Magna Britannia: Volume 3, Cornwall. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1814.
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MAKER, near Plymouth-dock, in the deanery and in the south division of the hundred of East, lies partly in Devonshire and partly in Cornwall. The church is in Devonshire. The village or rather town of Inceworth, in this parish, is in the county of Cornwall. A market at Inceworth on Tuesdays, and a fair for three days at Michaelmas, were granted, in 1319, to Richard Champernown (fn. n1). The market has been long disused, but a cattle-fair is still held at Milbrook, within the manor of Inceworth, on the 29th of September; another cattle-fair has lately been established on the first of May.
The manor of Inceworth, which had been at a very early period in the Valetorts, came to the Champernowns as a marriage-portion with Joan, natural daughter of Richard, King of the Romans, by Joan Valetort, a coheiress of that family: the Champernowns continued to possess this manor in the reign of Henry VI.: it has been a considerable time in the Trefusis family, and is now the property of the Right Honourable Lord Clinton. There was formerly a chapel at Inceworth. The ancient mansion of the Champernowns was remaining in Carew's time.
Milbrook, which Leland calls "a riche fischar town," is partly in Devonshire and partly in Cornwall. Hals says, that Milbrook formerly sent members to parliament, and that it lost that privilege in the reign of Henry VIII., because it could not afford to pay its burgesses their wages of 4s. a day during their attendance in parliament: we find no other authority for this; there is no mention of Milbrook among the disused boroughs in Willis's Notitia Parliamentaria. Milbrook was garrisoned for King Charles I. in 1643.
Mount-Edgcumbe, the fine seat of the Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe, which came to his ancestors by a match with the heiress of Durnford, in or about the reign of Henry VIII., is in this parish, but in the county of Devon: part of the demesne is in Cornwall.
Manaccan or Manackan
MANACCAN or MANACKAN, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Kirrier, lies about ten miles from Helston, which is the post-office town. The principal village in this parish, except the church-town, is Helford, at the haven of that name, where there is some trade for timber and coals from Wales, and a passage over the Hel. Kestell, or Kestle, was the seat of an ancient family of that name, which became extinct, in the male line, in 1719. The barton passed in moieties to the daughters of John Kestell, married to Langford and Penrose: it is now a farm-house, the property of Sir William Lemon, Bart. A branch of the Penrose family settled at Tregitha or Tregethew, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, having married the heiress of that barton and name: this branch of the Penroses is not extinct, but they have been some time removed from Tregethew, which is now a farm-house, the property of Mr. Wearn Nicholas.
The great tithes of Manaccan, called in the Liber Regis Marathon alias Manaccan, and in some ecclesiastical records Manaccan alias Minster, were appropriated to Glaseney college: they are now vested in Francis Gregor, Esq. The Bishop of Exeter is patron of the vicarage. There are the ruins of a chapel at Tregonnell.
MARHAM-CHURCH, in the hundred of Stratton and deanery of Trigg-Major, lies two miles south of Stratton, which is the post-office town, and nine miles west of Holsworthy, in Devonshire: it has no considerable village except the church-town; there are a few farm-houses at Tetson and Wood-Knowle.
The manor of Marham-Church was successively in the families of Pyne and Stafford (fn. n2); at a later period in the Rolles (fn. n3), from whom it has passed, by inheritance, to the present proprietor, the Right Honourable Lord Clinton.
The manor of Whalesborough gave name to an antient family, who possessed and resided at this place for several generations. The heiress of the Whalesborowes brought it, in the reign of Henry VI., to Sir John Trevelyan (fn. n4), by whose descendant, the present Baronet, it was sold to the late Sir Francis Buller, Bart., one of His Majesty's Justices of the Common Pleas, and is now the property of his son, Sir Francis Yarde Buller, Bart. The old mansion is occupied as a farm-house.
The manor of Hilton was formerly in severalties between the families of Cobham, Carminow, and Bottreaux (fn. n5): the third part, which belonged to the Bottreaux family, was sold by their descendant, the Earl of Huntingdon, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, to the Grenvilles; in the following reign Sir Henry Rolle appears to have been sole lord of this manor (fn. n6), which is now the property of the Rev. John Kingdon: a considerable part of the estate attached to the manor of East-Orchard-Marrais, the site of which is in the adjoining parish of Week St. Mary, extends into this parish.
Langford-hill was formerly the seat of the ancient family of Langford, of whom Mrs. Elizabeth Hammett, who died in 1783, is said, in her epitaph in the church, to have been the last lineal descendant, being daughter and heir of Roger Wollocombe, Esq. (fn. n7) by Catherine Langford. Since the recent death of Mrs. Isabella Charlotte Wollocombe, of Langford-hill, niece of Roger Wollocombe above-mentioned, this estate has passed, under Mrs. Hammet's will, to Thomas, second son of Henry Hole, Esq., of Roborough, Devon.
Wood-Knowle was formerly a seat of the Rolles, for whom there are some memorials in the parish-church: this is now the property and residence of the Rev. Henry Badcock, having been purchased by him of the Rev. John Kingdon, who bought it of the Rolles. There is another farm of the same name, the property of Sir William Call, Bart., being parcel of the manor of East-OrchardMarrais. Bere, said by Norden to have been a seat of the Spekes, is now the property of Sir A. O. Molesworth, Bart. There is no house now on the estate which appears to have been the residence of a gentleman's family.
Hals speaks of a nunnery in this parish, called Hellnoweth or the New-hall, endowed by the Bishop of Exeter and the prior of St. Michael's-Mount, as a cell to the monastery of St. Martin in Tours. This estate belongs to Francis Gregor, Esq., of Trewarthenick: it is parcel of the manor of Traboc, which belonged to the priory of St. Michael's Mount, but the deeds relating to it afford no intimation of its having been the site of a religious house.
Tremayne, in this parish, the original seat of the Tremaynes, who took their name from this barton, passed, with the heiress of the elder branch of that family, to the Trethurfes, and from them to the Reskymers: in Leland's time it was the chief seat of the Reskymers: of late years it was, for some time, the residence of Captain Wallis, the circumnavigator: it is now a farm-house, the property of Mr. George Richards, of Truro. Mudgian, which formerly had manerial rights, was the seat of a family of that name, and passed with its heiress to the Chynoweths; the latter family, at least this branch of it, became extinct, in the male-line, early in the last century. Mudgian is now a farm-house, the property of John Hext, Esq., of Restormel.
ST. MARTIN, in the hundred and deanery of West, lies about a mile and a quarter north-north-east from the small market-town of East-Looe, which is in this parish. The only village in the parish is Treloy.
The manor of Pendrym, to which the church of St. Martin and the town of East-Looe were annexed, was held at an early period by the Bodrugans, under the Dawneys, as lords of Sheviock (fn. n8): it was afterwards in the family of Willoughby, Lord Brooke, whose coheiress married Pawlet. It is now vested in the Earls of Darlington and Sandwich, (in right of their ladies,) and Lady Emily Pawlet, as coheirs of the late Duke of Bolton.
The manors of Bucklawren, which had belonged to the priory of Launceston (fn. n9), and Treloyan or Trelowin, which had belonged to the Courtenays, and had been forfeited by the attainder of the Marquis of Exeter, were among the estates annexed to the duchy of Cornwall by King Henry VIII., in lieu of the honor of Wallingford.
The barton of Keverell, originally the seat of the Keverells, and afterwards, for many generations, of their representatives, the Langdons, came to the Buller family by the marriage of John Buller, Esq. with Rhoda, widow of Walter Langdon, the last of that family, who died in 1676: it is now a farmhouse, the property of his descendant, John Buller, Esq., of Morval.
In the parish-church are the memorials of Philip Majolue, an eminent merchant of East-Looe; Walter Langdon, above-mentioned, described as "the last of that loyal, ancient, and honourable family;" and Rhoda his wife, who was daughter of William Martin, Esq., of Lindridge, Devon, and grandaughter of William Martin, who wrote "The History and Lives of the Kings of England, from William the Conqueror to the end of the reign of King Henry VIII." There is a tablet, also, for the Rev. Jonathan Toup, the learned annotator on Suidas and Theocritus, and the friend of Bishop Warburton, through whose interest he obtained his preferment. He was prebendary of Exeter, and thirty-four years rector of this parish: "his abilities," says the writer of his epitaph, "and critical sagacity, are known to the learned throughout Europe; his virtues, from the retired privacy of his life, were known but to few; ob. 1785." The tablet above-mentioned was inscribed to the memory of her uncle, by Phillis Blake; the charge of it was afterwards defrayed by the delegates of the Oxford press, "as a small testimony of their regard for Mr. Toup, and of their gratitude for his many valuable contributions."
The borough and market-town of East-Looe, in this parish, lies by the sea-side, at the mouth of the river Looe, 16 miles from Plymouth, and 230 from London. The bridge between East-Looe and West-Looe, being 141 yards in length, only 6 feet 2 inches wide, and supported by 13 stone arches, was built about the year 1400. There was formerly a chapel or oratory on this bridge, dedicated to St. Anne.
A market and fair at East-Looe were granted by King Henry II. to Henry de Bodrugan, then lord of the manor, as appears by the quo warranto roll of King Edward I., when the claim to the market was certified, together with the right of a pillory, cucking-stool, and other manerial privileges. There is now a small market on Saturday for butchers'-meat: there were, within the memory of man, four fairs; February 13, May 1, August 1, and October 10; but they have been discontinued for several years.
There is a great pilchard-fishery at this place, from which they export abundance both of pilchards and pilchard-oil; the imports are salt, lime-stone, &c. &c. It appears to have been formerly the only sea-port in Cornwall of any importance, except Fawey; having furnished toward the equipment of the English fleet, in the reign of King Edward the Third, 20 ships and 315 mariners (fn. n10). There is a fort of ten guns on the beach. The town of East-Looe was incorporated by Queen Elizabeth in 1587; the corporation consists of a mayor, and eight other burgesses, who have the power of choosing a recorder. East-Looe, in conjunction with Fawey, sent a merchant or ship-owner to a council at Westminster in the reign of Edward I., but never any members to parliament, till the thirteenth year of Queen Elizabeth, since which time they have been regularly returned; the right of election is vested in the mayor, magistrates, and freemen, being altogether about 36 in number.
A small village within the borough of East-Looe, called Shouta or Shutta, is supposed to have been formerly of much greater extent. The burgesses of Looe and Shouta are called, in a deed of Otho de Bodrugan's, the burgesses of the aforesaid towns: certain privileges granted by Luce Russell and her only son Henry de Bodrugan, to her freemen of Looe and Shouta, were confirmed by Otho de Bodrugan, in the fourteenth year of Edward II.
There is a chapel of ease at East-Looe, which was repaired in the year 1700, and has lately been rebuilt: it has a small endowment of 27l. per annum, and is in the joint patronage of James Buller, Esq., M.P., and the Rev. Sir Henry Trelawney, Bart., as heirs at law of Sir Jonathan Trelawney, Bishop of Winchester. It appears that there was an ancient chapel in this town, dedicated to St. Mary, probably the same as that above-mentioned: a deed of the reign of Henry IV. speaks of a spot of ground given to the chapel of St. Mary. (fn. n11)
In this town is the mathematical school, founded in 1716, by the trustees of the will of John Speccot, Esq., of Penhale, in the parish of Egloskerry, who in 1703 bequeathed the sum of 1,000l. to charitable uses; his trustees, Bishop Trelawney, and his brother the General, thinking such an establishment most consonant to the wishes of the deceased, and of the greatest public benefit, established this school, appointing Mr. Haines, whom they supposed Mr. Speccot would himself have appointed to that situation, the first master. By the deed of foundation, the master is to reside in one of the Looes (fn. n12), to instruct poor children of the county of Cornwall in the mathematics, particularly in those branches which relate to navigation. The appointment of the master, after the death of the original trustees, was vested in the heirs of Charles Trelawney, and the proprietor of Trelawney-house: the interest of the endowment was appropriated as a salary for the master, except such part as the trustees should think requisite for the purchase of books, globes, and mathematical instruments. One of Mr. Buller's charity-schools, the endowment of which, having been in the Long annuities, has expired, was at East-Looe.
Opposite to Looe is the little island of St. George, which Carew speaks of as having been frequented by such numerous flocks of sea-birds. On this island was a chapel, dedicated to the saint from whom it takes its name. This island was purchased of the Mayows by Governor Trelawney, and is now the property of the Rev. Sir Harry Trelawney, Bart.
The small manor of Mawgan, which belonged to the Bellots of Bochym, was purchased in 1713 by Sir Richard Vyvyan, Bart., and is now the property of the Rev. Sir Carew Vyvyan. The manor of Trelowarren belonged to the ancient family of Cardinan (fn. n13): in the reign of Edward III. it seems to have been in the Trethakes (fn. n14), who were succeeded by the family of Ferrers. In or about the reign of Edward IV. the heiress of Richard Ferrers brought it to the Vyvyans, then of Trevidern in Burian, who, in consequence of this match, removed to Trelowarren. Leland speaks of the father of Vyvyan, who owned Trelowarren, when he visited Cornwall, as having been a gallant courtier, set forth by Somerset Lord Herbert: this was Richard Vyvyan, who was sheriff of Cornwall in the eighth and twentieth years of King Henry VII. Trelowarren is now in the possession of Viel Vyvyan, Esq., next heir of the Rev. Sir Carew Vyvyan, Bart. Hals says, that the old mansion was built by Francis Vyvyan, Esq., father of Sir Richard Vyvyan, who was created a baronet in 1644: Dr. Borlase, in whose Natural History there is a view of it, says, that it was then only rebuilt in part, and that it was put in repair (the greater part of the old building being preserved) by the late Baronet: the interior was then fitted up in the style which prevailed about the middle of the last century. The present possessor has much improved the appearance of the estate by extensive plantations. Tremeal, some time another seat of the Vyvyan family, in this parish, is now a farm-house.
The manors of Roskymer-Cutter and Roskymer-Meneage, (in old records called Manek,) belonged to the ancient family of Roskymer or Reskymer, as early as the twelfth century. Roskymer-Cutter was sold by John and William Roskymer, the two last male descendants, in or about the year 1618, to Mrs. Catherine Trevanion, by whom it was conveyed to Samuel Pendarves, Esq. Mr. Pendarves purchased Roskymer-Meneage, called in some deeds Trelever, of the family of Thomas, in 1641: they are both now, by inheritance from the Pendarves family, the property of Lord De Dunstanville. Roskymer barton, on the manor of Roskymer-Cutter, was the original seat of the Roskymers, from whence they removed to Tremayne in St. Martin. The house fell to ruin about the year 1500, as appears by what Leland says of it: on the site is now a farm-house.
The manor of Carminow was at an early period the property of a family of that name: Jane, elder daughter and coheiress of Sir Thomas Carminow, who was lord chamberlain to King Richard II., and married Elizabeth, sister of John Holland, Duke of Exeter, brought this manor, with other lands, to Sir John Arundell of Lanherne, called the great Arundell: it continued in the Arundell family till about the year 1801, when it was purchased of Lord Arundell by John Rogers, Esq., of Penrose, who is the present proprietor: there is a farm-house on the site of the old mansion, which was the original seat of the ancient family of Carminow. The male line was continued, for several generations, by the posterity of a younger brother of Sir Thomas Carminow above-mentioned, their chief seat being at Fentongollan in St. Michael-Penkevil.
The manor of Tregoddreth-Veor, now called Tregeddra, held under the manor of Wynyanton, belonged to the Chamonds. Margaret, the elder daughter and coheiress (the other coheiress died without issue), gave this manor to William Trevanion, one of her sons by her second husband (fn. n15) (Richard Trevanion): the sole heiress of Trevanion brought this estate to John Gerveys, Esq., of Benethlack, from whom it hath passed, by inheritance, to the present possessor, the Rev. R. G. Grylls, of Helston.
Skyburio, the seat of an ancient family of that name, passed with its heiress to the Vyvyans: there is a farm-house on the site of the old mansion, which in Norden's time was occupied by the Fortescue family. Treverry, in this parish, is the property of Samuel Pellew, Esq., whose brother (Sir Edward), the admiral, when created a baronet, was described as of Treverry; it is now in the occupation of Jonathan Passingham, Esq.
In the parish-church are some memorials of the Vyvyan family; and in Carminow's aisle, the tomb of a crusader and his lady: Hals says, that they were originally placed in a chapel which was attached to the old mansion at Carminow, and that they were removed when the chapel was suffered to fall to ruin, out of respect to that ancient family. The registers of the see of Exeter speak of chapels in this parish, dedicated to St. Magdalen and St. Margaret (fn. n16). Sir John Trevelyan, Bart., is patron of the rectory.
MAWGAN, in the hundred and deanery of Pyder, lies about three miles westnorth-west from St. Columb, which is the post-office town. The principal villages in this parish are, Carloggas, Tregurrian, and Trevarrian.
The manor of Lanherne belonged, at an early period, to the family of Pincerna, who, from their possession of and residence on those manors, successively assumed the names of Conarton and Lanherne. The heiress of Lanherne brought this manor to the Arundells in the fourteenth century. The Arundells of Lanherne, who, from their ample possessions, were called the great Arundells, were ancestors of the Arundells of Talverne, and those of St. Columb and Wardour castle. Sir John Arundell, the last of the Lanherne branch, in 1701, settled his estates on his grandson Richard Billinge, Esq., who was to take the name of Arundell. The only daughter and heir of this Richard, by her marriage with Lord Arundell of Wardour, united the two branches. The manor of Lanherne having been settled on the late dowager Lady Arundell, was by her bequeathed to her daughter Lady Clifford, of whom it has been purchased by her nephew, the Honourable Everard Arundell, son and heir of the present Lord Arundell. Lanherne-house, which was long the chief seat of the elder branch of the Arundells, was fitted up by the late Lord Arundell as an asylum for the convent of Carmelite nuns, then lately emigrated from Antwerp, where they had been established ever since the year 1619: it is still inhabited by this convent, which not long ago consisted of sixteen nuns. An estate, now known by the name of the manor of Gliven-Flamack, which belonged to the Arundells, was sold about the year 1800, by the late Lord Arundell, to Thomas Rawlings, Esq. of Padstow, who is the present proprietor.
The manor of Carnanton, which is one of the franchises enumerated by Carew, was the property of Thomas Earl of Warwick, who forfeited it by attainder in 1397; it was granted the same year to John Duke of Exeter (fn. n17): having been restored to the Earls of Warwick, it was conveyed by their heiress Anne Neville to King Henry VII.: it has ever since been held on lease under the Crown: it is now the seat of James Willyams, Esq., whose family inherited the lease from the the Noys; his ancestor, John Willyams of Roseworthy, having married one of the coheiresses of Humphrey Noy, younger son and eventually heir of AttorneyGeneral Noy, who resided at Carnanton, and to whom, it is probable, the lease was originally granted. Humphrey Noy died in 1679, and lies buried in Mawgan church. There was in ancient times a castle in Carnanton, called Castle-Fust, described by William of Worcester, in his Itinerary, as being in ruins in the reign of Edward IV., and as having belonged to Richard, Earl Anarwit (probably a misprint for Warwick). In a field called the Castle-field, about a quarter of a mile from the church, within the manor, although not on the barton of Carnanton, are the remains of a circular entrenchment.
The barton and manor of Denzell, in Mawgan, belonged to an ancient family of that name. John Denzell, sergeant-at-law, who died in 1535, lest two daughters, coheiresses, who married Holles and Roskymer. This estate, having passed to the elder, was sold by Holles, Earl of Clare, to the Bullers, and afterwards passed, by successive sales, to the families of Vyvyan and Upton: having been purchased of the latter by Lady Pendarves, mother of Robert Hoblyn, Esq., it has passed with other estates to the Rev. Robert Hoblyn, the present proprietor. The barton-house is occupied by a farmer.
In the parish-church are several brass plates, about the reign of Queen Elizabeth, for the Arundell family. The rich rood-lost, and the ancient cross in the churchyard, have been already spoken of. There were formerly chapels at Carnanton and Denzell. Thomas Rawlings, Esq. is patron of the rectory.
MAWNAN, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Kirrier, lies about five miles from Falmouth, which is the post-office town, and about the same distance north from Penryn. The principal village in this parish is called Mawnan-Smith.
The manor of Trerose belonged for several generations to the Killigrews (fn. n18), by inheritance from the Arwennacks. It was purchased of the former by Sir Nicholas Slanning, who was killed at the siege of Bristol, in the reign of Charles I.: his son, who was made a baronet by King Charles II., sold it to Mr. Bryan Rogers of Falmouth. Having passed by marriage to the Hearles, it was sold by them to the Kempes; and by the latter, about the year 1740, to Dame Mary Pendarves, mother of Robert Hoblyn, Esq. of Nanswhyden: it is now the property of the Rev. Robert Hoblyn. The barton-house is occupied by a farmer.
The manor of Boskenso, in this parish, was purchased of Dr. Cantley by Sir Michael Nowell, uncle of Stephen Usticke, Esq., the present proprietor. The manor and barton of Penwarne, which was for many generations the seat of an ancient and respectable family of that name, who were hereditary bailiffs of the hundred of Kirrier, has been alienated since Hals drew up his account of this parish. Penwarne was, some time since, the property and seat of Sir Michael Nowell, now of Stephen Usticke, Esq. The present representative of the Penwarne family resides in the parish of St. Pancras, near London.
Lansidwell, commonly called Nansugwell, many years a seat of the Newcourts, is now a farm-house, the property of Mr. R. W. Fox. The barton of Mewdon was some time a seat of the Carveths, after they left Carveth. When Mr. Kempe purchased the manor of Trerose, he bought in the lease of this barton, which was held under it, and built on it a house for his own residence; his widow brought it to her second husband Francis Gregor, Esq. of Trewarthenick: it is held on lease under Mr. Gregor, now of Trewarthenick, by Mr. R. W. Fox. Bosveal, some time a seat of the Leys, is now divided into four tenements, the property of the Rev. Robert Hoblyn. Tregarne is now a farm-house, the property of Robert Lovell Gwatkin, Esq., by inheritance from his grandfather Captain Lovell.
John Rogers, Esq. of Penrose, is patron of the rectory. There was formerly a free chapel at Penwarne. (fn. n19)
ST. MELLION, in the deanery and in the middle division of the hundred of East, lies three miles south-east from Callington, which is the post-office town, and six north-west from Saltash. The principal villages in this parish are Bealbury and Keason.
The manor of West-Newton-Ferrers takes its name from the ancient family of Ferrers, who possessed it at an early period, and so late as the year 1314: it has been for many generations in the Coryton family, whose ancestor married the heiress of Ferrers, and is now the property of John Tillie Coryton, Esq., whose grandfather, Peter Goodall, Esq., took the name of Coryton in consequence of inheriting considerable estates under the will of Sir William Coryton, Bart.
Newton-park was the ancient residence of the Corytons: Carew calls it "Master Corington's house of Newton, old to him by succession, yet new in respect of his own antiquity." Sir John Coryton was created a baronet in 1661: the title and male line of this ancient family became extinct by the death of his grandson of the same name in 1739. Newton-park is now the seat of Weston Helyar, Esq., by inheritance from Dame Rachael Coryton (fn. n20), to whom it was given by her husband Sir John.
Crocadon, in this parish, was for many generations the seat of the Trevisa family, and is said to have been the birth-place of John Trevisa, who translated the Bible, Ralph Higden's Polychronicon, and Bartholomæus "de Proprietatibus Rerum." It was purchased of William Trevisa, the last of the family, by Sir William Coryton, Bart., about the year 1690, and is now the property of John Tillie Coryton, Esq. of Pentillie. The old mansion at Crocadon, which of late years had been the seat of the Corytons, has been in part taken down; the remainder is fitted up as a farm-house.
At the east end of the north aisle of St. Mellion church, is the monument of William Coryton, Esq., who died in 1651, with his effigies, in a kneeling posture, under a heavy canopy supported by Corinthian pillars: on this monument are the following lines:
"This marble pile is placed on
The thrice renowned Coryton:
(But his own name a trophie shall
Outlast this his memoriall.)
Grave, wife and pious, Heaven him lent
To be his age's president.
Both good and great; and yet belov'd;
In judgment just, in truth approv'd.
Honour'd by the offices he bore
In publique; but by's meekness more.
Loyall in warre, in peace he stood
The pillar of the common's good.
Wordes may not set his prayses forth.
Nor prayses comprehend his worth;
His worth doth speake him thus, in briefe
Cornwall's late glory, now its grief."
William Coryton, Esq., who was member for Launceston in the reign of Charles I., was imprisoned, with Hampden, Elliot, and others, for refusing to subscribe to forced loans; he afterwards further distinguished himself by his activity in procuring the petition of rights, and was one of those members who were prosecuted in the Star-chamber for detaining the speaker, Finch, in his chair. (fn. n21)
J. T. Coryton, Esq. is patron of the rectory. The registers of the see of Exeter speak of a chapel of St. Elidius in this parish. (fn. n22)
MENHENIOT, in the deanery and in the middle division of the hundred of East, lies about two miles and a half east-south-east from Liskeard, which is the post-office town. The principal villages in this parish are Merrymeet, Quarry, Tregondale, and Tregrill.
The manor of Menheniot, alias Tregelly, belonged at an early period to the Carminows, afterwards to the Trelawneys. Leland, writing in the reign of Henry VIII., says, that Trelawney, then living, was the fourth of the name who had been lords of Menheniot. This manor is now the property of Mr. Joseph Hambly. Menheniot is one of the nine franchises enumerated by Carew (fn. n23). The Trelawneys had, for several generations, a seat at Menheniot, called Pool, from whence they removed, in the reign of James I., to Trelawney in Pelynt. This old mansion, which Carew speaks of as far beneath the worth and calling of its possessor, Sir Jonathan Trelawney, is now occupied as the parish poor-house.
The manor of Tregartha, which had been purchased of the Eriseys by Trelawney, before the year 1620 (fn. n24), is now the property of Francis Rawle, Esq., by purchase from the coheiresses of Joseph Gartrell.
The manor of Cartuther, called by Leland "Cortyder or Cotyder, a goodly lordship; and an old manor place of a hundred pound by the year," belonged, as that author was informed by Mr. Trelawney, to the family of Heling or Eling; the same, probably, who from this their residence took the name of Cartuther, and became extinct about the year 1400: the heiress or coheiress of this family, brought Cartuther to the Beckets (fn. n25). The late Sir John Morshead, Bart., who possessed this manor by inheritance from his grandfather, sold it to Samuel Kekewich, Esq., of Peamore near Exeter, the present proprietor. Cartuther, which was some time the residence of the Morsheads, is now a farm-house.
The barton of Trehawke, many years the seat of a family of that name, was given, by the late John Trehawke, Esq., to Samuel Kekewich, Esq., the present proprietor. It is now a farm-house, the property of Mr. Penwarne.
Trevedoc, in this parish, was formerly a seat of the Beres; there are two tenements of this name, both farm-houses. Botterton, or Butterdon, and Penhanger, which passed by marriage from the Killigrews to the Wreys, are now farm-houses, the former belongs to the heirs of the late Edward Trelawney, Esq.; the latter to John Morth Woolcombe, Esq., of Ashbury in Devonshire. Trewint, some time a seat of the Kelly family, is now a farm-house, belonging to Mr. Abraham Hambly. There are no remains of Trencreek, an ancient mansion, said, by a vague tradition, to have been a hunting-seat of the Dukes of Cornwall: it belonged, some time, to the Trevilles. The barton is now the property of Samuel Pett, M.D., of Clapton, near London.
In the parish-church are memorials for the families of Carminow and Burell; J. Trelawney, of Coldrinnick, Dean of Exeter; and Lady Charlotte, daughter of James, Earl of Errol, Lord High Constable of Scotland, and wife of William Holwell Carr, B. D., the present incumbent, who died in 1801. The vicarage, one of the most valuable benefices in Cornwall, is endowed with the great tithes, subject to an annual payment of 20l. per annum to Exeter-College in Oxford. The Dean and Chapter of Exeter are patrons, but, pursuant to the directions of Bishop Courtenay, must nominate a fellow of Exeter-College. The barton of Coldrinnick in St. Germans pays great tithes to the vicar of Menheniot. William of Wykham was vicar of this parish. Dr. Moreman, a learned divine, who was instituted to the vicarage of Menheniot in the reign of Henry VIII., is said to have been the first in those parts who taught and catechised his parishioners in the English language (fn. n27). There was formerly a chapel at Cartuther, dedicated to St. Nicholas (fn. n28). Within the boundaries of this parish, near the town of Liskeard, was in ancient times a hospital of lepers, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen.
The interest of 42l. was given by Mr. Question, vicar of Menheniot, for the support of a schoolmaster, and the interest of 25l. by Mr. Edmund Snell for the same purpose. The parish of Menheniot abounds with beautiful scenery; its numerous valleys being pleasingly diversified with rock and wood.
St. Merran or St. Merryn
ST. MERRAN or ST. MERRYN, in the hundred and deanery of Pyder, lies about two miles and a half west-south-west from Padstow, which is the post-office town, and about seven miles nearly north of St. Columb. The principal villages in this parish, exclusively of the church-town, are, Polmark or Polmarth, Towan and Trevear. There is a small quay or pier under Catacleuse Cliffs, constructed about 1794 by Mr. Peter of Harlyn, for the reception of coasting-vessels, and of the seam-boats belonging to the pilchard-fishery carried on in Portlease bay.
The manor of Trevose, in this parish, is the property of Sir A. O. Molesworth, Bart., by inheritance from the Morices of Werington: at an earlier period it had been in the Robartes family. The barton was on lease in Hals's time as two farms, to Gregory Peter, Esq., and Lawrence Growden, whom he calls that wellknown quaker; one of these is still on lease to the family of Peter; the other to Thomas Rawlings, Esq. of Padstow; there is a farm-house on each.
The barton of Harlyn or Arlyn was the seat of the ancient family of Tregewe, which became extinct in the male line in or about the reign of Henry VIII., by the death of Thomas de Tregewe, who, by a deed bearing date 1507, gave, among other small benefactions to the parish, a small spot of ground near the churchyard to the youths of St. Merran, for the celebration of Cornish sports. Harlyn passed, with the heiress of Tregewe, to the family of Michel, and with the heiress of Michel, in 1632, to Thomas Peter, Esq., of Treator in Padstow, and of Fowey, who, having been taken in arms against the parliament, during the civil wars, was kept close prisoner till the 2d day of February 1653, when he was set at liberty by an order from the protector. Harlyn is now the property and residence of Henry Peter, Esq. Porthcothan, or Percothan, formerly belonging to the family of Trevethen, for one of whom there is a memorial in the parish-church, is now the seat of Mr. Samuel Peter, of a younger branch of the Harlyn family (fn. n29). The font nearly resembles that at Padstow. The great tithes are appropriated to the Dean and Chapter of Exeter. The Bishop is patron of the vicarage.
Adjoining to St. Merran, or Harlyn warren, was in ancient times a village with a chapel, or, as it is said, a parish-church, dedicated to St. Constantine: some ruins of this building still remain, consisting of part of the east end; some broken arches and pillars (fn. n30), and a considerable part of the tower: a richly ornamented aisle is said to have been standing till about the year 1780. The festival of St. Constantine (March 9) was, till very lately, kept at St. Merran by an annual hurling match, on which occasion the owner of Harlyn had, from time immemorial, supplied the silver ball. We are informed from good authority that a shepherd's family, of the name of Edwards, held one of the cottages in Constantine for many generations under the owner of Harlyn, by the annual render of a Cornish pie, made of limpets, raisins, and sweet herbs at the feast of St. Constantine.
MERTHER, in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Powder, lies about four miles west from Tregony, and about three east from Truro, which is the post-office town. The principal villages in this parish are Long-Lane and Tresilian bridge: at this bridge was signed the treaty between Lord Hopton and the parliament, after the King's affairs had grown desperate, in the month of March 1646. There are cattle-fairs at Tresilian bridge on the second Monday in February, and on the Monday before Whitsunday. There is said to have been a monastery of poor Clares at this place, founded by the Carminows, but we have not been able to find any records relating to it.
The manor of Merther was held, at an early period, by the family of EglosMerther under the Roskymers (fn. n31): it is not known now as a separate manor, but must be included in Lord Falmouth's estate: that nobleman is possessed of nearly the whole parish. It is probable that the manor of Merther merged in that of Fentongollan, which extends into this parish, and was purchased, by Lord Falmoutth's ancestor, of Sir Nicholas Hals about the year 1620. The family of Hals had a seat in this parish, called Tresawsen, which continued longer in their possession, and was the residence of Mr. William Hals, author of the Parochial History of Cornwall: it is now a farm-house. Merther, although a separate parish, is esteemed a chapelry of Probus: the principal inhabitants appoint the curate.