Magna Britannia: Volume 3, Cornwall. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1814.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
LADOCK, (vulgarly called Lassick,) in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Powder, lies about four miles north-west of Grampound, about six north of Tregony, and about seven north-east of Truro, which is the postoffice town. The principal village in this parish is Bedock alias Besock.
The manor of Ladock belonged successively to the Carminows, Courtenays, and Mohuns of Boconnoc (fn. n1); having passed with that estate, is now the property of Lord Grenville, who has also the manors of Trethurfe and Nansough in this parish. The barton of Trethurfe was the seat of a family of that name, one of whose coheiresses married Courtenay of Lanrake: it now belongs to the Earl of Cork, and Stephen Poyntz, Esq., as representatives of Kelland Courtenay, Esq., the last heir male of that branch of the family (fn. n2). The barton of Nansough, which belonged formerly to the family of Wife, is now the property and residence of Mr. Charles Andrew.
The manor of Bedock alias Bezock, was one of those seized by the crown in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, as the property of Francis Tregian, who was convicted of harbouring Cuthbert Mayne, the Popish priest, and granted to Cary Lord Hunsdon: it was re-purchased by Francis Tregian the younger in the reign of James I., and not long afterwards alienated, and came into the Arundell family. Lady Frances, widow of the Honourable Richard Arundell, (uncle of the last Lord Arundell of Trerice,) gave it to her nephew William Viscount Galway, whose son, Robert Viscount Galway, sold it, in 1780, to Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart., the present proprietor.
Hay, a seat of the Randylls, and afterwards successively of the families of Tregian and Bone, belonged at a later period to the Hearles, and is now the property of Samuel Stephens, Esq., who married the representative of one of the coheiresses of that family.
The Rev. John Eliot, rector of Ladock and Truro, who died in 1760, having bequeathed his property to be disposed of in charitable uses, the trustees applied it in part towards endowing six charity-schools in this county, one of which was at Ladock, with five pounds per annum each. This disposition was confirmed by a decree of chancery in 1764.
Lalant or Lelant
LALANT or LELANT, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Penwith, is written in old records La Nant: it lies on the Hayle, three miles to the south-east of St. Ives, which is the post-office town. The principal villages in this parish, exclusively of the church-town, are Brunian, Trecroben, Tredreath or Lower Lalant town, Trembetha, and Trink. Norden speaks of Lalant as having been "somtyme a haven towne, but then of late decayed, by reason of the sande which had choaked the harbour and buried much of the lands and howses: many devises," says he, "they use to prevent the obsorpation of the churche." The principal population of this parish is now at Lalant town, higher up the Hayle, towards Trevethow. The tradition is yet current, that there was a considerable town near the church, and that the trade of the Hayle was on the Lalant side, till the sands drove the inhabitants farther to the south. So lately as the year 1780, the sand was almost as high as the church-yard wall, and its boundaries scarcely discernible; but by planting rushes, the sands have become stationary, and the fence is now visible. There is a cattle-fair at Lalant on the 15th of August.
Samuel Stephens, Esq. of Tregenna, has a manor which is called Lalant and St. Ives. This we suppose to have been the estate which was confirmed to the monastery of Tywardreth, by Robert de Cardinham, in the reign of Richard I., by the name of Villa de la Nanta and Tredrait.
The Trevethow estate, called the manor of Lalant and Trevethow, belonged to the baronial family of Bottreaux (fn. n3), and afterwards successively to those of Godolphin (fn. n4) and Praed. The great-grandfather of the present proprietor (William Praed, Esq., M.P.) being a younger son of the Mackworths of Glamorganshire, took the name of Praed, on succeeding to the estates of the last heir male of the lastmentioned family, who died in 1717. Trevethow, the seat of the Praeds, has of late years been mostly uninhabited, except a part which is occupied by the tenant of the demesnes; the present owner residing chiefly at his seat at Tyringham in Buckinghamshire.
The manor of Trembethow is said to have been the seat of John Hals, one of the Justices of the Common Pleas in the reign of Henry V., and to have been by him sold to the Godolphins (fn. n5) : in the reign of Queen Elizabeth it was in the family of Mohun: it is now in severalties, one-third being the property of William Praed, Esq., another of Arthur Champernowne, Esq., and the remaining third divided between Samuel Stephens, Esq., the Rev. H. H. Tremayne, and F. H. Rodd, Esq., as heirs of the family of Hearle.
Goonwin or Gunwin, formerly a seat of the Pawleys, for whom there are memorials in the parish-church, (bearing date 1625, 1721, &c.) passed afterwards to the Praeds: the old mansion has been taken down, and two farm-houses built on the site.
The church of St. Uny Lalant, said to have been the burial-place of the saint to whom it is dedicated, (a brother of St. Herygh,) is the mother-church of St. Ives and Tawednack. The church was given or confirmed by Robert de Cardinham to the monastery of Tywardreth, in the reign of Richard I. (fn. n6), but afterwards became appropriated to the college of Crediton in Devonshire. The rectorial estate having been in the seventeenth century vested in the Maynard family, was inherited by the Hobarts: the late Earl of Buckinghamshire sold it to Humphrey Mackworth Praed, Esq., and it is now the property of William Praed, Esq., except the great tithes of St. Ives, which were purchased by Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart. The vicarage is in the gift of the Bishop of Exeter. The glebe consists of fifty acres; but of these about eight only are cultivated, the remainder being covered with hillocks of sand.
LAMORRAN, in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Powder, lies three miles and a half nearly south-west from Tregony, and about five nearly south-east from Truro, which is the post-office town. The only village in this parish, except the church-town, is that of Tregennah.
The manor of Lamorran belonged, as early as the year 1327, to the family of Halep, from whom, before 1383 (fn. n7), it had passed to the Trevenors: before 1556 the coheiresses of Richard Trevenor had brought it into the families of Roscarrock and Chamond (fn. n8) : John Verman, Esq. died seised of it in 1658, as appears by his monument in the church; his family continued to be possessed of it till about the beginning of the last century, when it passed to the Sparks (fn. n9). Sir John Molesworth, Bart. was lord of the manor in 1736: it is now the property of Lord Falmouth, having been purchased by his father, the late Lord, of the Molesworth family. The manor-house is occupied by a farmer. Lord Falmouth is patron of the rectory, the advowson of which has always been annexed to the manor.
LANDEWEDNACK, in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Kirrier, lies in the district of Meneage, about nine miles south-south-east of Helston, which is the post-office town, and about fourteen south-south-west from Falmouth. The only village, except the church-town, is a cluster of houses near the LizardPoint, called Lizard town.
The manor of Trethevas or Tretheves, Lucies, and Rosswick, extending over this parish, Ruan-Minor and Grade, was successively in the families of Carminow and Reskymer (fn. n10); at a later period (from 1631 to 1768) in that of Robinson, by whom it was sold in the last-mentioned year to Thomas Fonnereau, Esq.: it is now the property of Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart., by whom it was purchased after Mr. Fonnereau's death.
The advowson of the rectory was formerly an appendage to the manor of Rosswick (fn. n11), the site of which manor appears to be in the parish of St. Keverne: it is still in the Robinson family. The ancient font, and some remarkable instances of longevity at Landewednack, have been elsewhere spoken of (fn. n12). The LizardPoint, the Soapy-Rock, and Kynans-Cove (fn. n13), are in this parish.
Landrake, or Lamrake
LANDRAKE, or LANRAKE, in the deanery and in the south division of the hundred of East, lies three miles north-north-east of St. Germans, which is the post-office town, and four west-north-west of Saltash. The small village of Wotton-Cross is in this parish, and part of Tidiford, where an extensive trade in lime-burning is carried on. The other part of Tidiford is in St. Germans. There are two cattle-fairs in this parish, July 19, and August 24.
The manor of Lanrake, which is called by Tonkin the very best in the county, belonged at an early period to the family of St. Margaret (fn. n14); in the seventeenth century it was the property of Serjeant Maynard, whose heiress brought it to the Hobarts: the late Earl of Buckinghamshire gave it in marriage with his daughter to Lord Mount-Edgcumbe. The manor-house is occupied by a farmer.
Wotton, in this parish, the seat of an ancient family of that name, whose heiress brought it to a branch of the Courtenays, and afterwards of the family of Rowse, is now the property of Francis Dogherty, Esq., in right of his wife, who was heiress of the family of Blake. There are no remains of the old mansion. The Earl of Buckinghamshire is impropriator of the great tithes which belonged to the priory of St. Germans, and patron of the vicarage, as representative of the Maynard family.
LANDULPH, in the deanery and in the south division of the hundred of East, is situated on the banks of the Tamar, two miles north from Saltash, and five southeast from Callington. Plymouth-dock, which by water is about five miles from Landulph, is the post-office town. The only village of any consequence in this parish, except the church-town, is Car-Green.
The manor of Landulph was at an early period in the baronial family of D'Alneto, Dawney, or Danny, from whom it passed by a female heir to the Courtenays: after the first attainder in the Courtenay family, it was in the temporary possession (by successive grants from the crown) of Ralph Ashton and Thomas Grayson (fn. n15) : on the attainder of Henry Marquis of Exeter, it was finally alienated from the Courtenay family, and annexed with other estates to the duchy of Cornwall, in lieu of the honor of Wallingford. In consequence of the sale of crown-lands during the interregnum in the seventeenth century, this manor became for a while the property of Sir Gregory Norton. The manor of Ellbridge, Tellbridge, or Thelbridge, was in the reign of James I. the property of James Crosman, who had purchased it of Nicholas Skelton (fn. n16); it was held under the manor of Ashetorre, and is now the property of Mrs. Bluett, having of late passed with the Halton estate. Clifton, in this parish, supposed to be one of the franchises described by Carew, was the seat of a younger branch of the Arundells of Trerice. Thomas Arundell (son of Sir John Arundell, by Anne Moyle) built the house about the year 1500; and it continued in the Arundells till about the year 1620: it is probable that it was afterwards in the Killigrews, it being certain that it was in the successive possession of Sir Nicholas Lower and Sir Reginald Mohun, who married the daughters of Sir Henry Killigrew; the former died without issue. Clifton, which was inherited by the Mohuns, was sold, after the death of the last Lord Mohun, to Thomas Pitt, Esq., grandfather of the first Lord Camelford; and having passed with Boconnoc and other estates in this county to Lady Grenville, was purchased in 1807 by the Rev. Francis Vyvyan Jago, rector of Landulph, who is the present proprietor. The old mansion remains, with its hall, chapel, &c., but much dilapidated: it is occupied as a farm-house
In the parish-church is the following inscription, upon a small brass tablet: "Here lyeth the body of Theodore Paleologus, of Pesaro in Italy, descended from the Imperial line of the last Christian Emperors of Greece, being the son of Camillo, the son of Prosper, the son of Theodoro, the son of John, the son of Thomas, second brother of Constantine Paleologus, the eighth of that name, and last of the line that reigned in Constantinople, till subdued by the Turks, who married with Mary, the daughter of William Balls of Hadlye in Suffolk, Gent., and had issue five children, Theodoro, John, Ferdinando, Maria, and Dorothy. He departed this life at Clyston, the 21st of January 1636."
Thomas, brother of Constantine Paleologus, of whom Mahomet II., Emperor of the Turks, gave this character,—"that in the great country of Peloponnesus, he had found many slaves, but never a man but him (fn. n17)," after defending the castle of Salmonica a whole year against the Turks, made his escape from that fortress, when all hope of relief had been abandoned, and fled into Italy, where Pope Pius II. allowed him a pension till his death. It is probable that Theodore, the descendant of Prince Thomas, who lies buried at Landulph, sought an asylum in England, in consequence of the hostility shewn towards the Greeks by Pope Paul V., and his successor Gregory XV. We have not been able to learn what became of the sons of this descendant of the Imperial line: his daughter Dorothy was married at Landulph, to William Arundell, in 1656, and died in 1681; and his daughter Mary, who died unmarried, was buried there in 1674, as appears by the parish register.
LANEAST, in the deanery of Trigg-Major, and in the north division of the hundred of East, lies about seven miles nearly west from Launceston, which is the post-office town. There are only two small villages in this parish, except the church-town, Badgall and Trespearn. The manor of Laneast is the joint property of Mr. Sampson Rowe and William Baron, a minor. Mr. Rowe's father purchased it of the trustees of the representatives of the Arundells of Trerice, who long possessed the manor by inheritance from the family of Durant (fn. n18). The church of Laneast was formerly appropriated to the priory of Launceston: the great tithes are now vested in Mr. George Bennett; the small tithes, out of which the sum of 7l. per annum is payable to the perpetual curate, belong to Mr. Baron and Mr. Cock, who present to the curacy alternately.
LANHYDROCK, in the hundred and deanery of Pyder, lies about two miles and a half south-south-east of Bodmin, which is the post-office town, and three miles north-north-west of Lostwithiel. In this parish are the village of Trebyan, on the road from Bodmin to Lostwithiel, and part of Respryn (fn. n19) or Reprin, where is a bridge over the Fowey, on the road from Bodmin to Liskeard and Plymouth. The manor of Lanhydrock, which extends into the borough of Bodmin, and the parish of Cardinham, belonged at an early period to the Glynns, one of which family brought it as a marriage portion to the Lytteltons: the heiress of Lyttelton married Trenance; in 1620, Lyttelton Trenance, Esq. sold it to Sir Richard Robartes, who was created a baronet and afterwards a baron, by King James I. His son John (Lord Robartes) attached himself to the parliament during the civil war, and was one of the generals in the west: his estates were in consequence seized by the King, and were granted to Sir Richard Grenville. Lanhydrock-house, which had been garrisoned by its owner, was taken by Sir Richard Grenville, who was at that time one of the King's generals in the west, not long before the surrender of Essex's army in 1644 (fn. n20). Upon the decline of the King's affairs, Lord Robartes became again possessed of Lanhydrock, which was his chief country-seat, and made great improvements in the house and park (fn. n21). During the protectorate of Cromwell he led a retired life, and having concurred heartily in the Restoration, was received into the favour of King Charles II., became successively Lord Privy Seal, Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and President of the Council, and in 1679 was created Viscount Bodmin and Earl of Radnor. Tonkin says, that he originally took the title of Earl of Falmouth, which he bore six days (fn. n22). John Earl of Radnor died in 1685, and lies buried at Lanhydrock. Mary Vere Robartes, sister of Henry Earl of Radnor, brought Lanhydrock, and the greater part of the Cornish estates, in marriage to Thomas Hunt, Esq., of Mollington in Cheshire, whose grand-daughter, relict of the Honourable Charles Bagenal Agar, is the present proprietor. Lanhydrock-house, the seat of Mrs. Agar, is an ancient quadrangular building, fitted up in the style which prevailed in the early part of the seventeenth century. In the gallery, which is 116 feet in length, and ornamented with a variety of Scripture subjects on the cieling and cornices, is a portrait of the first Earl of Radnor, (from which there is an engraving, now very rare,) with other family pictures.
The manor of Treffry, in this parish, which extends into the borough of Bodmin and parish of Lanivet, was the property and seat of the ancient family of that name, afterwards of Place in Fowey: it continued in that family as late as the reign of Charles I., but has been long attached to the Robartes estate, and is now the property of the Honourable Mrs. Agar. There is now only a farm-house on the barton.
In the parish-church is the monument of Lady Essex Speccot, daughter of John Earl of Radnor, who died in 1689; and a tablet of slate for George and Jane Carminow, on which are verses in Latin and English, the latter beginning with the following play on the family name: "The care of mine I owe to Carminow." George Carminow died in 1599, Jane Carminow in 1609. The Carminows had a seat at Lanhydrock. The tithes of this parish having been appropriated formerly to the priory of Bodmin, are now vested in Mrs. Agar, who has the appointment of the curate. There was an ancient chapel at a place called Ford-farm in this parish.
LANIVET, in the hundred and deanery of Pyder, lies two miles and a half west of Bodmin, which is the post-office town. The principal villages in this parish are, Bodwanick, Bokiddick, Lamorick, St. Inganger, Trebell, Tregullon, Tremoore, and Woodly. Part of the village of St. Lawrence also is in this parish.
About a quarter of a mile from the parish-church are the remains of a monastery of the Benedictine order, called St. Bennets. We have no certain account of this religious house, which is said to have been a nunnery subordinate to some foreign monastery, some say Mount Caffine, in Italy; others Clareval, in Burgundy. Credys, in Padstow, was a cell to St. Bennets, and is now vested in the twelve men of the parish of Lanivet, as they are called, who are trustees of the parish-lands. St. Bennets, which had long been a seat of the Courtenays, was sold by Martha Courtenay, in 1710, to Bernard Pennington: after an intermediate sale, it was purchased, in 1720, by Mr. Richard Grose, great-grandfather of Mr. Nicholas Grose, the present proprietor. The remains of the monastery are inhabited by some of Mr. Grose's labourers: we cannot learn who is the present proprietor of the manor of Lanivet, which belonged to the monastery of St. Bennets, and after the Reformation to the Chivertons.
The manors of Bodwanick and Resperie or Reperie, which belonged for many generations to the Arundells, is now, by purchase from Lord Arundell, the property of E. J. Glynn, Esq. The manors of Rosewarrick, Tremoore, and Bodwithgie, (the latter of which is partly in Luxulion,) are the property of the Honourable Mrs. Agar, as representative of the Robartes family. Tremoore or Tremeere, had been at an early period in a family of that name, whose heiress married into the St. Aubyn family. The barton of Tremeere was for many years a seat of the Courtenays of Trethurfe, the last heir male of whom died in 1761. William Poyntz, Esq., whose mother was one of the coheiresses of the Courtenays, has lately sold this estate, which is now, by purchase from Paynter, the property of E. J. Glynn, Esq.: the house is occupied by a farmer.
The Rev. Nicholas Phillipps, the present incumbent, is patron of the rectory. The Exeter registers make mention of a chapel in this parish, dedicated to St. Budock. At St. Congar, in this parish, said to have been in ancient times the residence of a hermit, was a chapel and well, dedicated to that saint. St. Congar barton was some time a seat of the Lukeys.
There are certain lands in Lanivet, Padstow, and other parishes, most of which belonged to the monastery of St. Bennets, and now producing about 110l. per annum, vested in twelve feoffees, called the twelve men of the parish, for the use of the poor: these feoffees maintain certain poor persons in an ancient alms-house, and a charity-school under the same roof, the master of which is allowed a salary of 8l. per annum, and an habitation.
The manors of Penkneth, Pentneth, or Penknight, Penlyne and Restormell, belong to the duchy of Cornwall. The two former were among the manors given by the Conqueror to Robert Earl of Moreton and Cornwall: no mention is made of Restormell or Lostwithiel in the survey of Domesday. Restormell castle was a seat of the Cardinans, and was probably built by them. We find it, in the year 1264, in the possession of Thomas Tracy, who married the heiress of that ancient baronial family. Among the documents of the Arundell family is a deed, dated at Restormell, by which the said Thomas Tracy surrendered the castle of Restormell, and the barony of Cardinham, to Ralph Arundell, to be held on behalf of Simon de Montfort, as a security against his enemies, who had threatened them with destruction (fn. n23). Restormell castle, not long afterwards, came into the possession of the Earls of Cornwall. Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, died seised of the manor, castle, and park of Restormell in 1300. As William of Worcester speaks of Restormell castle as having been the residence of Edmund Earl of Cornwall, it is probable, that as he seems to have been the first Earl who possessed it, he was the only one who inhabited it (fn. n24); although it has ever since continued to be annexed to the duchy. Thomas de la Hyde was made governor of Restormell castle in the year 1307 (fn. n25) : in 1331, William de Bottreaux resigned the command of it to John de Carminow (fn. n26). Restormell park was leased to the Earl of Bedford in 1559. So early as the year 1337, this castle is described in an official survey (fn. n27) as considerably out of repair: the details of the survey do not convey the idea of much magnificence or extensive accommodation; there were a hall, a chapel, three chambers, and three upper chambers, within the gates; without the gate, another hall and a chapel, two chambers and five upper chambers, besides the kitchen, &c. Leland speaks of the bass court of Restormell castle as sore defaced in his time; "the fair large dungeon," says he, "yet stondith, a chapel cast out of it, a newer work than it, and now onrofid." Carew, speaking of the ruinous condition of this castle, says, "Certes it may move compassion, that a palace so healthfull for aire, so delightfull for prospect, so necessary for commodities, so fayre for building, and so strong for defence, should in time of secure peace, and under the protection of his naturall princes, be wronged with those spoylings, then which it could endure no greater at the hands of any forrayne and deadly enemy, &c." Norden, who wrote about the same time, thus laments over the ruins of Restormell:—"The whole castle beginneth to mourne, and to wringe out harde stones for teares, that shee that was imbraced, visited and delighted with greate princes, is now desolate, forsaken and forelorne: the cannon needes not batter, nor the pioner to undermine, nor powder to blow up this so famous a pyle, for time and tirranie hath wrowght her desolation: her water pypes of lead, manie and of great use, are cutt up, the coveringe lead gone, the planchings rotten, the walls fall downe, the fayre and large chymnye peeces, and all that would yeld monie or serve for use, are converted to private men's purposes; and these remayneth a forlorne showe of honor, not contentinge anie compassionate eye to behold her lingrynge decayes. Men greyve to see the dying delayes of anie brute creature, so may we mourne to see so stately a pyle so longe a fallinge; if it be of noe use, the carcase would make some profit; therefore, if it deserve, let her fall be no longer delayde, els will it dropp peece-meale downe, and her now profitable reliques will then serve to little or no use. Ther is one Mr. Samuel hath it now by lease." Notwithstanding its ruinous condition, such was its commanding situation, that it was deemed expedient in the civil war so far to repair this castle, as to make it a place of defence; and it became first a garrison belonging to the parliament. Previously to the capitulation of Essex's army in 1644, it was taken by Sir Richard Grenville for the King, on the 21st of August (fn. n28). The Parliamentary Survey (fn. n29), taken in 1649, describes Restormell castle as utterly ruined, consisting merely of the outer walls, which were not worth the expence of taking down. The ruined walls of this castle, covered with ivy, still remain, situated on the edge of a lofty hill (fn. n30). Besides the chapels before-mentioned, there was one in the park, at the foot of the hill, dedicated to the Holy Trinity (fn. n31); on or near the site of the latter is a house, some time ago called Trinity, now Restormell house, occupied by John Hext, Esq., as tenant to the Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe, who has a lease of the manor, castle, and park (fn. n32). Restormell park was disparked by King Henry VIII., together with other parks in Cornwall, at the instance of Sir Richard Pollard (fn. n33). The manor of Polhorman, which was part of the large possessions of Sir Robert Tresilian, Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and was granted with other manors, after his attainder, to Sir Humphry Stafford (fn. n34), has been for many generations in the family of the present proprietor, the Rev. Nicholas Kendall, whose ancestors have long had their seat at Pelyn in this parish. The Kendalls of Pelyn are descended from Walter, third son of John Kendall of Treworgy, who married a daughter and coheir of Robert Holland, an illegitimate son of the Earl of Exeter.
The manor of Bodardle or Bodarle belonged, in the reign of Richard I., to Robert de Cardinham; and it is most probable, that it is was before in the Fitz-Williams by the match with whose heiress he acquired his large possessions in this county: in 1259 it was conveyed by Isolda de Cardinham, who had been the wife of Thomas Tracy, to Oliver de Dinaunt, in whose posterity it continued for several generations; it was afterwards in the family of Robartes, Earls of Radnor, and is now the property of their representative, the Honourable Mrs. Agar. The manor of Polchoath, a small portion of which lies in Lanlivery, and the other part in Lostwithiel and St. Winnow, is now also the property of Mrs. Agar, as representative of the Robartes family.
The manor of Steckstinton, which, by the name of Tregesteynton, belonged to the Carminows of Boconnoc, and passed from them to the Courtenays (fn. n35), belongs now to Lord Grenville, in right of his lady, having passed by the same title as Boconnoc.
In the parish-church are memorials for several of the family of Kendall of Pelyn (fn. n36). The church of Lanlivery, called sometimes Lanvorck, or the church of St. Vorck, which had been given to the monks of Tywardreth by Baldwin, son of Thurstan, was confirmed to them, in the reign of Richard I., by Robert de Cardinham (fn. n37). Lord Mount-Edgcumbe is now impropriator of the great tithes which had been appropriated to the monastery of Tywardreth. The advowson of the vicarage was granted to Walter Kendall, Esq., and his heirs, in the reign of Henry VIII., by the prior of Tywardreth, subject to the annual payment of four marks to that monastery (fn. n38). It is now vested in his descendant, the Rev. Nicholas Kendall of Pelyn. There were formerly chapels at Bodardle dedicated to St. Nicholas, and at Poldew dedicated to St. Peter, besides that in Restormell park already mentioned.
LANREATH, in the hundred and deanery of West, lies four miles and a half north-east from Fowey, five miles and a half south-south-east from Lostwithiel, and the same distance west-north-west from Looe, and seven south-west from Liskeard, which is the regular post-office town. There are cattle-fairs at Lanreath on Whit-Tuesday, and November 18; a third has, of late, been held three weeks after Shrove-Tuesday.
The manor of Lanreath, called, in ancient records, Lanrethou, belonged, as early as the reign of Edward I., to the family of Serjeaux, one of whose coheiresses brought it to the Pashleys: about 1512 it belonged to the heirs of John Chudleigh (fn. n39) : it was soon afterwards in the family of Chamond, from which it passed, by successive female heirs, to those of Trevanion (fn. n40) and Grylls: it was purchased of the latter, early in the last century, by the ancestor of Frederick Buller, Esq., the present proprietor. Court, the barton of this manor, on which is now a farmhouse (fn. n41), was formerly the seat of the Grylls family, ancestors of the Rev. R. G. Grylls of Helston.
The manor of Botelett was, at an early period, in the baronial family of Bottreaux (fn. n42), afterwards successively in those of Robartes, Earl of Radnor, and Treville: the coheiresses of the latter brought it to Brigadier-General Trelawney, and Mr. Cross: the Rev. Sir Harry Trelawney is now proprietor of one moiety of this manor; the other is, at present, in the possession of Sir John Lethbridge, Bart. The manor of Treyer or Treheire was, in the reign of Henry VIII., the joint property of Sir Peter Edgcumbe, and John Talcarne: of late years it has been the joint property of the Glynns and Rashleighs: in consequence of an exchange made, not long ago, the whole is now the property of E. J. Glynn, Esq. Trewen, some time a seat of the Dandys, and Trecan, a seat of the Lowers, are now both farm-houses.
In the parish-church there is a handsome monument for Charles Grylls, Esq., barrister at law, who died in 1611, and memorials for others of the family. There was formerly a chapel at Trefrawl in this parish, of which there are some remains. The advowson of the rectory was purchased in the early part of the last century of the Grylls family by J. F. Buller, Esq., and is now vested in John Buller, Esq. of Morval.
LANSALLOES, in the hundred and deanery of West, lies three miles east from Fowey, and two miles and a half west from Polperro, the western side of which is in this parish: the latter is the post-office town. Polperro, called by Leland Poulpirrhe, and described as "a little fischar town with a peere," has a small market on Friday, and a holiday fair on the 10th of July (St. Peter's day, old style). A mock mayor is elected on the occasion by a mock council of aldermen, and the fair generally continues the greater part of a week with much revelry. The situation of this little town, the other part of which is in the parish of Talland, is singularly romantic; the houses being situated on the sides of two steep rocky hills, which form a very narrow valley; a small river, which divides the two parishes, runs between. There is a harbour at Polperro for vessels of 150 tons burden; the trade is chiefly for coals and lime-stone: grain is occasionally exported. There is a pilchard-fishery at Polperro, and an extensive hook and line fishery, which supplies Bath, Plymouth, &c. with large quantities of fine whiting, pipers, dories, plaice, turbot, &c. There was formerly a chapel at Polperro dedicated to St. Peter (fn. n43), of which there are some remains called the chapel-house, on the brow of the western hill, above the town.
The principal villages in the parish of Lansalloes, exclusive of the church-town, (where is a holiday fair, formerly held on Valentine's day, now on Easter Tuesday,) are Tregavithick, Tregew or Tregue, and Trenewan.
The manor of Lansalloes was one of those which, at the time of the Domesday survey, was held under the Earl of Cornwall, by Richard, ancestor of the Fitz-Richards and Fitz-Williams: at an early period it was in the family of Boligh, from which it passed, by a female heir, to that of Killiow: a descendant of the latter sold it to John Speccot, Esq., of Penheale, under whose will it passed to the Longs: this manor, with that of Raphel, and the advowson of the rectory, are now the joint property of John Carpenter, Esq., of Mount-Tavy, near Tavistock, and the heirs of the late Thomas Phillipps, Esq., by descent from Sir Jonathan Phillipps, and the Rev. William Phillipps. The manor of Raphel or Raffell, formerly Rathwell, was anciently in the family of Hywis (fn. n44), from whom it passed, by a female heir, to the Coleshills: Sir John Coleshill died seised of it in 1483 (fn. n45) : it was not long afterwards in the Coplestones, by whom it was sold to the Speccots. (fn. n46)
The manor of Tregavithick was purchased of the Avery family, in 1751, by the Rev. Joshua Howell, and is now the property of his son, the Rev. J. F. Howell, one of the canons residentiary of Exeter, who possesses also the barton (purchased of Mascy in 1760), and several other farms in this parish. The barton of GreatTradford, formerly esteemed a manor, belonged for more than two centuries to the family of Wenmouth, the last of whom died in 1786; after which the estate was dismembered.
The manor of Polvethan, partly in this parish, and partly in St. Veep, belongs to William Rashleigh, Esq., of Menabilly, M. P. The barton of West-Lansalloes, or High-Town, belonging to Mr. Rashleigh and the Rev. J. C. Millett, was many years a seat of the Tingcombe family, the last of whom died in 1729. GreatKilliow, the seat of the Killiows, extinct in 1711, belongs to Frederic William Buller, Esq., under whom Mr. Zephaniah Job has a lease of the barton: the house is in ruins. East-Clusion is the property of John Hearle, Esq., of Tregony, whose family have possessed it about a century: the house is now occupied by a farmer. The manor or barton of Hall, the greater part of which is in Pelynt, extends into this parish.
LANTEGLOSS-JUXTA-CAMELFORD (so called to distinguish it from a parish of the same name near Fowey), lies in the hundred of Lesnewth and in the deanery of Trigg-Major, about a mile and a half distant south by west from the borough of Camelford, which is in this parish. The principal villages in the parish are, Fenterwanson, Forda, Helston, Trefrew, Tregoodwell, Tremagenna, Trevia, and Trewalder.
The manor of Helston, in Trigg, is one of the ancient duchy manors, and most of the lands in the parish are holden of it. The site of this manor is said to be what is called St. Syth's, or Michaelstow-Beacon, where are the vestiges of an ancient camp. The deer-park at Lantegloss, which was disparked by King Henry VIII., is held on lease under the duchy by John Wallis, Esq., of Bodmin. Helsbury park, partly in this parish and partly in Advent, is held on lease under the duchy by the Duke of Bedford. Fentonwoon, in this parish, was, for many years, the seat of a family of Wallis, now extinct (fn. n47) : it was sold by their representatives, in 1801, to Lovell Todd, Esq., by whom it was purchased, in 1812, by John Phillipps Carpenter, Esq., whose son is the present proprietor. Fentonwoon is now occupied as a farm-house. The Duke of Cornwall is patron of the rectory of Lantegloss. The Exeter Registers speak of a chapel of St. Andewin (perhaps Advent) in this parish.
Camelford was made a free borough by Richard, King of the Romans, who granted the burgesses a market on Friday and a fair at the festival of St. Swithin: this was confirmed by King Henry III. in 1259. The market is still held on Friday for corn and provisions. There are now four fairs for cattle, Friday after March 10, May 20, June 17 and 18. The corporation of Camelford consists of a mayor and eight burgesses or aldermen, incorporated by charter, 25 Charles II. This borough has sent two members to parliament ever since the reign of Edward VI.: the right of election is vested in the corporation and ten freemen: Sir Francis Cottington, afterwards Secretary of State, was one of the representatives of this borough in the last parliament of King James I.: Sir Charles Scarborough, the celebrated physician, was one of its representatives in the reign of James II. A new town-hall was built a few years ago at the expence of the Duke of Bedford: the first stone was laid June 26, 1806. There was an ancient chapel at Camelford, opposite the Bell Inn, dedicated to St. Thomas (fn. n48). The tenement of Tregarth, valued at 40l. per annum, was bequeathed, in 1679, by Sir James Smyth, for the erecting a school-house, and maintenance of a school: a new school-house is now about to be erected by the corporation.
The neighbourhood of Camelford is supposed by some writers to have been the site of a memorable battle between King Arthur and his nephew Modred, in which the latter was killed on the spot, and Arthur received his mortal wound. Camelford is supposed also to have been the Gafulford of the Saxon Chronicle, or, as some ancient historians write it, Gavelford, where King Egbert had a battle with the Britons in the year 823. (fn. n49)
Leland calls Polruan "a good fischar towne, where is a tower of force marching again the tower on Fowey side. There was ons, as is said, a chaine to go over the haven from tower to toure (fn. n50)." Polruan furnished one ship and sixty mariners to the English fleet before Calais, in the reign of Edward III. (fn. n51) There was formerly a market at this village on Tuesdays, and a fair at the festival of the Holy Trinity, granted to Philip Daubeny in 1291. (fn. n52) Bodinneck is described by Leland as "a poore fishar village, where was the passage or trajectus to Fowey." (fn. n53)
The manors of Lantegloss, Hall, Tolcarne, and Bodinneck, belonged to the Mohuns; the three last appear to have been inherited from the Fitz-William family, whose heiress married Sir Reginald Mohun in the early part of the fourteenth century (fn. n54). They are now, in right of his lady, the property of Lord Grenville; having been purchased by her ancestor, Thomas Pitt, Esq., with the Boconnoc estate. The manor of Lantegloss is spoken of, in a document of the reign of Henry III. (fn. n55), as having belonged to Ralph de Sulloia: about the year 1512 it was the property of Henry Bromond (fn. n56). The barton of Hall, which had been the chief seat of the Mohuns before they removed to Boconnoc, and most probably at an earlier period of the Fitz-William family, was sold by Warwick Lord Mohun to the Kekewichs. This mansion, which sustained much injury in the civil war, was taken on the 13th of August, 1644, by Sir Richard Grenville, and made a garrison for the King (fn. n57); what remains of it is now fitted up as a farm-house.
The manor of Polruan belonged to the Daubeny family as early as the year 1291, and till the year 1420: it appears to have been soon afterwards in that of Molins, and to have been inherited by the Lords Hungerford. This manor, together with Usse or Uske, are the property of William Rashleigh, Esq., M. P. of Menabilly, whose ancestor, John Rashleigh, Esq., possessed them in the reign of James I. (fn. n58) The manor of Lamellin passed in marriage with the heiress of a family of that name to the Trelawneys, of whom it was purchased by the Bullers. After the death of J. F. Buller, Esq., it was alienated on a lease of 999 years to Joseph Copley, Esq., who, in 1768, sold it to the Rev. Joshua Howell, father of the Rev. J. F. Howell, canon residentiary of Exeter, who purchased the fee, and is the present proprietor. Lamellin, which was the seat of the Lamellins, and afterwards of the Trelawneys, is now a farm-house.
The manor of Trethake, in this parish, was divided between Edward Hobson, Esq. of Chichester, and Jonathan Trelawney, Esq. of Coldrinnick, in 1679. The whole is now the property of David Howell, Esq., a minor. Trelawney's part, consisting of the barton of Treneer in Lantegloss, and Penkelly in Pelynt, became the property of Mr. Howell's father, by exchange with the late Edward Trelawney, Esq. of Coldrinnick, for the manor of Maders, and the barton of SouthPaderda in St. Germans. Hobson's part, consisting of the barton of Trethake and Trethake-mills, was purchased by the late Mr. Howell of the representatives of Hobson, in 1802.
The barton of Trevorder is in moieties, one of which has been successively in the families of Wallis, Fisher, Beale, and Williams, having passed by marriage and devise, and is now the property of the Rev. Jonathan Williams; the other was successively in the families of Maydhope, Poe, Chiverton, and Trelawney: it is now, by exchange for estates in St. Germans, the property of David Howell, Esq. Lanlawren, some time a seat of the Hawkeys, afterwards successively the property of the families of Sawle and Fisher, is now (in consequence of two several purchases made by himself and his father) the property of the Rev. J. F. Howell. The manor of Polvethan, chiefly in Lansalloes, extends into this parish.
In Lantegloss church are some memorials of the Mohun family, particularly Thomas Mohun, who died in 1400, being grandson of Sir Reginald, who married the heiress of Fitzwilliam; and John Mohun, Esq., and Ann his wife, who died within twenty-four hours of each other, in the year 1508, "ex infirmitate vocatâ Sudee" (the sweating sickness). There is a monument also for Captain Benjamin Young of the Royal navy, who died in 1649. There were formerly chapels at Polruan, dedicated to St. Saviour and the Holy Trinity; the ruins of the former, which was annexed to Lantegloss church, still remain on a hill, which is called from it St. Saviour's hill. There were chapels also at Lanlawren alias Pensidon; at Hall; and at Bodinnick, one dedicated to St. John the Baptist. (fn. n59)
The church of Lantegloss, which appears to have been, at an early period, annexed to the manor of that name (fn. n60), was given by Robert de Boyton, in the reign of Edward I., to the hospital of St. James at Bridgewater (fn. n61). The great tithes are now vested in Lord Grenville, who is patron of the vicarage. William of Worcester says, that St. Willow the Hermit and Martyr was beheaded at Lantegloss, near the place where Walter Hart, Bishop of Norwich, who was the son of a miller at this place, was born. (fn. n62)