Magna Britannia: Volume 3, Cornwall. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1814.
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LAWHITTON, in the deanery and in the north division of the hundred of East, lies about two miles south-east of Launceston, which is the post-office town; eight miles north of Callington; and about ten miles from Tavistock in Devonshire. There was formerly a market at Lawhitton, on Wednesday, granted in 1312 to the Bishop of Exeter, together with a fair at the festival of St. Michael (fn. n1); both long ago discontinued. The principal villages in this parish, exclusively of the church-town, are Carsantec, Luccombe, and Tregeda.
The manor of Lawhitton was given by Edward the Elder, about the year 905, to the Bishops of Crediton: on the union of the fees, it became annexed, as it has ever since continued, to the bishopric of Exeter, under which it is held on a lease for lives. The lease was for many generations in the family of Bennet, and when the crown lands were put up to sale during the usurpation, the lessee, who was a colonel in the parliamentary army, purchased the fee. At the Restoration the Bennets reverted to their former situation, as lessees. In Bishop Lavington's time, the lease having expired through neglect, the Bishop put in the life of his only daughter, afterwards married to the late Rev. Nutcombe Nutcombe, chancellor of the church of Exeter. The Bennet family had a seat in this parish, called Hexworthy, with a considerable freehold estate: this is now the property and residence of Edmund Prideaux, Esq., a relation of the Bennets by marriage (fn. n2). There is another manor in this parish, belonging to the see of Exeter, called Sheers-Barton. According to the custom of this manor, lands are granted for three lives without widowhood; in the manor of Lawhitton, the leases are with widowhood.
In the parish-church is a memorial for Richard Bennet, "Counsellor at Law," 1619, and a monument of artificial stone in memory of Richard Coffin, the last heir-male of the Bennet family, who died in 1786: he took the name of Coffin from his mother, who was heiress of the Coffins of Portlege. The rectory of Lawhitton is in the patronage of the Bishop of Exeter.
LESNEWTH, in the hundred of that name and in the deanery of Trigg-Minor, lies five miles north-north-east from Camelford, which is the post-office town, and about fourteen west-north-west from Launceston. The principal village in this parish, exclusively of the church-town, is Treworrell. The manor of Lesnewth, to which the rectory of Lesnewth is annexed, was, in the reign of Charles I., in the family of Dennis (fn. n3). It is now the property of E. J. Glynn, Esq., in whose family it has been nearly a century. The manor of Helset, in this parish, formerly belonging to the family of Colyn (fn. n4), was purchased of Charles Rashleigh, Esq., about the year 1787, by the Rev. Digory Jose, and is now the property of his son Mr. John Jose. Grylls, formerly a seat of the Betensons, is now a farm-house, the property of E. J. Glynn, Esq.
ST. LEVAN, in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Penwith, lies about eight miles south-west of Penzance, and about three miles south-east from the Land's-end. The principal villages in this parish are, Bosistow, Raughton, commonly called Rafton, Trebean, Trengothal, and Treryn or Treen. Raughton and Bosistow, both some time seats of the Davies family, and the latter, at an earlier period, of the Bosistows, are now farm-houses. Treryn or Treen castle (fn. n5) is in this parish. In this parish is St. Levan's well, with an oratory; and at the distance of about a quarter of a mile, the site of an old chapel, called Port-chapel; and a mile to the eastward, that of another, called ChapelCurnow.
LEWANNICK, in the deanery and in the north-division of the hundred of East, lies five miles south-west from Launceston, which is the post-office town, and nine north-west from Callington. The principal villages in this parish are Hicks's mill, Pollyfont, Trenhorne, and Trevadlock.
The manor of Trelaske belonged to the Uptons, whose coheiresses brought it to two brothers of the Lower family, in the reign of Henry VIII. Thomas Lower, Esq., who died in 1703, sold the barton and a moiety of the manor to John Addis, Esq., whose son, in 1720, purchased the other moiety of William Plowden and others. William Addis, Esq., in 1741, bequeathed the whole to Nicholas Swete Archer, great uncle of Samuel Archer, Esq., the present proprietor.
The manor of Tinney-hall, in the latter part of the seventeenth century, belonged to Mrs. Dorothy Beaumont, who bequeathed it to her nephew John Speccot, Esq., of Penhele. Having been devised by the latter to Thomas Long, Esq., who died about the year 1730; it is now, by the issue of a suit at law, with the husband of Mr. Long's daughter, the property of his heir at law, the Rev. Charles Sweet, of Kentisbury, in Devonshire. The manor of Trevell has been dismembered; all the proprietors of estates within it being possessed of manerial rights on their own lands.
The manor of Pollyfont, which had been parcel of the possessions of the priory of Minster alias Talcarne, has, since the Reformation, been annexed to the rectory of Minster. The manor of Trefrize, partly in this parish, belongs to the Rev. Sir Carew Vyvyan, Bart. Upton, some time the seat of Richard Wadge, Esq., is now a farm-house, the property of F. H. Rodd, Esq., of Trebartha Hall.
The great tithes of Lewannick, which were formerly appropriated to the priory of Launceston, were purchased, in 1807, of the Honourable William Eliot, by the present proprietor William Hocken, Esq., of Trewanta Hall, in this parish. The vicarage is in the gift of the crown. There is the site of a decayed chapel at Pollyfont.
LEZANT, in the deanery and in the north division of the hundred of East, lies about three miles and a half south of Launceston, which is the post-office town, six miles and a half nearly north of Callington, and about ten north-west of Tavistock, in Devonshire (fn. n6). The principal villages in this parish are, Larrick, Rosane, Trebollet, Treburley, and Trewarlet.
The manor of Lawhitton extends over the greater part of this parish. The small manor of Trebollet is in severalties, having been sold by the coheirs of Walter Kendall, M.D., who acquired it by marrying the widow of Edmund Herle, Esq., of Landew, in this parish. Landew, which had before been the seat of a younger branch of the Tresusis family, whose heiress brought it to the Herles, is now a farm-house, the property and residence of Mr. William Bant. Northmore Herle, Esq., the last of that family, bequeathed his estates in this parish, to his half-sisters, the daughters of Dr. Kendall.
Trecarrell, formerly a seat of the family of that name, was in Carew's time, divided between three coheirs. "Master Christopher Harries," says he, "owneth a part of Trecarrel (the project and onset of a sumptuous building), as coheir to the last gentleman of that name." King Charles I., upon his entrance into Cornwall, on the first of August 1644, slept at Trecarrell, then the seat of —— Manaton, Esq. (fn. n7) : it belonged afterwards to the Wortleys. On the sale of Lady Bute's property, in this neighbourhood, it was purchased by Mr. Thomas Sargent, the tenant, and is now the property of his nephew, Mr. Anthony Geake, by whom it is occupied as a farm-house. The old hall and chapel are still remaining.
Botonet, in this parish, described by Norden as a seat of the Lowers, has, since his time, passed through various hands: the old mansion has been pulled down; the barton belongs to Mr. George Sargent.
An extent of the duchy of Cornwall, dated 17 Jac. I., describes an estate called Tymberthan alias Temple-park, then the joint property of Richard Edgcumbe, Esq., and Richard Connock (who had succeeded Sir John Chicester), to which estate the bailiwick of the hundred of East was annexed. We suppose this to be Timbrelham in Lezant.
In the parish-church is a monument for the family of Tresusis of Landew. The Bishop of Exeter is patron of the rectory. There was formerly a chapel in this parish, dedicated to St. Lawrence; another at Landew, dedicated to St. Bridget, and a third at Trecarrel (the walls of which are now standing), dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen. (fn. n8)
LINKINHORNE, in the deanery, and in the north division of the hundred of East, lies about seven miles south from Launceston; about the same distance north-northeast from Liskeard, and four miles nearly north from Callington, which is the post-office town. Besides the church-town, there are three small villages in the parish, Rilla-mill, Rillaton, and Upton.
The manor of Rillaton, and that of Carnadon-Prior, in which the church stands, said to have been antiently called the manor of Linkinhorne, are parcel of the duchy of Cornwall. The former was annexed to it in the reign of Edward III., together with the Bedelry of East-Wivelshire. Carnadon had belonged to the priory of Launceston, and was one of the manors annexed to the duchy by King Henry VIII., in lieu of the honor of Wallingford. On Carnadon, commonly called Carraton downs, is some of the highest ground in the county: it was on these downs that King Charles I. drew up his forces on the 2d of August, 1644, the day after he had entered Cornwall, and here he was joined by Prince Maurice. (fn. n9)
The duchy manors of Stoke-Climsland and Climsland-Prior, extend into this parish. There was formerly a manor of Newland in Linkinhorne, which came to the Peverells, in or about the reign of Edward I., by inheritance from the Dynhams (fn. n10), one of which, with a moiety of the manor of Rillaton-Peverell in this parish, was successively in the families of Hungerford and Hastings: this manor is not now known; a small estate of the name is held under the duchy. The manor of Rillaton Peverell was in severalties in 1728, between the heirs of Vincent and Dennis (fn. n11), and since in the Darleys, as heirs of the Vincents, and in the Morsheads. We cannot learn who is the present proprietor of this estate; yet it appears that the late Humphrey Lawrence, Esq. gave a deputation for it in 1792.
The manor of Pengelly or Rillaton-Pengelly is the property of F. H. Rodd, Esq., whose father purchased it, in or about the year 1803, of the Rashleigh family. The manor of Padreda, which was the seat of the Lampens, was sold by that family about the year 1680; in 1728 the barton, which before that time appears to have lost its manerial rights, was the property of James Tillie, Esq. (fn. n12); it now belongs to J. Tillie Coryton, Esq., the old mansion being occupied as a farmhouse.
The manor of Trefrize or Trefry's was formerly of considerable importance, and extended over several estates in this parish, Lewannick, and Northill. It has been supposed that it belonged to the family of Trefry; if so, it was most probably at a remote period, and a distinct family from that of Treffry in Lanhidrock (fn. n13). We can find no records which describe it as the property of Trefry: the last sole possessor was Sir Henry Trecarrell, of Trecarrell in Lezant; it afterwards became divided among his three coheirs, one of whom was Christopher Harris, of Trecarrell; but his share did not continue long in the Harris family. In 1620 it was divided between Sir Francis Vyvyan, Thomas Kendall, Esq., and John Ley alias Kempthorne (fn. n14); in 1728 between Sir Francis Vyvyan, Bart., Thomas Waddon, Esq., and Captain Pyper (fn. n15). The heiress of Pyper married Vyvyan, and the whole manor became vested in the Vyvyan family. It is now the property of the Rev. S. Carew Vyvyan, Bart. Various estates, parcel of the demesnes of the manor, have been sold, and are now the property of Mr. John Peter, Mr. John Foot, and others.
The writer of the MS. history of Linkinhorne, already quoted, written in the year 1728, speaks of Trefrize or Trefrys, as having been the seat of the great Lord Trefrey; and says, that there were the remains of the hall, with great windows; that there was a chapel about a quarter of a mile from the barton, near a well, called Lower-Halwell in the Chapel-park, the ruins of which were then to be seen; that Sir Henry Trecarrell, the possessor of Trefrize, was a great builder; but that, in consequence of the loss of his only son (fn. n16), he left his great buildings at Trecarrell in Lezant unfinished, and dedicated his fortune to pious uses, building the church of St. Mary Magdalen at Launceston, and the tower and north side of the church at Linkinhorne. The immediate site of Trefrize barton now belongs to Mr. Joseph Garland: there are no remains of the house or chapel.
The church of Linkinhorne, dedicated to St. Meliora, was given to the prior and convent of Launceston, by Reginald, son of King Henry I. The monks, not satisfied with having procured the appropriation of the great tithes, endeavoured to get the vicarage also into their own hands; and had obtained, under pretence of poverty, the Pope's bull for that purpose; but it having been represented to the convocation, that they possessed estates to the amount of 1000l. per annum, the bull was annulled (fn. n17). The great tithes, some time after the Reformation, became vested in the Lampen family, by whom those on the east side of the Lynher were sold, about the year 1680, to Cloberry; and those on the west side to James Tillie, Esq., from whom they have descended to J. Tillie Coryton, Esq.: the former are now the property of —— Lyons, Esq. Robert Lydstone Newcombe, Esq., of Exeter, is patron of the vicarage. There was formerly a chapel at CarnadonPrior dedicated to St. John the Baptist. (fn. n18)
There is a free-school for all the children of this parish, founded in 1710 by Charles Roberts, and endowed with the interest of 705l. 14s. 1d., two-thirds of which is appropriated as a salary for the schoolmaster who teaches the boys; the remainder for that of a schoolmistress.
The remarkable stones called the Cheesewring, already spoken of, and the Hurlers, are in this parish; the former on a hill called Stows, on the common of Rillaton manor: the Hurlers are on the common of the manor of Carnadon-Prior. Sharp-Tor, already spoken of, from which there is a remarkably fine view, is also in this parish.
Liskeard was made a free borough in 1240, by Richard Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans, who bestowed on the burgesses the same privileges which he had already granted to those of Launceston and Helston. His son Edmund, in 1275, granted them the fee of the borough, with the profits arising from the markets, fairs, &c., subject to a rent of 18l. per annum, which rent King William III. granted to Lord Somers; it is now paid to Lord Eliot, who purchased it of the late Lord Somers.
The date of the original charter of incorporation is not known. Queen Elizabeth's charter of 1580 confirms the right of the mayor and burgesses (fn. n19), and provides that the corporation shall consist of nine burgesses, to be called the common-council of the said borough, whereof one for the time being shall be yearly chosen mayor, and have power to choose a steward and recorder; and that the mayor and recorder be justices of the peace, within the borough, &c. This borough has sent members to parliament ever since the reign of Edward I. The right of election is vested in the corporation and freemen, the number of electors being now about 45. In the list of representatives for this borough, we find the name of Lord Chief Justice Coke.
Leland speaks of the market at Liskeard as "the best in Cornwall, savyng Bodmyn." In his time the market was held on Monday, and there are still three great markets on that day; Shrove-Monday, the Monday after Palm-Sunday, and the Monday after St. Nicholas's day. Browne Willis says, that in his time the market at Liskeard much exceeded that of Bodmin; it was then held, as it now is, on Saturday (fn. n20). It is most amply supplied with all sorts of provisions; a great portion of which is purchased for the supply of the market at Plymouth-Dock. There are three large cattle fairs; Holy-Thursday, the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, and St. Matthew's-day, O.S. (October 2.) Liskeard is one of the four towns for the coinage of tin; but there has been no coinage held there of late years. Browne Willis speaks of Liskeard as the largest town in Cornwall, containing, as he was informed, a thousand houses. He must have been much misinformed (fn. n21), as the population appears, by the parish-register, to have been considerably increased within the last century. In 1801, there were in the town of Liskeard 323 houses, and 1860 inhabitants; in 1811, 364 houses, and 1975 inhabitants, according to the returns made to parliament at those periods.
In the town of Liskeard was a nunnery of poor Clares, founded and endowed by Richard Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans, of which we have not been able to procure any further account. A great part of the conventual buildings, known by the name of the Great Place, still remains, converted into dwelling-houses: the chapel is now a bake-house.
The principal villages in this parish are, Dabwalls, about two miles and a half to the west; Lamellin, a mile to the south-west; Trevelmond, about four miles westward; and Treweedland, about four miles to the south-east of the town. The parish has five divisions; the borough, constitution-lands, north, south, and west sides.
A battle was fought near Liskeard, on the 19th of January 1643, between Sir Ralph Hopton and the parliamentary forces, in which the latter were defeated. Sir Ralph marched into Liskeard with his army that night (fn. n22). King Charles, on his entrance into Cornwall in 1644, halted at Liskeard on the 2d of August, and stayed there till the 7th. (fn. n23)
The manor of Liskeard is part of the ancient possessions of the Earls of Cornwall, and was one of those annexed to the duchy by act of parliament, in the reign of Edward III. It is not improbable that the manor-house or castle was built by Richard King of the Romans, who occasionally resided in it. A survey of the year 1337 (fn. n24) calls it a manor-house, and describes it as having a hall, chapel, and six chambers, all out of repair. William of Worcester, who visited Cornwall in the reign of Edward IV., speaks of Liskeard castle in his Itinerary, as then standing, and one of the palaces of the Duke. Leland, speaking of this castle, says, it is "now al in ruine; fragments and pieces of waulle yet stonde: the site of it is magnificent and looketh over all the towne." Carew supposes the castle of Liskeard to have been of no great antiquity. "Of later times," says he, "the castle served the Earl of Cornwall for one of his houses; but now that later is worm-eaten, out of time and use." In the survey of crown-lands (fn. n25), taken by order of parliament in 1649, Liskeard castle is described as much ruined and in decay, the materials being not worth the taking down: it was then held at the will of the lord, by John Harris, Esq.: within the ruined walls was an old schoolhouse for the manor. The site of the castle, with the manor, was sold soon afterwards, by order of parliament, to Ralph Margery and Thomas Rawlins. There are no remains of the castle, which stood on the north side of the town. The park described in the survey of 1337 above-quoted, as a new park, in which were then 200 deer, was disparked by King Henry VIII.; the land which it comprized, (still called the Park,) was leased to Sir Warwick Hele, in 1619: this estate is now on lease to Lord Eliot.
The manor of Liskeard-Coleshill takes its name from the family of Coleshill, who possessed it in the fifteenth century (fn. n26) : Emanuel Langford had five parts out of six in 1620 (fn. n27) : at a later period it was in the Pypers, from whom it passed, by a female heir, to the Vyvyans: it is now the property of Samuel Kekewich, Esq., by bequest from John Trehawke, Esq., who purchased it of the Vyvyans.
The manor of Hagland, situated almost wholly within the borough, which is said to have belonged to a chantry-chapel at Launceston, was for many generations in the Connocks, and is now vested in Mrs. Arminel Inch and her sister, as devisees of the late Mrs. Connock of Treworgy. The manor of Lamellin or Lamelwyn, which belonged formerly to the Whalesborowe family, is the property of Lady Morshead, relict of the late Sir John Morshead, Bart. The manor of Cartuther, the property of Samuel Kekewich, Esq., extends into this parish, but lies chiefly in Menheniot. The manor of Fursdon, the site of which is in Liskeard, although it extends into several, and some of them distant parishes, belongs to Robert Lovell Gwatkin, Esq., whose grandfather purchased it of the Trefusis family. The manor of Trevilles, belonging to the Honourable Mrs. Agar, as representative of the Robartes family, extends into this parish: the site is in St. Pinnock.
Tremabe in Liskeard, formerly a seat of the Langfords (fn. n28), is now a farm-house. Landrest, formerly a seat of the Harris's (fn. n29), is now a farm-house, belonging to John Harris, Esq., of Mount-Radford in Devonshire.
In the parish-church at Liskeard, is a memorial for Joseph Wadham, who died in 1707, "being the last of that family, whose ancestors were the founders of Wadham college in Oxford." The church of Liskeard was appropriated to the priory of Launceston, to which it had been given by Reginald, Earl of Cornwall, natural son of King Henry I. An attempt was made by the monks to get the vicarage also into their hands, and they procured the Pope's bull for that purpose; but it was afterwards annulled (fn. n30). The impropriate rectory was granted, in 1565, to John Harris (fn. n31). The greater part of this estate has lately been sold in parcels by his descendant, John Harris, Esq., of Mount-Radford. Peter Frye Hony, LL. B., the present incumbent, is patron of the vicarage.
There was formerly a chapel in Liskeard park, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, to which there was a great resort of pilgrims. It was determined in the reign of Edward II., that the incumbent of the parish-church had no right to the oblations made at this chapel (fn. n32). There was formerly, also, a chapel at Lamellin (fn. n33); and there is the site of a decayed chapel, which has been long in ruins, at Lean-hill, about three miles south-east of Liskeard. There are three meeting-houses in Liskeard, belonging to the independents, quakers, and methodists: the former was originally built, by the Johnson family, for the Presbyterians. Defoe, in his tour through Great Britain in the early part of the last century, speaks of it as a large new-built meeting-house; and observes, that there were only three more in Cornwall. A volume of poems by the Rev. Henry Moore, some time minister of this meeting, was published after his death, under the superintendence of Dr. Aikin.
There is a grammar-school at Liskeard, supported by the corporation, with a salary of 30l. per annum. Dean Prideaux and Walter Moyle were educated at this school (fn. n34). A charity-school for poor children, in which ten girls are now taught, was founded by the trustees of the charitable donation of the Rev. St. John Eliot, who died in 1760, and endowed by them with 5l. per annum. One of Mr. Buller's schools, endowed out of the Long annuities, some time since run out, was at Liskeard.
Lostwithiel, Loswithiel, or Lestwithiel
LOSTWITHIEL, LOSWITHIEL, or LESTWITHIEL, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Powder, is an ancient borough and market town, situated six miles from Bodmin, about 28 from Plymouth, and 236½ from London. Mr. Whitaker supposes Lostwithiel to have been the residence of Withiel the first Earl of Cornwall; and that he had his palace at Penkneth, now part of the borough, but in the parish of Lanlivery, on the opposite side of the brook. For some time after the Conquest, we do not find it among the possessions of the Earl of Cornwall: it is most probable, that, though not mentioned by name, it was among the possessions which Richard held under the Earl, at the time of the Domesday survey. It is certain, that in the reign of Richard I., his descendant Robert de Cardinham was lord of this town, it being on record that he gave ten marks to the crown for the privilege of establishing a market here (fn. n35). In the early part of Henry III.'s reign, Andrew de Cardinham gave the borough of Lostwithiel to the prior and convent of Tywardreth, subject to suit of court, to him and his heirs: it appears, nevertheless, to have been afterwards in the Earls of Cornwall, and to have been annexed to the duchy by King Edward III., with the manor of Penkneth (fn. n36). Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans, made Lestwithiel, including Penkneth, a free borough. Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, his son, appears to have been the chief benefactor to this town; he erected handsome buildings, at a great charge, for his Exchequer, for a shire-hall, &c. ordaining, that the coinage (fn. n37) and sale of tin should be at Lostwithiel only, and that all the county-meetings should be held there. These privileges, after his death, were soon disregarded, for we find that, in 1314, the burgesses of Lostwithiel complain, that the men of Bodmin, Truro, and Helston, had caused tin to be sold at those towns; and that the prior of Bodmin had then lately procured the county-meetings to be held at Bodmin. On their petition to parliament, they got redress; but it is most probable, that their exclusive possession of these privileges was of short duration. The county-elections, however, continue to this day to be held here, and the Epiphany and Midsummer quarter-sessions.
It appears doubtful, whether there was ever a palace of the Earls of Cornwall at Lostwithiel (fn. n38); the building which is supposed to have been the palace, was, no doubt, the same that was erected by Edmund Earl of Cornwall, for his court of Exchequer, with a hall, &c.: in this hall, which is yet standing, were held the Stannary parliaments: here is also the Stannary court, with a prison adjoining, the only one in the county belonging to the Stannaries, used occasionally by the county during the sessions. The county-elections and the sessions are held at the town-hall, in the Fore-street, which was built by Lord MountEdgcumbe, in 1740: at other times it is occupied by the writing-school.
The town of Lostwithiel was incorporated by James I. in 1623; the charter was renewed by King George II. in 1732. The corporation consists of seven capital burgesses, one of whom is annually elected mayor, and seventeen assistants. This borough has sent members to parliament ever since the reign of Edward I.: the right of election is vested in the corporation. Addison the poet was some time one of its representatives. The market is on Friday, by prescription: a corn-market, free of toll, has lately been established. There are three fairs for the sale of horses, bullocks, sheep, &c.; July 10, September 4, and November 13. The number of houses in Lostwithiel in 1801, was 125; that of inhabitants, 743: in 1811, the number of houses was 137; that of inhabitants, 825.
Lostwithiel was, in the summer of 1644, the head-quarters of the Earl of Essex's army: previously to this, a battle had been fought near the town, in which Sir Richard Grenville, commanding some of the King's forces, was defeated by Lord Robartes's brigade. Dugdale relates, that the church of Lostwithiel was profaned by Essex's soldiers, and injured by an explosion of gun-powder.
In the parish-church is a memorial for Tristram Curtys, Esq., who died in 1423: this ancient family, since extinct, occasionally represented the borough from the reign of Edward I. to that of Henry V.: this Tristram Curtys was member for Lostwithiel in the ninth year of King Henry V.: Leland speaks of his descendant, as "a man of 100 marks land, dwelling between Blowghan and Penknek by Lostwithiel." The curious font has been already spoken of. The church of Lostwithiel was appropriated to the priory of Tywardreth. The Prince of Wales, as Duke of Cornwall, is patron of the vicarage, which is endowed with the great tithes; but from the small extent of the parish, which comprizes only a few meadows and orchards adjoining the town, they are of small value.
There is a grammar-school in this town, established by the corporation about the year 1770; the master has a salary of 30l. per annum. There is also a writing-school, to the master of which the corporation allows a salary of 10l. per annum. One of the schools, endowed with 5l. per annum, for the education of poor children, by the trustees of Mr. St. John Eliot's charitable donation, is at this place.
Samuel Austin, a native of Lostwithiel, (born in 1606,) published a work called "Urania, or the Heavenly Muse;" his son, of the same name, published several things in verse and prose. (fn. n39)
LUDGVAN, in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Penwith, lies about three miles north-east from Penzance, which is the post-office town, and nearly the same distance nearly north-west from Marazion. The principal villages in this parish are, Bowgyhere, Carvossen-Downs, Crowliss, LudgvanLees, and Tornewidden. About half a mile below the church-town, crossing the road to Marazion, is a vallum, thrown up in the civil war by the parliamentary forces, when they besieged St. Michael's Mount.
The manor of Ludgvan-Lees was granted by Richard Earl of Cornwall to the family of Ferrers, from whom it passed, by successive female heirs, to those of Champernown and Willoughby (Lord Brooke). The coheiresses of the latter brought it to Pawlet and Blount (Lord Montjoy): it now belongs to the coheirs of the late Duke of Bolton. The barton of Tremenhere is the property of John Rogers, Esq., of Penrose, who has an occasional residence at Trassow or Trerassow, in this parish.
In the parish-church lies buried the learned Dr. Borlase, author of "The Natural History and Antiquities of Cornwall, and Observations on the Scilly Islands (fn. n40)," who was for 52 years rector of this parish, as appears by a Latin inscription on his tomb, already partially obliterated. Dr. Borlase communicated several papers to the Royal Society, which are printed in their Transactions; and had prepared for the press, and began printing, a treatise concerning the Creation and Deluge. Dr. Borlase was also for 40 years vicar of his native parish, St. Just: he died August 31, 1772, in the 77th year of his age. The advowson of the rectory is an appendage of the manor of Ludgvan-Lees. There were chapels, formerly, at Trewell, Ludgvan-Lees, and on the tenement of Collurian (fn. n41) : the latter, of which there are some small remains, was dedicated to St. Thomas, and acquired the corrupted name of Tubmas-Chapel.
LUXULION, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Powder, lies about four miles west-by-south from Lostwithiel, which is the post-office town; about the same distance north-north-east from St. Austell; six miles and a half north-west-by-north from Fowey; and eight and a half south-by-west from Bodmin. The principal villages in this parish are, the church-town, Coanse, Higher and Lower Mennadue or Menerdue, and Treskilling.
The manor of Luxulion was in the Rashleigh family as early as the reign of Charles I., having been purchased of the Couches; this is now the property of William Rashleigh, Esq., M.P. Another manor of Luxulion, which belongs to the Honourable Mrs. Agar, as representative of the Robartes family, was in the Collins family in the reign of Queen Elizabeth (fn. n42). It was purchased, in the year 1628, by Richard Lord Robartes, of Nicholas Kendall, Esq. and others. Mrs. Agar has also the manor of Bodwithgy (which belonged at an early period to the Cardinhams (fn. n43), and is said by Hals to have been a seat of the Prideaux family); it was purchased by her ancestor, John Robartes, of the Carminows, in the year 1583: this manor extends into Lanivet.
The duchy manor of Grediowe is partly in this parish. The manor of Prideaux belonged to the ancient family of that name, who had a castle on the site of the barton. It passed, with the heiress of the elder branch, to the Hearles of Northumberland, the last of whom gave his estates to his sisters-in-law, the daughters (by the same mother) of Walter Kendall, M.D. (fn. n44) Prideaux is now the property and seat of John Coleman Rashleigh, Esq. It was purchased, in or about 1806, of the representatives of Dr. Kendall's daughters, by Charles Rashleigh, Esq., who (about twelve months afterwards) sold it to his nephew, the present proprietor.
The church of Luxulion was appropriated to the priory of Tywardreth: the great tithes are now in severalties, one moiety belonging to Mr. Henry Udy; three-eighths of the other to Charles Rashleigh, Esq.; and one-eighth to Miss Sophia Roberts. J. C. Rashleigh, Esq. is patron of the vicarage, by purchase from the Rev. N. Kendall, of Pelyn.