Journal of the House of Lords: Volume 9, 1646. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1767-1830.
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DIE Martis, 7 die Decembris.
Ds. La Warr.
Ld. Goring tenders himself to the House.
The Speaker acquainted the House, "That, on Saturday last, the Lord Goringe came to him, and acknowledged the Favour of this House, in granting him a Pass to come into England; and that he is ready to obey any Commands of this House, and desires their Lordships Favour, that he may attend some of his own Employments."
Petitions from Middlesex, Hertford, and Bucks;—and Answers thereto.
"That this House acknowledges the constant and faithful Services of the County of Middlesex to the Parliament and Kingdom, for which Thanks was returned: That their Lordships are very sensible of the Burdens of the Kingdoms, especially Free Quarter, and will use their Endeavours for their Satisfactions, according to their Desires."
"That their Lordships return them Thanks, for their constant good Affections expressed to the Parliament and Kingdom; acknowledging that County hath been very instrumental in affording their Endeavours upon the Commands of the Parliament: That this House will use their Endeavours to have the Burdens of the Kingdom eased."
And this Answer was returned: "That this House cannot but own the Readiness the County of Bucks hath expressed to the Commands of the Parliament, for which their Lordships return them Thanks; and that their Lordships will use their Endeavours to free them from the Burdens which lie upon them, that so they may go on in their Callings chearfully."
Sir H. Mildmay and Sir T. Cheek.
Remonstrance from the Army.
They said, "They had delivered the like Paper to the House of Commons; and, in regard the Business was concerning Monies to supply the Army with, and the constant Settling of their Pay, they will expect an Answer from them."
Message to the H. C. for Committees to meet, about the London Agents.
(fn. 1) "An humble Representation from his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax and the Council of the Army, concerning their past Endeavours, and now final Desires, for the putting of the Soldiery into constant Pay, for the immediate disburdening the Kingdom of Free Quarter, the Prevention of any further Increase of Arrears, and in order to the better disbanding of Supernumeraries, and other Things concerning the Soldiery; humbly presented to the Right Honourable the Houses of Parliament, by Colonel Sir Hardresse Waller and Colonel Whaley, Decemb. 7, 1647.
Remonstrance from Sir T. Fairfax and the Council of War, for the Contribution to be enlarged, for the Pay of the Army;—for a constant Settlement of their Pay;—for an absolute Indemnity for the Officers and Soldiers;—about disbanding supernumerary Forces;—for a Provision to be made for Maimed Soldiers, &c.—and for Freedom from Pressing.
"Since, by the Blessing of God, the Speakers and Members of both Houses (that had been driven away) were without Blood restored, and have been ever since secured, to sit and attend their Duty in Parliament; with what Patience God hath given us to wait for the Resolutions of those Things we have insisted on, or offered, tending to the future Security of the Parliament, the just Satisfaction of the Soldiery, and the Ease and Settlement of the Kingdom, we need not use many Words to set forth; the Expence of above Four Months Time in quiet Expectation thereof, with so little Satisfaction, does sufficiently speak.
"As to what Fruit we have found in any Thing done to any of those Ends, we are sorry we can say so little thereof, or that we have Occasion to say so much to the Delays, Neglects, and Obstructions thereof, as now we are constrained to do.
"But whatever those Delays or Neglects have been, or where-ever the Fault hath been, we are sure the Blame thereof hath been laid upon us almost on all Hands; and this is the Fruit we have found from the Hands of Men, of all our patient Waiting hitherto.
"It is not unknown, what Reproaches and Scandals in this Kind have been cast upon us, and what Use and Advantage hath been made of those Delays, thereby to work upon the Impatience of the Soldiers and Country, to incense the Country against the Army, and both the Country and Army against us, as if it had been our Fault alone that no more was done: And to what an Height of Scandal and Discontent against us the Pretence hereof was driven, or what desperate Endeavours have been thereupon, to withdraw the Soldiers from the Officers (as having betrayed, or failed and neglected, both theirs and the Kingdom's Interest), to divide and distemper the Army, and to engage both the Soldiery and many other well-affected People (under the same Notion and Pretence) in Ways of Distraction and Confusion, and (as we accounted them) of most imminent Dangers, both to the Parliament, City, and Kingdom, we need not now spend Time to express; we believe all that wished well to the Public were so deeply sensible thereof, as they cannot so suddenly forget it; and others (who had any Thing to lose or hazard), though perhaps, so far as they had Hopes the Army might that Way have destroyed itself, they might have some secret Rejoicing at it, and may now be sorry the Business is so well over without that Offer; yea, so far as they considered the bottomless Depth and endless Danger of it, they could not but be affected with it, so as we need not mention it, save to mind Men of what Danger and Mischief God hath therein delivered them from, and whence the greatest Advantage to the Rise and Growth of it was, even from Delays and slow Proceedings in those Things which the long Expectations of the Soldiery and Kingdom have been set upon, and to observe how apt both the Soldiery and People, through tedious Delays, in such Cases, are to hearken to any Party, and try any new Way proposed, under the Notion of more speedy and effectual, though perhaps so far from real Remedy, as that it indeed endangers the utter Loss of their End, with Ruin and Destruction to both.
"To prevent the Progress of this growing Danger to all, we have lately exposed ourselves to the utmost Hazard; and being acted therein from some Clearness in our Consciences that the Fault of those Delays lay not upon us [as was scandalously suggested], and a Confidence in God that He would appear to vindicate that Measure of Truth and Integrity He had given us in the Thing, though with many Failings and Miscarriages on our Part; we were led forth by Him, without any Artifice whereby to vindicate or excuse ourselves, nakedly to cast ourselves and the Business upon Him; and, to His Praise we must speak it, He hath appeared in an answerable Issue, whereof the Parliament and Kingdom hath had an Account, and wherein they may see, and we wish they may with us take Notice and be mindful of, the Mercy and Goodness of God in our Deliverance, (fn. 2) more added to all the rest; and therein the Army, which, in casting off all Bonds of Order and Government, was like to have been let loose, to be a Plague and Bane both to the Kingdom and itself, once more reduced unto that Temper and Discipline, which may render it, through and under God, a further Security and Stay to the Kingdom, and in due Time bring it to a quiet Disbanding, when just Satisfaction with Settlement and Safety shall admit.
"But [as hath in Part been done already] we must again mind the Parliament upon what Terms this hath been wrought: The General [as we all with and under him] stands engaged to the Army, for the lawful Prosecution of the Soldiers Concernments, and some general fundamental Things for the Kingdoms; and (in Confidence of the Parliament' good Acceptance of the Service thereby done, and of their real Intention and promised effectual Resolution to give Satisfaction in those Things) hath in a Manner undertaken for the Parliament therein.
"We wish we may see a Cause to acknowledge a just Sense of his Excellency's good Affection and Service in that Business, or at least of their own Engagement, or the Kingdom's Concernment therein; and that we had not Cause to apprehend, either a strange Neglect thereof growing upon many, or rather (in some) the sad Symptoms of an evil Eye at the Service itself, as if they did regret the happy Composure of those Distractions begun in the Army, and the Re-uniting of it, or did grudge the good Hand of God towards it and the Kingdom therein, that in Mercy would not suffer it to run on in these Distractions, to its own Ruin and the Kingdom's; for, though it be most evident, that, had God given up the Army to cast off the Reins of Government and Order, and to go on in those distracting and confounding Ways (which it was endeavoured to be drawn into), both it and other Forces of the Kingdom were like ere this Time to have been engaged in Blood one against another, or else united only in some desperate Course of rending and tearing out the Bowels and Vitals of the Kingdom, and plucking up or endangering all Foundations of Order, Peace, and Government therein (yea, and of all Right and Property too); yet the Envy and Malignity of some Mens Spirits against this Army, and against the Interests of good Men therein, seems to be such, as if they had rather have been it so, than that this Army should again be an united Piece. And we clearly apprehend the same Principles (that swayed heretofore) (fn. 3) now again prevailing, as if there were no Good so desirable, or Evil so formidable, which the Breaking of this Army (with as much Ignominy and Confusion as may be) would not, in their Account, countervail; and if such an envious and evil Spirit be indeed lodged and working in the Hearts of any, we desire God in Mercy to convince them of it, lest He confound them for it. For our Parts, having the Witness of God in our Consciences, that, though we are not without weak and frail Workings of our fleshly Hearts in all our Ways, yet, for the Main, we have in all our Engagements, from the Beginning of the War, had the Work of God and the Kingdom in our Eye, and not our own; and that, since the Army (by the oppressive Provoking and spiteful Proceedings of Men acted by the aforesaid envious Principles against it) was raised into such Resolutions; and driven into such a Posture, as put it past the Power of the Officer to bring it to a quiet Disbanding without further Satisfaction and Security, it hath been our main End in continuing with it, and almost our whole Work, to keep it within Compass and Moderation, to with-hold it from Extremities of all Sorts, and from that Mischief to the Kingdom, or itself, which our withdrawing and taking off our Hands from the Government of it would have let it loose unto; to make Use of it, and of the Providence that brought it to that Pass, (if possible) to some good Issue, for the just Liberty, Safety, and Settlement of the Kingdom; and bring the Army to some Bottom of seasonable Satisfaction, wherein it might acquiesce, and at last come to a quiet Disbanding; and (in Transaction of all this), with all Tenderness and Patience, to preserve [if possible] the Authority and Peace of the Kingdom, and prevent new Broils, which several Parties and Interests have been so apt unto.
"Having, we say, the Witness of these Things within us; when, on the other Side, we consider what unworthy Requitals for all this we meet with from the Hands of Men; how we are loaded with Reproaches for it, and rendered the only Disturbers of the Kingdom, and the Authors of its Burdens, as if for private Ends or Designs we kept up the Army; and how generally most Men (even of the Parliament Party, for whose Preservation, and for Prevention of whose Ruin amongst others, we have exposed ourselves to all Hazards therein) do, either from Disaffection, or Design to divide and break the Army, with-hold or obstruct all Supplies and Satisfaction, which might keep it in Order, Union, or Repute: We confess, when we consider these Things, we are ready to apprehend that God doth herein seem most justly to upbraid our Care and Solicitousness to preserve a People given up (as we begin to fear) to their own Destruction, and which seem to choose it, rather than not to have their own factious Interests or Envy fulfilled, rather than to own their Preservation in the least Degree by those whom God hath appeared willing to use for their Preservation and Deliverance.
"And rather than we would further incur the Odium and Scandal of being the only Public Disturbers and Oppressors (so unworthily cast upon us, merely for our Good-will, and Endeavours to prevent greater Mischiefs), we are apt to choose rather to withdraw from our present Station (though with Hazard of our Personal Safeties, and the Loss not only of any imagined Benefit of future Employment, but even our Arrears for what Service we have done); and so, leaving all to whatever Confusion God in His Righteous Judgement may see good to bring upon the Nation, to cast ourselves wholly upon Him, to preserve and provide for us in the Midst thereof; or, if God in Mercy intend better Things to the Kingdom, or hath found aught in us (which we confess He may) rendering us unworthy to be any further Instruments thereof, we should desire, with Meekness and Rejoicing, to see any other whom He finds, or the Kingdom judgeth, more worthy to take up our present Charges: But, finding not as yet any such clear Discharge as would (to our Apprehensions) fully acquit us before God or Man to leave the Army or Kingdom in their present Condition, we shall, in Discharge of our Duty to the utmost, add this One Essay more to bring both into a better, if God in Mercy see it good: We shall therefore Once more beg the Parliament timely to consider and provide effectually for those Things expressed in the late Remonstrance published at the several Rendezvous of the Army, upon his Excellency's continued Conjunction, wherein the Discontents in the Army were quieted, the Distractions composed, and the due Order and Discipline of it recovered and submitted to.
"And amongst these Things, since the greatest and most immediate and pressing Evil to the Soldiery is Want of Pay, and to the Country the Disorders, Exactions, and Abuses of the Soldier, with the Burden and Annoyances of Free Quarter (thereby enforced), and which (if once provided for) gives Time of Consideration for other Things; we shall first apply to that, either to obtain a present Remedy, or at least to acquit and discharge ourselves in that Point.
"Of the many Evils thereof, both to the Soldiery and Country, we have long been sadly sensible, and many Ways and often expressed our Sense thereof; but we have been most troubled at it, since that Necessity which heretofore enforced it (videlicet, the Streightness of the Quarters the Parliament had to raise Money in) was taken away, and all Parts of the Kingdom have been cleared from any Enemy, and free for the equal levying of Money to supply the Necessities of the Whole: And it seems a Matter of Wonder to us, or an Argument of great Improvidence (at best), that, since that Time, the Soldiery (though much lessened in Number) should be no better paid or provided for than before. From the Sense of these Things, we have made frequent Addresses to the Parliament, for a sufficient Establishment and Provision of Pay for the Army and other Forces of the Kingdom, until they might with Safety to the Kingdom, and just Satisfaction or Security to themselves (in Point of Arrears, Indemnity, &c.), be disbanded, or otherwise employed out of the Kingdom. We have long waited with Patience, as aforesaid, for some Fruit of our Addresses, at least in this Point: But what through the Difficulty or Delay of getting Things passed in Parliament to this Purpose, or of putting in Execution those Ordinances that have been passed, and the Neglect or Slowness of Country Committees, Assessors, or Collectors, to do their Duty therein; what through the Malignancy of some who (in Design to break or distract the Army as aforesaid), for Want of Pay, and to disaffect the Country thereto by necessitated Free Quarter, do industriously retard all Supplies of Money; and what through the general Backwardness of all (especially in the City of London) to part with it; we have yet found little Fruit of all our Addresses and Endeavours in this Kind, there being not as yet an Establishment of Contribution for Pay of the Soldiery any whit near proportionable to the Numbers that are yet kept up, or any effectual Execution of the Powers already given for raising of the Taxes already charged upon the Kingdom; so as we remain yet as far as ever from that Supply of Pay to the Army, or other Forces, whereby either the Burden and Grievances of Free Quarter can be taken off, or the Necessity of the Soldiery competently supplied, or their Discontents in any Measure removed, or Disorder prevented, or good Discipline preserved; and (which is most sad) in the Garrisons of the Kingdom (and those of most Importance) where the Soldiery have not, nor can well have, that Benefit of Quarter for their Subsistence (as the Army and Field Forces have, yet) they have very long been without any Supply of Pay at all; so as divers poor Soldiers in some of them have actually starved and died for Want, in Attendance upon their Duties, others forced by Extremity of Want to quit their Service, and the rest ready to starve, or quit the Garrisons to any that will possess them: And as it is most apparent that the present Proportion of Tax (if duly levied) could not competently supply them and others too (in an equal Distribution thereof, considering the Number that are yet in Being); so the Committees in many Countries (where such Garrisons are that have engaged with the Army) do refuse to levy those small Proportions of Money that have been assigned for the present Relief to such Garrisons; but are content to see the aforesaid Miseries of the Soldiery, and Danger to the Garrisons, rather than do their Parts to give the least Remedy to either; divers of them telling the Soldiers plainly (as we are informed), "That, if they had declared against the Army, they should not have wanted; but, having engaged with it, they must expect neither Quarter nor Pay, but what they get from the Army."
"If we, or this poor Army, have deserved such Hatred and Despite (especially from pretending Friends to the Parliament and the Kingdom's Interest) we would fain be plainly told and convinced wherein. Otherwise we cannot but account it most unchristian and inhuman Dealing, and such as can have no better Root than most envious Faction, void of all Regard to Public Interest; and we would have all such know, that, if we had borne the same Mind, or could have allowed ourselves by Power to pursue the Ruin of adverse Parties by indirect or unchristian Ways, or otherwise to set up a Party of our own, and suppress all others, or if we had not still (according to our First Principles) loved much more the Ways of Common Right and Freedom, and the Proceeding in all such Things by Parliament in order thereunto; or if we had not, in the Way of ordering our Affairs since the Army's Engagement, consulted more the preserving of Peace in the Kingdom, and to prevent the Rise of any new War, than our own Advantage or Security; we could (to speak as Men with the Power and Advantages God hath put into our Hands) long ere this Time (as yet also we might) have put the Army and all other Forces engaged with it into such a Posture, as to have assured themselves of Pay while continued, and probably to have made our Opposers, in the Kingdom and City too, willing to have followed us with Offers of Satisfaction, as to Arrears and other Dues that concern the Soldiery; or we could have told how to prosecute those Advantages we have had, to the Suppression, if not Destruction, of adverse Parties and Interests, so as they should not (probably) have had those Foundations or Possibilities to grow up again to our further Trouble or Danger (as now they seem to have); and all this with Reason and Justice enough too; but that we have studied the Preservation and Good of all, without Ruin or Destruction to any, as far as we could; and have (through God) been acted therein, in some Measure, with that Mildness, Moderation, Patience, and Love, that becomes the Name of Christ: And we are yet confident, we shall at last lose nothing by it.
"But (to return to our Purpose), as to the Inconveniencies and Dangers of a new Provision for the Soldiery in Point of Pay, the Parliament hath had sufficient Cautions and Warnings, especially in the late Distractions; and though, while the Danger thereof continued visible, it was largely professed (if that Danger could be removed, and the Army reduced into Order and Discipline) we should have what Provision we would with Reason in that Point, and the same (with much more) upon the First Hopes of overcoming that Danger was as largely promised: Yet, now the Danger is over, we see little better Care of Performance than before; but, after many Days since elapsed, and some spent in professed Consideration of it, the whole Care of that Business seems to be wrapt up in One bare Vote; videlicet, ["That all supernumerary Forces shall be disbanded."]
"As to which Matter of disbanding Supernumeraries (so it be with reasonable Satisfaction in Point of Arrears); we are so far from opposing or obstructing it, that (for the speedy Easing of the Kingdom's Burdens by it) we shall readily give all Furtherance and Assistance to it, and shall (by and by) offer that Encouragement thereto, as will demonstrate the same; and on such Terms we should ourselves most gladly be of those Supernumeraries that should come first to Disbanding.
"But as to the Thought of present Disbanding all Supernumeraries (according to the Vote); first, we cannot but wish it be considered, whether, with any Respect at all to the Service and Relief of Ireland, the Parliament can well disband them all; unto which Service (as there might have been a great Advancement of Assistance long since, but for the Prevalence of Faction and Design to break that Force that might have afforded it, as we have formerly remonstrated), so we have more lately contributed our Parts, in the Offer and Designation of a very considerable Force thereunto; and there hath wanted nothing but Resolution and Money, with Expedition to send them over, which was not within our Power.
"But if (with respect to that Service and the Safety of this Kingdom) the Parliament can yet lessen their Forces so much as to bring them near the Compass of Sixty Thousand Pounds a Month's Pay; yet we wish it be withal considered, how many those Supernumeraries are that must to come to be presently disbanded (which, to bring the Residue within that Compass, would be little less than Twenty Thousand of one Sort or other); and (if so) how great a Sum it would require to give any reasonable Satisfaction to so many in Point of Arrears in Hand; and (by the Hardness of getting so much Money as to piece up the Month's Pay to the Army) we have much Reason to doubt how long the Parliament will be in raising such a Sum together, or where they will suddenly find Money to give competent Satisfaction to the Proportion but of a Regiment or Two upon a present Disbanding: And unless they be provided with present Money, to give reasonable Satisfaction to so many at once as would to that End come to be disbanded, the Parliament must either turn them off presently with extreme Dissatisfaction and Disobligation (which would render them apt to rise again with any Party against the Parliament, who would give them Hope of better Dealing, or but of Revenge) or else must continue them until better provided.
"And though there were Money ready for a competent Part of Arrears in Hand, yet it will be necessary however that they be continued some Time; for the stating of their Accompts, and giving Debentures for the Remainder; for (besides the Injustice and Dissatisfaction of turning the Soldiers off without that) we presume the Parliament hath had too much Experience already of the bottomless ill Consequences of not ascertaining their Accompts and Arrears before Disbanding, and not keeping the same registered together, by the endless Clamours and Outcries of particular Persons for Arrears, and the vast Sums expended thereupon, without End of Satisfaction; (the Persons, or their State of Arrears, through Neglect of taking such Accompts before Disbanding,) having never been certainly known, nor any End either of their Number or Claims; and the Dispatch of such Accompts for those that remain before Disbanding will certainly take up some Time, (we doubt) some Months. Now, if thus any Part of the Supernumeraries (above what the Sixty Thousand Pounds a Month will pay) shall, either for the Time of stating their Accompts or longer (for Want of present Money to disband withal), be continued, both they and all other Soldiers in the Kingdom must so long remain without constant Pay, and consequently go upon Free Quarter the while, unless the Tax for their Pay be (for the mean Time) proportionably increased; for, the Sixty Thousand Pounds a Month not affording any Assignment for such Supernumeraries Pay, those must of Necessity go unpaid the while, and consequently upon Free Quarter; and their going any where upon Free Quarter will hinder the coming in of the Contribution of those Parts which should be to pay some others, and so they likewise must go upon Free Quarter the while, which will in like Manner hinder the Pay, and necessitate the like Free Quartering of others; so as all will that while be equally hindered of constant Pay, and forced to take Free Quarter still. But, besides these aforementioned certain and visible Occasions of Delays, to the present Effect of the Vote for Disbanding all Supernumeraries, we doubt it will find many other Difficulties and Obstructions to the speedy and effectual Dispatch thereof, and prove not so easy or so well executed as voted; so that, though we with that Business of disbanding Supernumeraries put into a Way of as speedy Execution as may be, yet, upon all these Considerations, we cannot imagine that Vote to be absolute and sovereign, nor so speedy or timely a Cure of the Soldiers Wants and Discontents, or the Country's Grievance in their Free Quarter, as the Nature of the Malady and Temper of the Patient requires.
"1. That the Parliament do forthwith enlarge their Monthly Contribution, for Five or Six Months, to the full Proportion of the Pay of all the Forces now in Being within this Kingdom (or at least of so many of them as they are not provided with present Money to disband), and to a considerable Proportion (videlicet, about Ten Thousand Pounds a Month) over, which (by a near Estimate) we conceive would well be by the Addition of Forty Thousand Pounds per Mensem to the present Sixty Thousand Pounds, and with less we believe it cannot be; and the same Committees to be appointed, and to have the same Power for the levying of this as for the former Sixty Thousand Pounds, and the same Penalties for Neglects or Defaults therein as for the Arrears of former Taxes to the Army. And for more speedy passing of this, unless some visible Inequality in the Rates of Countries could be readily rectified without Delay to the Passing of it, we with it might (being but for that short Space) pass according to the same Rates as the Sixty Thousand Pounds. And for the Kingdom's better Satisfaction herein, it may be Resolved and Declared,
"I. That, upon this Enlargement, and the effectual levying of it in the respective Counties, no Free Quarter at all shall (from within a Month at most after passing the Ordinance) be taken, in any County or Place where it shall be duly levied and paid.
"II. That it is intended this Enlargement of Tax shall not be continued beyond the Space of the Months limited; and that, in the mean Time, as the Parliament can find Money and Safety to disband and lessen their Forces, so (if that Lessening be considerable) they will by Degrees lessen the said Tax proportionably.
"2. We desire that, for the more sure and effectual levying of the whole Tax, the General and Committee of the Army, or One of them, may have Power (in case of any County Committees Neglect or Failing therein) to add new Men to any the respective Committees; who (thereupon) (fn. 4) are to have the same Power as the Committees named in the Ordinance have.
"3. That, for more sure and ready Payment of the Soldiery out of this, the Forces which cannot or are not provided for to be forthwith disbanded may be immediately assigned to several Counties, or Associations of Counties, out of whose Taxes they shall be paid; and that the General may have Power accordingly to make such Distribution and Assignments, giving Notice and Account thereof to the Committee of the Army; and they thereupon to take Order for the Payment of the Forces so assigned immediately, out of the Counties or Associations to which they are assigned; and that the Payment be made according to due Musters, and according to the last Establishment (as to the Rate of each Officer's Pay); and the Surplusage of any County's Taxes, above the due Pay of their Forces so assigned to be paid out of them, to be (at the Care and Oversight of the same Committee for the Army) called for and paid into the common Treasury, for such general Uses as shall be found necessary, relating to the Forces and Service within this Kingdom, by Warrant from the General or Committee for the Army, according to the usual Course of Limitations heretofore; and the Remainder or Surplusage of the said Taxes of the whole Kingdom (above the Uses aforesaid) to be for the Supply and Relief of the Forces already in Ireland, or other Public Uses, as the Parliament shall think fit: And the same Committee likewise, with the Treasurers, to take Care for the methodizing and balancing of the whole Accompts, and to have Power for the employing of Officers needful for the Dispatch and Accommodation of this Service, and to make Allowance of Salaries to them (within some reasonable Limitation); particularly that there be Allowances for so many Deputy Commissaries of Musters as, upon the Practic of this Distribution, the General and Committee shall find needful: And the Treasurers General, out of their Salary (in regard of this Accession to it), to maintain so many Deputy Treasurers as the General and Committee of the Army shall find needful to be employed, and reside in such several Parts of the Kingdom as the General shall find convenient for that Service.
"4. That, the Security for Arrears being settled as hath been already and is again hereafter propounded, the Parliament would speedily send down Commissioners to the Army, and appoint the like for other Forces of the Kingdom, to state Accompts, and give Debentures, whereby the Soldier may, before Disbanding, have his Arrears ascertained to him as a clear Debt, to be paid him out of that Security; and that One Office or Registry may be appointed, into which all Accompts so taken may be returned, and all the Arrears registered to be paid in Order as is hereafter expressed: And for this Office we offer, That Two Registers, with Four Clerks, may be allowed, to have reasonable Salaries out of the Revenue issuing out of the said Security. And this we desire may be hastened, for the speedier Preparation to the Work of Disbanding; that such as are to be disbanded may be ready for it by that Time the Parliament can provide Money wherewith to disband any of them; and that so, by disbanding the Supernumeraries as fast as may be, Way may be made for the speedier lessening and taking off the Taxes by Degrees.
"Now, for the Advantage and Benefit of the Things here propounded, they will appear as followeth; videlicet, Whereas, upon the former Supposition (that the putting off the Soldiery that are to be continued into a Way of constant Pay do depend only upon the Disbanding of all Supernumeraries, whom the present Tax will not extend to pay), it's most evident (as before demonstrated) that none can be put into present Pay, but all must go on upon Free Quarter, so long as until every One of the said Supernumeraries be disbanded; (which, whatever may be imagined,) though no other Difficulties or Obstructions should happen than what are now visible, as beforementioned, would not be effected, nor (we doubt) provided for in Three or Four Months Time: We wish it prove so soon; but we much fear Interruptions or Delays will happen, to make it much longer: And all that while (Free Quarter continuing as before) the Burden thereof (besides the Annoyances), though it fall more lightly upon some Parts and heavier upon others, yet in the Whole it damnisies the Kingdom as much as the said increased Contributions come to. The Soldiers also must have (besides his Quarters) some Pay in Hand the mean while (otherwise he can neither subsist, nor be kept in Order); yet still he accounts (at least) Half of his Pay for the remaining Time in Arrear to him, so as that further Debt doth also grow upon the Kingdom's Score. Now contrariwise (the Things we have propounded being granted) that bare Contribution answers all; for we dare undertake, within a Fortnight after granting of them, all the Forces of the Kingdom shall be assigned where and how to receive their Pay constantly till disbanded, and so no more Free Quarter shall henceforth be taken, no Part of the Kingdom any more unequally oppressed there by, nor any further Debt of Arrears henceforth incurred upon the Kingdom, and the Work of disbanding Supernumeraries not at all hindered, but much facilitated thereby. And as the Parliament finds Money and Safety to disband any of them, they may by the same Degrees either lessen the Tax proportionably, or will have so much more Surplusage thencefrom, towards Relief of Ireland, or towards Disbanding of others, or any other Public Uses.
"And now, for Furtherance and Encouragement in the Matter of Disbanding (those Things aforementioned being granted), we shall (for the Army and other Forces engaged with it) offer, and agree to, these Rules following:
"1. That such of the said Forces as shall come to be disbanded as Supernumeraries shall (out of the Monies to be raised upon the Security for Arrears) have the full Moiety of their Arrears first made good to them, as Monies come in hereupon, before those which fall out to be continued shall receive any Part of theirs; and after that, (when those that continue shall have received the like Proportion of theirs, then) those that shall be disbanded to receive the other Moiety or full Remainder of their Arrears, before those that continue any more.
"2. That those of them which shall disband shall (as Monies come in upon the said Security) receive their Proportions of Arrears in the same Order and Course as they disband (of which Order and Course a Remembrance to be entered and kept in the aforesaid Registry of these Accompts); the Persons of the Regiment, Troop, or Company, first disbanding, and so the rest in Course, to receive first what was due to them at Disbanding (to make up their First Moiety) by Two equal Portions; and likewise to receive their Second Moiety at Twice, by equal Portions, in the same Course as they disband.
"Now, for our Desire in the First Proposition aforegoing, to have the Increase of Contribution extended to the Proportion of Ten Thousand Pounds a Month (by Estimate) over and above what we think the just Pay for the Soldiery now in Being in the Kingdom, and not ready for present Disbanding, will come to; the Reason is partly, that there may be (certain) some present Supply out of it for the Force in Ireland, and partly because, if the Contribution should be set scant of, or but just answerable to, the Pay of the Soldiery, the many Contingencies and accessary Charges (not to be foreseen,) and the probable Failings of full levying the Contribution in some Parts, would necessitate the going of some upon Free Quarter (which would disturb the Order and constant Pay of the Whole); and it would also require much Time to proportion the Forces to be assigned upon the several Counties exactly to the Contributions of them, which would make it long ere Free Quarters could be taken off, since none could be assigned where to be paid, until the Pay of each Part of the Soldiery were exactly computed, and all of them as exactly distributed according to each County's Tax; whereas, the Taxes being laid to a sufficient Proportion above the just Pay, we can immediately make Distributions and Assignments (fn. 5) by Estimate, so as to be sure the Taxes of each County exceed the Pay of the Soldiers assigned to it: And though so One County have more and another fewer Soldiers assigned to them than (upon an exact Distribution according to the Number and Pay of the Soldiery) their just Proportion would come to; yet, none having so many but that their Taxes will do more than pay them, no Part will bear above its due Proportion of Charge; and those Parts which have least Numbers of Soldiers assigned upon them, yet will bear their due Proportion of Charge, either in Pay to the Soldiers, or in the Surplusage of their Tax above it, which, being collected into the common Treasury, will be for Relief to Ireland, or other Public Uses, so as the Surplusage (either in particular Counties above their particular Assignments, or of the whole Kingdom's Taxes above the Pay of the whole Soldiery in it) will be no Loss. But (as to some present and certain Relief for Ireland out of it, upon Supposition of the Hundred Thousand Pounds a Month) we shall (besides the Surplusage of every County's Tax above the Pay of the Soldiers to be assigned to it) forecast in the Distributions and Assignments, to levy the Taxes of some Counties (and that as many as may be), to come entirely into the common Treasury, for the Relief of Ireland, without (fn. 6) assigning any of the Forces in England to be paid out of them.
"And for that Power desired, for making such Distributions and Assignments, the Advantages and Benefits of that Way of Repartition (as to the more sure and ready Payment of Soldiers) are sufficiently known and tried: And it is most evident, that without it (if no Soldiers be paid before the Monies be first collected in the several Counties, and then sent into the common Treasury for all the Kingdom, and then sent to the Head Quarters, or thence distributed to the several Forces within the Kingdom, it is in vain to think that the Soldiers can be supplied with Money aforehand, or timely enough to make him pay Quarters; and it is as good (almost) not at all, as not in Time.
"We have thus propounded a Way whereby all the Soldiery of the Kingdom may be instantly put in a Condition of constant Pay (while continued), and thereby be kept in Order and Discipline; all Free Quarter (with the Abuses, Exactions, Annoyances, and unequal Pressures, that accompany it) immediately taken off, no further Debt of Arrears incurred upon the Kingdom, and that which is already incurred put in a Way to be recovered and overcome in Time; and whereby the supernumerary Forces may shortly be disbanded by Degrees (as the Parliament can find Money to do it), and will be satisfiable to disband with less Money in Hand, without Danger of Disobligation therein; and whereby also the additional Charge (now propounded) with other Burdens of the Kingdom may by the same Degrees be lessened and eased, with Safety and Satisfaction, until all can be taken off.
"And as it is evident that, if such a Course as this had been taken sooner, and the Parliament (as they found the several Parts of the Kingdom cleared from the Enemy, and eased of the Oppressions they suffered under them) had by Degrees extended an equal Contribution over all Parts, in a Proportion sufficient to have paid all their Forces (while they continued them), the Kingdom had been eased of Free Quarter, and no further Debt of Arrears to the Soldiery incurred upon it; for (at least) a Year and Half ago; those that have been disbanded had not been put off with so much Disobligation (as some have been); nor had their Claims and endless Demands since brought such Troubles upon, or drawn such vast Arrears from, the Parliament and Kingdom; and those that now remain to be disbanded had been much easier satisfiable and more readily disbanded: So, if such a Course (as is here propounded) be not speedily taken, but the putting of the Soldiery into a Way of Pay be left to depend only upon the Disbanding of all Supernumeraries (and that so unprovided for), or so uncertainly and slowly provided for and proceeded in (as without this Course it is like to be,) it is most evident (besides unforeseen Dangers of Discontent both in the Soldiery and Country, of Difficulties to disband, or Interruptions and Dissatisfactions in it), that the Non-disbanding of some will so long occasion the Non-payment of all, and continue Free Quarter with the Inconveniences thereof upon all, and the Non-payment of all may hinder the Disbanding of any, and so both Debts and Discontents grow upon the Soldiery and Kingdom (perhaps) till it pass the Power either of the General and Officers to compose the one, or the Parliament and Kingdom to satisfy the other.
"Having therefore thus sufficiently discharged ourselves in this Point, so as we shall (we hope) stand acquitted before God and Men from whatever Evils ensue upon any further Neglect thereof: We must now declare, That we find the just Expectations of the Army herein (especially since the General's late Engagement or Undertakings at the Rendezvous) are so great and earnest; the Clamours and Outcries to us from other Forces and Garrisons of the Kingdom engaged with the Army (for their extreme Necessity, and our apprehended Neglect of equal Provision for them) are so sad and pressing; the Discontents of the Country (from the Oppressions of Free Quarter) are so full, and yet growing, and almost desperate; and the Distempers, Distractions, and Dangers, threatened by all these, are so vast and imminent; as we can no longer stand under the Burthen or Blame of them: But, if the Things here before propounded be not granted and passed effectually (or a certain Course settled according to the Effect of them) by the End of this present Week, we can no longer give Account of the Army or other Forces in a regular Way; but, unless we find Satisfaction in our Judgements to take some extraordinary Ways of Power, we must let the Soldiery and Kingdom know, that we cannot satisfy their just Expectation, and thereupon desire that the Charge of the Soldiery may be transmitted to others.
"If the Parliament shall approve and pass what we have here propounded, we must (for the better Prosecution and Effecting thereof) add, That the superlative Backwardness and Obstinacy, or Disaffection rather, of those within the City, who have thus long with-held their Arrears of Taxes (so long since due to the Army), may not escape either with Victory therein, or without exemplary Sufferings, (at least) by strict and speedy levying as well the Penalties as the Arrears themselves; and (for that Purpose) that the Parliament would re-assume the Consideration of the General's late Letters about that Business to the Committee of the Army, and review that to the Lord Mayor and Common Council, wherein the ill Consequences both of the wilful Neglect of the Thing, and of the Army's withdrawing to a further Distance before it be done, or of it's continuing longer hereabouts in the dilatory (and perhaps) fruitless Expectation thereof from the City's own Actings therein, may sufficiently appear.
"To which we add, That, till it be done effectually (and sharply to some), the Distribution of the Forces to several Committees to be paid (according to what is before propounded) can neither be effectual nor safe; and we must therefore desire, that unless it be thought sit that the whole Kingdom should groan still under the Oppressions of Free Quarter, and these adjacent Counties be undone chiesly, while those of the City (that occasion all) sit free from any Taste of it, there may be no longer Stop to the drawing-in of the Army, or a considerable Part of it, to quarter upon them in the City, who had not paid before the said Letters, until they shall have paid both the Arrears and full Penalties. And though our Tenderness of that City's Safety and Welfare, and our Clearness from the least Thought of Evil towards it, or any base Design to make the least Advantage to ourselves or the Army by it, hath sufficiently appeared, as in all our former Demeanments, so in our Carriage of the Business upon our late Advance towards it (notwithstanding the just Occasions and great Provocations thence so newly given), as also in our innocent March through it, and quiet and patient Waiting about it for those long due Arrears, without quartering any Soldiers in it; yet now, in Justice, we cannot but desire that (besides the Levying of the Arrears) at last (for which we have been put to stay so long) there may now likewise some Reparation be thought on, from the City, to the Parts adjacent, for above One Hundred Thousand Pounds Damage, sustained through the Army's Attendance here on the City's Defaults and Delays; which Reparation we (if necessitated thereto, or called upon by the Country) must in their Behalf demand from the City to the full. And now also (the rather in order to that) we must earnestly desire that the Proceedings against those Citizens and others lately impeached may be hastened; and, out of their Fines or Confiscations, some Part of Reparation may be made to the Countries adjacent for the aforesaid Damages, which the Crimes of those Persons and others in the City did first bring upon them. And indeed without something done against those Persons, for Example to others, before the Army's Withdrawing, we do not see (when it shall withdraw) with what Safety or Freedom the Parliament can sit longer at Westminster; especially when we find the Common Council (through the Parliament's and Army's Lenity) to take the Boldness already (in the Face of both) to intercede for the Release and Acquittal (or rather Justification) of those impeached Persons (who indeed are but Fellow Delinquents (we doubt) to most of that Council); as if that so actual, immediate, and horrid a Force upon both and the whole Houses of Parliament, and the Levying of War in Abetment and Prosecution thereof, and of that concurrent treasonable Engagement, were already forgotten by them to have been any Crime: The Consideration whereof, and of the renewed Confidence of Master Gewen and some other Members of Parliament (known to have been Partakers, if not Principals, in the same Things) who yet presume, and are suffered, to appear again in the House (as if in those Things there had not been so much Fault as to render them less worthy of continuing in that highest Trust), makes us begin to fear that, while so much of the same Leven (through Lenity and Moderation) is left behind, it may shortly spread, till even the worst of the Eleven Members (notwithstanding their doubled Crimes) be again called for in, unless the House (by some exclusive Resolutions and Proceedings) do timely prevent the same. We hope therefore the Parliament will weigh these Things, and speedily (ere it be too late) consult (at least) their own Safety and the Kingdom's, if not ours and the Army's, their poor Servants, and something concerned with them (especially) in that Affair.
"Next, we again more importunately desire, That those other so near Concernments of the Soldiery (expressed in the General's late Remonstrance at the Rendezvous) may be speedily considered, and fully and effectually provided for; in order to which, we shall here more particularly propound as followeth:
"First, As to the Security for Arrears: Whereas (in the late Votes or Proposition intended for that Purpose) the Two Thirds of the Lands or Compositions of certain Delinquents, assigned towards the said Security, is only of the Delinquents within the Three First Qualifications of the Sixteenth Proposition; we desire that may be altered, so as to be Two Thirds of the Lands or Compositions of all the Delinquents that have not yet compounded. And next we must desire, That Deans and Chapters Lands may be added (with Proviso for reasonable Satisfaction or Maintenance to such Persons as, having a present lawful Interest in any the Revenues thereunto belonging, have not forfeited the same by Delinquency). These Additions are desired, because the Security as yet voted is justly estimated not to be sufficient. And since all that is propounded is but for Security, if the Security prove to exceed the Arrears really due, the Surplusage will be free for any other Public Use, so as the State will not be damnified by these Additions to the Security. Lastly (as to this Business), we desire that the Matters of Security (being resolved on as desired) may be passed into Ordinance, and thereby put into a speedy and (fn. 7) effectual Way of raising Monies thereupon.
"Secondly, For Matter of Indemnity: That, if no Indemnity more absolute can be provided (to free the Soldiery from all Question for Things done in the War), but that they must (in case of Question at Law) fly to some Committee or Commissioners for Relief; it may be provided, for the Ease of all, That (either under the Grand Committee for Indemnity, or otherwise by the immediate Appointment of Parliament) there may be Commissioners in each County impowered to give Relief in such Cases as the Grand Committee now are; and those Commissioners to be such as ordinarily reside in the respective Counties, and mixed of such as have been Military Officers to the Parliament, together with such Inhabitants as have appeared active and faithful for the Parliament in the late War; for which Purpose we shall (if admitted) offer Names; and that there may be a severe Penalty laid upon Judges, or other Officers of Justice, in case they shall proceed against any contrary to the Ordinance for Indemnity.
"Thirdly, That sufficient Provision be made, in a certain and no dishonourable Way, for the Relief and Support of maimed Soldiers, and the Widows and Orphans of Men that died in the Service, to continue during the Lives of the Maimed and Widows, and during the Minority of their Orphans; and that the same Commissioners (to be appointed in each County for Indemnity as aforesaid), or others in like Manner mixed, may be impowered for this Purpose also; and in case of the Death of any such Commissioners, or their Departure out of their respective Counties, those that survive or remain may choose new ones to fill up the Number.
"4. (fn. 8) That, for the just Freedom of Apprentices who have served the Parliament, there may be a sufficient Penalty laid upon Masters refusing or delaying to give the same when their Times are out, accounting the Time they have served in the War as Part; and that the Apprentice may have his Action at Law for that Penalty.
"5. For Freedom from Impresting: That (as no Freeman of England may be imprested for any Foreign Service, or other than for the immediate Defence of it, so) no Soldier that hath voluntarily served the Parliament in the late War, for the Liberties of the Kingdom, may be liable to be prest for any Military Service at all; and that it may be promised, that a Certificate of his said Service as a Volunteer, under the Hand and Seal of his Colonel, or other Field Officer under whom he hath served, may be a sufficient Protection and Discharge to him from any such Impresting.
"Having thus discharged ourselves in those Matters which are our most proper and immediate Business (the Concernments of the Soldiery), and for which we redouble our Desires, That the Two First (concerning the putting them into constant Pay while continued, and Provision for their Arrears) may be first considered, and immediately settled before any other Business, and then that the rest of them may also be provided for as soon as may be: Now, though the Two First of these want not their equal Concernments to the Kingdom (in the present taking off the Oppression of Free Quarter, preventing the Increase of Arrears, and providing or preparing for the more easy and satisfactory Disbanding of Supernumeraries, and thereby the better easing of the Kingdom's Burthens by Degrees); yet we cannot, in any of our Addresses of this Kind, so far forget those Things we have formerly declared concerning (more purely) the Public Interest of the Kingdom, and ourselves as Members of it, but we must herewith renew our humble and earnest Desires, that no Time may be lost by the Parliament, for the just Consideration and Dispatch of these Things, both for the Redress of common Grievances, Relief of the Oppressed, and for the Liberty, Security, Quiet, and some safe Settlements, of the Kingdom; and more especially that these Things of this Nature, expressed in the late Remonstrance at the Rendezvous, may in such Settlement be fully and effectually provided for (and that) with as much Expedition as may be. And it is our Heart's Desire and Hope, that herein the Proceedings and Resolutions of the Parliament may be such, and so timous, as that we may not need any more to remind the Parliament in any of those Things, which (as far as with Truth or any Safety to that most obliging Interest of the Public and to those that have engaged for it, we may forbear) we are most unwilling and take no Pleasure to meddle in.
Petition from Middlesex Inhabitants without the late Lines, against Free Quarter.
"That likewise, being but little more than a Third Part of the said County, they have, for the Preservation thereof, and of the Parliament and City, been at voluntary Expence, for Three Years Space, amounting in the Whole to above Ten Thousand Pounds, in the Maintenance of several Guards upon the Avenues of the said County.
"That, notwithstanding their said Charges and Pressures, the Burden of Free Quarter hath been for Eighteen Weeks last past very heavy upon them; and that in a higher Proportion (as they conceive) than upon other Parts of the Kingdom, by reason of those greater Numbers disposed hereabouts, that were particularly assigned for the Safeguard of His Majesty's Person and the Two Houses of Parliament.
"Wherefore they humbly pray, this Honourable House will be pleased to free them totally from this intolerable Burden and Bondage of Free Quarter, that thereby they may enjoy the Propriety of their Estates, and the Freedom of their Houses, according to the Petition of Rights, and be the better enabled for the future to pay all such Assessments as are or shall be imposed upon them.
Petition from Hertfordshire, for equal Assessments;—to ease them of Free Quarter, and remove the Army;—and for supernumerary Forces to be disbanded.
"That we have adventured our Lives, and exhausted our Estates, for the re-gaining of our almost lost and irrecoverable Freedoms; and have been, through the Blessing of God, instrumental to the subduing of the common Enemy; by which Means we hoped before this Time to have had the Foundations of a just Government settled, and our Estates freed (at the least) from all unequal and illegal Taxations: But we find that we are now subject to greater Bondage than when we first engaged for Freedom; inasmuch as we have paid more than our proportionable Assessments with other Counties to the Maintenance of the several Armies; besides the Maintaining of a Militia in our County, and sending our several Forces, at our own Charge, upon several Expeditions, and main Convoys to several Parts of the Kingdom, at the particular Charge of the County; and received upon Free Quarter the greatest Part of the Earl of Essexe's Army for above Six Months together, for which we never yet received any Satisfaction, though we petitioned for it, and had a Reference to a Committee in Pursuance thereof; besides many other Pressures too tedious to relate: Notwithstanding all which, the Common Enemy being subdued, we groan under the intolerable Burden of Free Quarter, lately forced upon us for Five Months and more, where many Persons are scarce able to buy Bread for their own Families, nor make Provision for the Sowing of their Grounds; being forced, above their Abilities, to quarter Soldiers; and the best of us forced to be Soldiers Servants in our own Families, a Burden every Way unsufferable to Free People; many of us being thereby utterly disabled to relieve the Poor, who daily increase, and are ready to starve.
"That you would be pleased to equalize our Taxes with Cities and other Counties; that some speedy Course may be taken for disbanding of the supernumerary Forces; and that those which in your Wisdoms you shall think fit necessarily to be kept on-foot, in reference to the Peace of the Kingdom, may be disposed of by Allowance of constant Pay; and that they may provide their own Necessaries, both for Horse and Man.
"That Allowance may be made for the Free Quarter already taken, proportionably to the Charge, the Burden thereof having been hard upon Tenants; that the Army, which hath lain so long upon us, may be speedily removed from us, and your Petitioners eased of Free Quarter, being no longer able to bear it; that so your Petitioners may have further Encouragement to seek the Lord, for a further Blessing upon your faithful Endeavours, in reference to the Settling of a firm Peace, for the Glory of God, and future Good of the King and Kingdoms."
Petition from Bucks Inhabitants near Windsor Castle, to be relieved from Free Quarter, and the Multitude of Soldiers quartered on them.
"That your Petitioners did, on the 22th of Nov'r last, exhibit to his Excellency Sir Thomas Fairefax Knight a Petition, a Copy whereof is hereunto annexed; whereupon his Excellency was pleased to signify to your Petitioners, that they were to apply themselves to the Parliament for Relief.
"Your Petitioners therefore humbly pray these Honourable Houses, to view the same Petition, and to take the Sufferings of your Petitioners into Consideration, and give them a speedy Relief, by such Means as to these Honourable Houses shall seem fit.
Petition from them to Sir T. Fairfax, to that Effect.
"That many Soldiers have continually quartered in those Parts, ever since the First Advance of the Army under your Excellency's Command towards London, to the exceeding great Burden of the Inhabitants thereof (which was formerly humbly represented to your Excellency in a Petition); but the same Burden hath continued, and is so increased, that in some of your Petitioners Houses Twenty Soldiers, and in some Thirty or Forty, have been lately quartered for divers Days, and still do quarter, in a House together; by which Means (after the great Charges and Losses which they have sustained during the War) many both Freeholders and Farmers are become liable, and expect to be imprisoned, for the Debts contracted upon them by reason of Free Quarter, and so impoverished as that they are made unable so constantly to set the Labourers on Work as formerly, by which Means the Labourers want Work; so that (the Prices of Victuals being great, and still increasing, by Means of the Soldiers and their Horses in these Parts) many of your Petitioners, as well Freeholders and Farmers as Labourers, with their Wives and Children, must perish, unless your Excellency will be pleased to ease these Parts of the Country from this Burden.