 Westoe 273 0
2 Wear 461 1
1 Woodside 149 0
239 49,766 0
SMALL COAL upon which the full duty was paid.
- Hetton - 3
CANNELL, SCOTCH, CINDERS and CULM.
Tons. qrs.
7 Cannell 242 1
1 Parrott 6 1
8 248 2
Chalds. Vats.
8 Cinders 306 1
24 Culm 3,841 0
32 4,147 1
N.B.-The actual Number of Ships entered was 6,992; Sixteen of which, containing Two Descriptions of Coal, are considered in the Recapitulation as Two distinct Cargoes.

[85]

RECAPITULATION.
Ships. Chaldrons. Vats.
1,577 Newcastle 403,175 2
2,458 Newcastle Walls End 586,598 2
415 Sunderland 80,104 3
1,767 Sunderland Walls End 374,729 2
512 Blyth, Scotch, Welch and Yorkshire 84,740 2
239 Small 49,766 0
- Ditto upon which the full Duty was paid - 3
6,968 1,579,115 2
32 Cinders and Culm 4,147 1
7,000 1,583,262 3
8 Cannell and Parrott, in Tons 248 2
7,008 1,583,511 1
MONTHLY IMPORTS.
Ships. Chaldrons. Vats.
195 In the Month of January 40,191 2
617 February 141,268 2
655 March 152,960 1
676 April 157,084 2
657 May 151,817 1
383 June 82,178 2
688 July 149,528 3
695 August 151,280 3
532 September 119,285 2
670 October 154,475 0
599 November 139,668 3
625 December 143,772 0
6,992 1,583,511 1

This Statement the Coals imported by Weight, namely, 248 Tons 2 qrs., are included.

Office of Clerks of the Coal Market, 1st March 1830. James Pearsall.

[86]

[87]

[88]

[89]

[90]

An Account of Coal, Culm and Cinders imported into and delivered in the Port of London during the Year 1828, and sold at the Coal Market; specifying the exact Quantities of each particular Sort. (Published by Authority of the Coal and Corn Committee.)
NEWCASTLE COAL.
IMPORTED. - DELIVERED.
Ships. Chaldrons. Vats. Chaldrons. Vats. Ships.
74 23,316 2 Adair's 22,971 3 73
48 14,815 2 Beaumont 14,765 3 48
46 11,831 2 Burdon 12,480 1 49
21 4,718 Charlotte 3,884 3 18
3 528 3 Clark and Co.'s Main 528 3 3
2 409 2 Coxlodge 409 2 2
27 6,554 1 Dean's Primrose 6,719 28
1 223 2 Earsdon 471 1 2
4 664 2 Ellison Main 664 2 4
21 5,292 Felling 5,583 3 22
10 2,038 Forest 2,271 1 11
2 304 3 Garesfield 304 3 2
14 2,690 2 Gray's Steam 2,690 2 14
153 39,308 3 Heaton 39,505 2 153
135 31,683 1 Hebburn 32,749 2 141
4 753 1 H. Heworth Primrose 753 1 4
90 29,819 1 Holywell 29,571 2 89
Howard 131 3 1
9 1,166 2 Jesmond New Main 1,166 2 9
15 2,998 2 Kenton West 3,151 1 16
183 48,317 2 Killingworth 47,701 2 180
1 247 1 Killingworth and Burraton mixt 247 1 1
68 17,024 1 Liddell's Main 17,327 2 68
2 241 2 Liddell and Pontop Windsor mixt 241 2 2
6 2,036 1 Newburn 2,331 2 7
3 554 Old Walker 554 3
30 8,449 1 Ord's Redheugh 8,516 30
95 19,753 Pelaw 20,169 2 97
61 12,721 3 Percy East 12,009 3 58
1 143 Pontop Simpson 143 1
55 15,569 Pontop Windsor 15,550 1 55
1 137 1 Riddell and West Kenton mixt 137 1 1
33 10,587 2 Shipcote 10,455 1 32
162 33,397 2 Tanfield 35,674 1 171
79 26,644 2 Townley 27,404 81
3 483 3 Usworth 483 3 3
110 28,064 Willington 27,110 2 106
73 23,079 1 Wylam 23,354 1 74
1,645 426,567 1 - 430,186 1,659
NEWCASTLE COAL, called Walls End.
1 157 2 Bede
59 14,088 Bell and Brown 13,642 3 58
110 25,533 3 Bell, Robson and Co. 25,263 3 109
244 59,844 3 Bewicke 60,720 245
140 34,761 2 Brown's 34,953 1 140
55 12,269 2 Burraton 11,925 3 54
109 27,645 2 Carr and Co. 27,460 3 109
121 27,701 1 Clarke and Co. 26,639 116
70 15,084 Cramlington 14,599 3 68
13 2,665 3 Ellison 2,665 3 13
4 967 Heworth 967 4
119 31,816 1 Hilda 32,974 1 124
128 31,029 2 Hotspur 31,397 1 130
30 4,947 1 Jesmond 4,937 3 31
162 40,252 Newmarch 41,624 3 168
6 990 Newcastle 990 6
155 38,120 3 Northumberland 37,833 2 154
79 18,891 2 Peareth 18,689 1 79
187 43,499 3 Perkins 42,436 183
1 163 1 Perkins Bean
Perkins and Newmarch mixt 311 1 1
151 36,717 1 Riddell 38,583 3 159
194 54,316 2 Russell 55,123 197
91 24,552 Walker 25,491 1 95
2 235 1 Woodside 235 1 2
2,231 546,249 3 - 549,465 2,245
SUNDERLAND COAL.
10 1,714 Beamish South Moor 1,714 10
1 178 1 Davies Morton Main 178 1 1
1 140 2 Denmark Main 140 2 1
6 740 1 Durham Main 740 1 6
56 10,985 2 Eden Main 11,385 2 58
44 7,953 Fawcett 8,952 2 49
26 5,843 2 Harraton 6,316 1 28
4 537 1 Hutton South Moor 537 1 4
28 4,334 3 Lambton Primrose 4,386 28
4 531 2 Lambton's Eden Main 531 2 4
1 105 Lyon's Main 105 1
1 128 2 Morton Main 128 2 1
159 32,949 2 Nesham 33,500 161
1 15 Old Duck Main 15 1
2 420 3 Pelaw Main 420 3 2
1 138 3 Pelaw Primrose Main 289 3 2
3 547 2 Primrose Main 547 2 3
16 2,724 1 Russell's High Main 2,964 2 17
55 10,125 Russell's Lyon 10,724 3 58
1 84 3 South Moor 146 1 2
1 127 3 Springwell Main 127 3 1
3 505 1 Stobart's Bowses Main 505 1 3
11 1,776 Stobart's Eden 1,776 11
3 386 Stobart's Primrose Main 386 3
8 1,087 3 Wade's Eden Main 1,087 3 8
1 104 Wade's Springwell Main 104 1
447 84,184 1 - 87,710 3 464
SUNDERLAND COAL, called Walls End.
2 174 2 Bean 174 2 2
3 471 Hebdon 471 3
509 114,632 Hetton 113,349 505
71 15,607 1 Lambton's 16,191 1 74
231 45,610 3 Lyons 47,731 3 243
41 5,497 2 Nut 5,708 2 42
1 152 Ravensworth 293 1 2
102 22,693 3 Russell's Hetton 24,113 108
4 723 3 Simpson 723 3 4
20 3,337 2 Springwell 3,688 22
411 92,029 2 Stewart's 90,600 3 405
5 935 2 Stobart's 935 2 5
2 274 2 Wade's Springwell 128 3 1
5 529 2 Wear 529 2 5
1,407 302,669 - 304,638 2 1,421
SMALL COAL.
11 2,014 2 Beamish South Moor 2,014 2 11
4 607 Black Boy Main 607 4
3 563 1 Dean's Primrose 339 2 2
6 1,240 1 Durham 1,240 1 6
1 133 Eden Main 133 1
6 898 2 Ellison 1,340 3 8
1 213 2 Etherley 213 2 1
3 691 1 Hebburn 959 1 4
1 124 3 Pelton Moor 413 2 2
5 895 3 Primrose 895 3 5
3 342 2 Small 556 1 4
2 391 2 Tyne
1 126 1 Wetton Park 126 1 1
3 677 3 W. E. Birtley 677 3 3
11 2,463 Durham 2,159 3 10
2 380 3 Hetton 1,931 3 9
51 11,933 3 Lambton 12,483 53
5 934 3 Londonderry 2,094 2 10
7 1,613 Lord Durham 1,613 7
14 2,315 1 New Etherley 2,315 1 14
34 6,264 2 Old Etherley 6,264 2 34
2 420 W. E Pelaw 420 2
1 156 1 Ravensworth 156 1 1
1 214 2 Russell's N. Hetton 214 2 1
1 156 1 Springwell 156 1 1
1 186 3 Stobart's 186 3 1
1 214 3 Stobart's Durham 214 3 1
1 254 2 Sunderland 254 2 1
3 524 Tyne 352 2
43 9,147 1 Walls End 7,702 3 37
1 356 1 Westoe 356 1 1
1 249 2 Woodside 249 2 1
230 46,701 3 48,642 2 238
SMALL COAL upon which the full duty has been paid.
1 179 2 Durham 179 2 1
1 183 1 W.E. Durham 183 1 1
1 227 2 Stewart 227 2 1
1 177 3 Wear 177 3 1
4 768 - 768 4
BLYTH, SCOTCH, WELCH and YORKSHIRE.
8 722 3 Alloa Main 722 3 8
1 122 3 Black Boy Main 122 3 1
34 4,677 3 Blyth 4,823 1 35
1 168 Broad Oak 168 1
1 4 2 Cannell 4 2 1
1 269 Chayter Main 269 1
102 18,727 1 Cowpen 19,072 1 104
1 149 2 Dee Green 149 2 1
1 108 2 Derbyshire 108 2 1
1 48 3 Dunravon 48 3 1
8 1,112 2 Eldon Main 1,112 2 8
1 140 2 Eldon Main and Old Etherley mixt 140 2 1
2 250 2 Eldon Splint 250 2 2
2 259 3 Elgin Main 259 3 2
1 21 2 Flockton 21 2 1
9 1,350 2 Fordel 1,735 2 10
2 124 1 Gartsherrie 124 1 2
1 200 3 Gillyhave 200 3 1
157 39,007 1 Hartley 39,502 2 159
5 1,047 1 Inverkeithing 1,047 1 5
5 1,096 Landshipping 1,096 5
1 44 1 Legard Bridge 44 1 1
49 5,994 Llangennech 5,994 49
1 192 1 Londore 192 1 1
4 648 3 Marquis Main 648 3 4
9 1,495 2 Milford 1,577 10
1 159 3 Neville's Llannelly 159 3 1
5 662 2 New Silkstone 662 2 5
1 44 3 Old Barnaby Pill 44 3 1
1 199 Old Silkstone 199 1
1 33 2 Peacock Main 33 2 1
4 494 2 Scotch 494 2 4
3 266 1 Shildon Main 266 1 3
2 247 1 Shildon Splint 247 1 2
85 8,766 Silkstone Main 8,714 2 84
1 73 1 Sluice Pill 73 1 1
3 86 1 Smyth and Co's Margam 86 1 3
1 166 Smithson's Old Haigh Moor 166 1
8 973 Soughton 973 8
1 241 Stockton Eden 241 1
25 3,996 Stone 3,996 25
Tees Co. Eden Main 303 2 2
12 1,000 3 Tinsley 1,000 3 12
4 615 2 Warde's Fiery Vein 615 2 4
22 3,513 3 Warde's Llannelly 3,513 3 22
3 106 2 Welch 106 2 3
6 926 1 Wellwood Main 926 1 6
223 2 Welch Coal in Culm Ships 223 2
33 7,171 2 W.E. Elgin 7,402 1 34
22 3,970 2 Henderson 3,280 1 19
1 282 Jenkins 282 1
3 279 1 New Etherley 279 1 3
1 32 3 New and Old Etherley mixt 32 3 1
37 4,575 1 Old Etherley 4,827 1 38
7 810 3 Sibbett's 810 3 7
1 66 3 Tees Co. Hetton 66 3 1
702 117,968 1 - 119,465 709
CANNELL, SCOTCH, CINDERS and CULM.
Ships. Tons. Qrs. Tons. Qrs. Ships.
7 131 2 Cannell 131 2 7
1 72 3 Llangennech 72 3 1
1 2 Parrot 2 1
2 179 Scotch 179 2
1 2 3 Stone 2 3 1
12 388 - 388 12
Ships. Chaldrons. Vats. Chaldrons. Vats. Ships.
9 552 3 Cinders 552 3 9
74 11,645 1 Culm 11,645 1 74
83 12,198 - 12,198 83

[91]

RECAPITULATION.
IMPORTED. - DELIVERED.
Ships. Chaldrons. Vats. Tons. Qauality. Chaldrons. Vats. Tons. Ships.
1,645 426,567 1 Newcastle 430,186 1,659
2,231 546,249 3 Newcastle, called Walls End 549,465 2,245
447 84,184 1 Sunderland 87,710 3 464
1,407 302,669 Sunderland called Walls End 304,638 2 1,421
702 117,968 1 Blyth, Scotch, Welch and Yorkshire 119,465 709
230 46,701 3 Small 48,642 2 238
4 768 Small, on which the full Duty has been paid 768 4
6,666 1,525,108 1 1,540,875 3 6,740
12 388 Cannell, Scotch and Welch 388 12
9 552 3 Cinders 552 3 9
74 11,645 1 Culm 11,645 1 74
6,761 1,537,306 1 388 TOTAL 1,553,073 3 388 6,835

The actual Number of Ships entered was 6,750, and delivered, 6,824; Eleven of which, containing Two Descriptions of Coals, are considered in the above Account as Two distinct Cargoes.

MONTHLY IMPORTS and MONTHLY DELIVERY.
IMPORTED. - DELIVERED.
Ships. Chaldrons. Vats. Chaldrons. Vats. Ships.
348 78,179 1 Junuary 104,100 1 456
342 76,379 2 Febuary 115,844 507
617 143,692 3 March 132,776 3 569
520 115,612 3 April 122,346 2 537
539 120,896 1 May 125,339 1 570
545 122,186 3 June 118,337 517
641 141,049 2 July 125,833 3 577
602 132,419 August 137,185 3 626
614 138,557 2 September 128,304 2 573
712 167,577 October 164,378 711
573 134,672 1 November 150,403 1 636
697 166,471 3 December 150,403 1 636
6750 1,537,694 1 TOTAL. TOTAL 1,553,461 3 6,824

In this Statement, the Coals sold and delivered by Weight, viz. 388 Tons imported, and 388 Tons delivered, are included.

[92]

IMPORTATION and DELIVERY ACCOUNT of COAL, CULM and CINDERS.
Dr.
1828. Ships. Chaldrons. Vats. Tons.
Jan. 1. 351 To Balance remaining uncleared of last Year's Importation 85,102 3 -
Dec. 31. 6,666 To Net Importation of Coal for the Year 1828, as per Recapitulation 1,525,108 1 -
12 To ditto ditto Cannell, Scotch and Welch, as per ditto 388
9 To ditto ditto Cinders, as per ditto 552 3 -
74 To ditto ditto Culm, as per ditto 11,645 1 -
7,112 1,622,409 388
Cr.
1828.
Dec. 13 6,740 By Net Amount of Delivery of Coal, as per Recapitulation 1,540,875 3 -
12 By ditto ditto Cannell, Scotch and Welch, as per ditto 388
9 By ditto ditto Cinders, as per ditto 552 3 -
74 By ditto ditto Culm, as per ditto 11,645 1 -
277 By Balance remaining uncleared of this Year's Importation, and which will from a Part of the Delivery for the Year 1829 69,335 1 -
7,112 1,622,409 388
IMPORTATION.
Ships. Chaldrons. Vats.
In 1825 6,564 1,456,162 1
1826 6,810 1,600,229 2
1827 6,491 1,476,331 2
1828 6,750 1,537,694 1

James Pearsall,

Office of Clerks of the Market, 8th April 1829.

One of the Clerks of the Coal Market.

[93]

It appears by one of the Papers you have given in, that every Market Day during the Period of this Return there always have been Ships remaining unsold?

There always have been; there has not been a single Day without some Ships.

The Market never has been without Ships?

Never.

During the Regulation, when it may be supposed that Ships have not come in so plentifully, the Market has never been without them?

Never.

You have stated that the Price of Coals was higher under a Regulation than when no Regulation existed?

I believe it has been so.

Have you a Return of the Price of Coals during the last Year, and during the present?

I believe I have it with me.

What was the Price of Stewart's Walls End on Friday last?

Stewart's Walls End on Friday last were at 35s. and 35s. 3d.

It appears that on the 2d of March 1829 they were 34s. 6d. to 34s. 9d.?

Yes.

In your Opinion, would there be any Difficulty in selling Coals by Weight instead of by Measure?

I am not exactly in a Situation to answer that Question, whether it would be beneficial or not.

It appears in a Paper before the Committee, that there are Two Descriptions of Measure, what is called Wharf Measure, and what is called Pool Measure; can you explain the Difference of them?

That is not at all connected with our Department.

How did you obtain your Appointment?

From the Corporation of London.

There are Two other Clerks in the Market?

Yes.

They were all appointed by the Corporation?

Yes.

By the Majority of the Corporation?

Yes.

Can you state, when the Ships arrive in the Port of London, what the first Step is that is taken to get the Cargo delivered?

After the Sale and the Contract are put into the Office of the Clerks of the Market, they take what is termed the Turn Paper into the Coal Meters Office, and by them it is given to the Meter to go on board the Ship.

To whom does the Ship's Captain apply to get the Meter appointed to deliver the Cargo?

I believe to the Meters Office; but we have nothing at all to do with that Department.

The Witness is directed to withdraw.

[94]

Lawrence Levey is called in, and examined as follows:

In what Trade are you?

A Coal Whipper at present.

That is to say, you are one of the Persons employed to clear the Ships of Coals when they come into the Port of London?

Yes.

Are you regularly appointed to that Situation, or do you offer yourself as a mere Labourer?

As a mere Labourer.

Who are the Persons to whom you offer yourself to perform that Labour?

At present I work out of a Public House as a constant Man.

Is there such a Person as an Undertaker?

There is an Undertaker, or perhaps Two or Three, appointed for that House; and the Favours are sent from this Public House to the Undertaker's.

What do you mean by the Favours?

The greatest Injury that is known at present in the Work is through the Captains; the Captains come to the Public House, and they have a Conversation with the Publican, at which Time the Publican proposes giving so much for the Privilege of the Ship coming to work at the House; a Publican will offer, perhaps, a Gallon of Gin or Rum; some will find the entire of the Working Gear; some will give a Pound in Money to the Captain; and all this given to the Captain is charged by way of Tow-row to the Men.

That is to the Whippers?

Yes.

What has the Undertaker to do with that?

In the first place the Undertaker is appointed by the Publican, and an Undertaker must not employ any body until he receives a Communication, that is, a List of such Men as the Publican will think proper to work.

Who is the Undertaker?

He is a licensed Man; he is under the Publican, and, being an Undertaker at the same Time, he must not employ Men without the Sanction of the Publican.

Is he appointed by the Corporation of London?

He gets his Licence from them.

Then the Publican applies to him to employ certain Men?

Yes.

Do you know whether there is a Provision in the Act of Parliament which prevents Publicans being Undertakers?

Yes, I have seen it in the Act of Parliament. There have been some of the Publicans punished for interfering of late, since we had what we called a Stick amongst ourselves, to do away with those Impositions; there have been Informations filed against One or Two Publicans, and they have been fined by the Magistrates at the Thames Police for acting as Undertakers.

Were those Publicans licensed as Undertakers?

[95]

Not as Undertakers. There has been a Determination of one of the Publicans to get what we call Tow-row; he formed a Shoe Club; and One of the Persons, a Member of the Shoe Club, came to the Committee Place where we met for the Purpose of receiving a Penny a Week to enable us to make Application to the Magistrates for Redress from those Grievances; he gives an Information against them; an Information was filed at the Thames Police, and he has been fined Ten Pounds for receiving this Tow-row under the Name of a Shoe Club.

Will you explain the Nature of Tow-row?

The Nature of Tow-row is, that it is supplied for the Purpose of paying for Working Gear for those Ships. A Captain, when he knows that a Ship is sold and is going to work, goes from one Publican's Place to another to see where he will get the best Market for his Ship; wherever he gets most for his Ship, he will bring his Ship to work; then this Tow-row goes in discharge of whatever he may get for bringing the Ship there.

What is the Tow-row?

In the first place, I have paid as much as 2s. 6d. Tow-row.

What is it nominally for?

In consideration of getting Employ. If I did not consent to pay that 2s. 6d. I would not obtain Employ in the Public House, nor would the Undertaker, 'till that, employ me without the Consent of the Publican.

That goes to the Publican?

The Publican would not engage any Person unless a confidential Man in his House; and they collect, as I have often done, 2s. 1d. a Man from each and every one in the House, and pay it to the Foreman appointed in the Public House.

A Gang of Coal Whippers resort to a certain Public House?

Yes.

When a Captain wants his Ship cleared, he goes to that Public House?

He does.

Then, when they are set to work, they are obliged to pay a certain Sum of Money each, which is called Tow-row, which goes to the Publican?

Yes.

The Publican, you understand, gives something to the Captain?

Yes.

The Tow-row is subscribed to make up the Sum which the Publican gives to the Captain?

Yes.

The Tow-row is expended in something to be given to the Captain, and which is replaced?

Yes. Then the Captain makes out his Bill. I have made out Bills myself in that Form charging his Owner, notwithstanding the Captain had received this himself from the Publican.

Have you any Form of the Bills you have made out?

No; it is such a length of Time since I have made them out, I have not any Form at present.

Could any Man belong to any of those Gangs unless upon the Condition of spending a certain Sum of Money at the Public House?

[96]

No; he could not obtain Employ before this Stick which there has been amongst us. The Publicans are afraid at present to interfere with us; but unless your Lordships will take it into Consideration, they will be worse than ever in their Impositions; a least it is the Opinion of People that they will be.

Is there any thing like an understood Condition of their spending Money at the Public Houses?

Yes. There are some Houses I have worked from myself where for Nine Men there is a Gallon of Beer and a Pint of Gin comes in, that is laid on the Table in the Tap Room. Such as are fond of drinking come early in the Morning, and they drink it all up; then when the others come, and they have nothing to drink, there is a Row; but in clearing, in the Course of the Day, it there is more than Forty Chaldrons of Coals to be done, they must have Two Bottles of Porter on board, a Pint of Beer to each Man, and a Glass of Gin in the Morning, which is termed his Allowanee.

Supposing you do not choose to drink this Beer and Gin, what then?

We have to pay for it whether we drink it or not.

That is One of the Conditions on which you are attached to that Public House?

Yes, just so; then there are Two Bottles of Beer on board if they do more than Forty Chaldrons of Coals, that is Two Pots for each Man; then when they come ashore they must have a Pot of Beer; and when they settle their Score they must have some Allowance to put to their Number again; that they are obliged to pay for whether they wish for it or not.

How much do they get altogether in a Day by way of Allowance?

The Allowance in some of those Houses I have been in the habit of working out of was a Gallon of Beer and a Pint of Gin; that is, a Pint of Beer and a Glass of Gin in the Morning; then if they do not choose to drink it they have it to pay for; on going on board they must have their Nine Pots of Beer; then if there was more than Forty Chaldrons of Coals to be done, there was a second Bottle, or the Publican would blow them up when they came on shore; then when they come ashore, instead of going Home, they must go to the Public House again, and stop to have an Allowance of a Pot of Beer in the first place, and then, after settling their Score, they should have something to put to their Number again.

About Four Pots altogether, besides the Gin?

Yes. This is not the Case with all Houses; but most of the Houses were in the habit of compelling them to drink in this Manner.

Is there such a Thing as a Constant Man, as distinguished from an Inside Man?

Yes.

What is the Meaning of those Two Terms?

I have been a Constant Man myself for these Four Years; I think it is about Four Years since the House opened.

What Advantage do you gain by being a Constant Man?

My being in constant Employ whenever there was any Employ in the Place.

What is an Inside Man?

An Inside Man is a Man that lodges in the House, or pays for his Lodging in case he does not live there.

What other Descriptions of Men are there; are there Persons only employed occasionally?

Yes; those are termed Straggling Men.

[97]

You have the Inside Men, the Constant Men, and the Straggling Men?

Yes; the Constant Men or Inside Men must be employed first, before any other poor Man shall have a Day's Work.

What must you do in order to obtain the Distinction of being a Constant Man?

I had to comply with the Rules and Regulations of the House, that was to drink what would satisfy the Publican, or give it away, or do what I thought proper with it; but I had a certain Sum of Money to pay, and likewise to pay the Tow-row.

What Proportion of your Earnings were you obliged to pay the Publican?

Any Day I went on board the Ship I was to be allowed 6s. a Day from the Time the Ship began 'till she was cleared; but I have been frequently idle; it is not to say that I have 36s. a Week, for I have not constant Employ; and so have most of the Men on the Coast been frequently idle.

How much of that 6s. a Day were you obliged to spend in the Public House to be called a Constant Man?

Very often 2s.

That is over and above the Tow-row?

Yes, and likewise a bad Score as well.

Is that over and above the Allowance?

No, including the Allowance; and if any bad Score appeared, until this Stick amongst ourselves,-if any bad Score appeared to be charged to us, we should not say any thing about it, on pain of being dismissed.

What do you mean by a bad Score?

That is, where there is more charged than is called for. If I did, I might not call there next Day; I was not to go to work again if I grumbled about any thing that was done. Since that Stick I have not, to my Knowledge, paid any Impositions.

For this you are to discharge Forty-two Chaldrons?

Yes.

If you discharge more, you are paid in proportion?

Yes.

Are you obliged to drink in proportion?

I am obliged to pay whether I have it or not. I have to go on board Ship, and perhaps the Merchants will not be ready to take the Coals; still the Expences are equally the same; I have the Allowance the Day I have no Work equally the same as the Day I have the Work.

Are you obliged to take Liquor in proportion to the Work you do?

Yes.

Is an Inside Man favoured more than a Constant Man?

If there is any Vacancy, he is sure to be employed.

He is employed before a Constant Man?

Yes.

Did you state that the Publicans get their Licences from the Corporation?

No; they have it from the Magistrates of the District where they live; they have nothing at all to do with the City. The Undertaker obtains his Licence from The Lord Mayor.

[98]

Is there any Fee paid by the Undertaker to The Lord Mayor's Office for it?

I believe it is very trifling.

There is a Fee paid?

There is something paid for the Licence; I cannot state exactly what it is; I do not think it amounts to more than 2l. a Year.

The Publicans and Basket Men have sometimes spare Apartments in their Houses, have they not?

Yes.

Do they make any Condition as to the Coal Whippers occupying those Apartments?

To the best of my Belief, there are some who pay for Rooms for lodging in some of those Public Houses and do not live there at all, but have Families, and live in their own Houses; but to obtain Employ from the Publican they pay for their Lodgings the same as if they lodged there.

Do the Basket Men do the same Thing with respect to the Lodging?

Those that lodge with Basket Men, they make Constant Men of them.

Some of those Basket Men keep Shops, do they not?

Yes, they do.

Do they make a Condition that those People should deal with them too?

Yes; if they do not I believe that they are in the habit of parting with them; if they do not deal with them for such Articles as they sell, they will not let them have Employ.

You say you have 6s. a Day for unloading a Ship, but you are frequently idle?

Yes.

It is your Interest to delay as long as possible in unloading a Ship, is it not?

No; the sooner I get the Ship out, the sooner I may get a Job again.

If you have 6s. a Day all the Time the Ship is unloading, is it not a Benefit to you to be as long as possible?

No; if I deliver in Half the Time I have the same Money. Provided there is no Chance of a Job elsewhere, then it may be so; but if there are other Ships, then it is a Benefit to get it done.

Is there not a great Delay when the Ships arrive, in unloading them; might not it be performed quicker?

No, I do not think it could. If the Merchants would send Craft, there is no quicker Way of discharging the Ships than is used at present; I do not consider that there is any Mode or Method that they could be discharged quicker than they are at present; they are detained through the Merchants not bringing the Craft; some Days they will bring Craft, perhaps, for Half a Score or Fifteen; other Days they will pull down, perhaps, Craft for Eighty or Ninety Chaldrons of Coals.

The measuring them into that Craft naturally creates a much greater Delay?

No, they go on pretty quick; they fill the Vats regularly; the Meter has a Gauge that he puts over the Vat.

If it were done by Weight instead of Measure, would it not be quicker?

It would be much more tedious.

[99]

In what Way?

I do not see in what Manner it could be done as quick by weighing as, when the Vat is filled to turn it over; the Meter's Man turns it over directly it is filled; there is no waiting; as soon as he considers that the Vat is sufficiently full and trimmed he turns it over.

Do not some of the Meters require the Vat to be better filled than others?

There are some. I consider there are some that are heavier in Measure than others; there are some that will turn it over on a lighter Scale, in my Opinion, than others.

Those are called Light Meters?

Yes.

And the others are called Heavy Meters?

Yes; they are termed as such.

It is to the Advantage of the Coal Buyer to have the Heavy Meter, of course?

Yes, of course it must be so.

The Witness is directed to withdraw.

Mr. William Horne is called in, and examined as follows:

What is your Occupation?

I am a Coal Merchant.

Whereabout do you carry on Business?

On Bankside, Southwark.

Are you Chairman or Deputy Chairman of the Committee of the Society of Coal Merchants?

I am Secretary.

Did you receive a Letter from Mr. Brandling, the Chairman of the Coal Trade in the North, dated the 16th February 1830?

I did.

Did you reply under the Date of the 18th of February?

I did.

Did you refer, in that Letter of the 18th, to certain Regulations which the Corporation of London are promoting?

I did.

Will you state to the Committee what those Regulations are?

One of those Regulations was to abolish the System of Land Coal Metage; another Regulation was to abolish the Control over the Pay of the Whippers.

Have you in Writing the proposed new Regulations to which you refer?

I have the printed Proceedings of the Court of Common Council of the City of London of the 8th of July 1828; it is from them I gained my Information.

There are Three Points to which those Regulations appear to go; state the Nature of them?

The Three Points are, with respect to abolishing Land Coal Metage; with respect to doing away the Control of the City over the Whippers; and the suffering Coals to be mixed without specifying what the Mixture is; it is now contrary to the Act of Parliament to mix Coals.

[100]

Is it proposed to allow the Vessels to be cleared by the Seamen or any other Persons that the Captains may choose to hire?

I understand entirely so; by any Persons the Captains may choose to hire.

When you have discharged a Cargo of Coals, have you always sent your own Barges for the Coals?

I send my own Barges and Country Barges to load.

It is the Practice for the Coal Merchant to send Barges to carry the Coals?

Yes.

By whom are those Barges navigated?

By Lightermen.

Do they belong to a particular Company?

They do.

A Company of the City of London?

No; the Corporation of Watermen and Lightermen, and entirely distinct from the City of London.

Must they not be necessarily Freemen of the City of London?

They must.

Is it under a Rule of the Corporation that they must be Freemen of the City of London?

It is under the Rule of the Watermen's Company; and they must be likewise free of that Company, and prove that they have served Seven Years upon the Water, and are well acquainted with their Business.

How do you pay those Persons?

I believe it is 30s. a Week; it is a weekly Payment.

You do not pay them by the Chaldron?

No; they are weekly Servants.

Do you pay them whether they are employed or not?

Yes.

Supposing you were allowed to go where you pleased to get Persons to navigate those Lighters, do you conceive you could obtain them on better Terms than you do the present Men?

I do not consider that I could employ Men capable of doing the Work on better Terms; I should not think that I was entrusting my Property to proper People if they were not free of the Watermen's Company.

Supposing those Regulations of the Watermen's Company not to exist, is there any way in which your Business of clearing the Ship by means of those Barges could be done at a cheaper Rate?

I do not think there is.

You state that to be free of the Watermen's Company they must have been employed Seven Years on the Water?

They must serve an Apprenticeship of Seven Years before they can obtain their Freedom.

You consider that that gives you a Security that they are Persons capable of discharging the Duties of Lightermen?

Exactly so; I think they would not be competent Persons to navigate the River without that; I could not have Dependence upon them.

The Witness is directed to withdraw.

[101]

Mr. John Drinkald is called in, and examined as follows:

What are you?

I am a Lighterman.

Are you Master of the Watermen's Company?

I am not now; I was last Year.

How is the Watermen's Company constituted?

By Act of Parliament.

What is the Date of the Act of Parliament?

The 7th and 8th of George the Fourth, Chapter 75.

Was that the first Time they were constituted?

No; this Act repealed a great many. The Acts repealed were, the 6th of Henry the 8th, the 2d and 3d of Philip and Mary, and other Acts.

Will you refer to the 37th Section of that Act? Is there not some Provision in that Section with respect to the Freemen of the Company working Craft for Hire on the Thames?

Yes.

Will you state the Effect of that?

"That if any Person not being a Freeman of the said Company, or an Apprentice to a Freeman or to the Widow of a Freeman of the said Company, (except as herein-after is mentioned,) shall at any Time act as a Waterman or Lighterman, or ply or work or navigate, or cause to be worked or navigated, any Wherry, Lighter or other Craft upon the said River, from or to any Place or Places or Ship or Vessel within the Limits of this Act, for Hire or Gain, (except as herein-after is mentioned,) every such Person shall forfeit and pay for every such Offence any Sum not exceeding Ten Pounds."

Is there not an Exception in favour of Western Barges from Kingston?

Yes; Section 101.

They are permitted to come down as low as London Bridge?

Yes.

In case they come to London Bridge, can they go through the Bridge?

They are frequently in the habit of going through, but they generally take a Lighterman as a Pilot.

Are they not obliged by Act of Parliament to take a Lighterman?

It should appear so by the Act of Parliament, certainly,

If they do not take such a Person, they can only take the Coals from a Lighter above Bridge?

They come through, and frequently, to my Knowledge, go down without a Lighterman.

Then they evade the Act of Parliament?

They do.

If they do not go below Bridge they can only take the Coals from another Lighter?

Just so.

Are the Members of the Watermen's Company Freemen of the City of London?

There are a great many of them Freemen of the City of London, but they are not Freemen of the City of London as Watermen or Lightermen, but by Patrimony, and other Causes.

[102]

It is not a necessary Qualification?

Certainly not; it does not give them the Freedom of the City of London, belonging to the Watermen's Company.

Are there any Bye-Laws of the Company?

Yes, there are; they are made from, merely an Echo of, the Act of Parliament.

In case Coals are taken out of Lighters above Bridge, to put into a West Country Lighter that comes down without a Lighterman-on board, that involves the Necessity of twice removing the Coals?

That is a Thing that is very seldom done; I have seen it very seldom myself; I have seen it done sometimes.

The Witness is directed to withdraw.

Ordered, That this Committee be adjourned to Saturday next, Twelve o'Clock.