Magna Britannia: Volume 3, Cornwall. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1814.
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Quethiock, or Quithiock
QUETHIOCK, or QUITHIOCK, (anciently Cruetheke,) in the deanery and in the middle division of the hundred of East, lies four miles nearly east of Liskeard, which is the post-office town, and about the same distance south-west of Callington. The principal village in this parish, except the church-town, is Trehunest.
The manors of Trehunsey, Penpoll, and Hammett, and the barton of Trecorne, formerly esteemed a manor, are the property of John Tillie Coryton, Esq.: Penpoll and Hammett have been long in his family. Penpoll was formerly in moieties, one of which had passed by purchase from Corbett to Kekewich, and from the latter to Coryton before 1620; the other was purchased by Coryton of Sprye, to whom it had been conveyed by Francis Tregian, Esq., the younger (fn. n1). The manor of Hammett had been, at an early period, in the family of Bruyn (fn. n2). Trehunsey was successively in the families of Chiverton, Batt, Gotley, and Rashleigh. Trehunsey, formerly a seat of the Chivertons, is now a farm-house. Holloughwood, or Holwood, formerly the seat of a younger branch of the Bonds of Earth, is now a farm-house, belonging to Mr. John Rogers, whose father purchased it of the representatives of the Bonds. Leigh, many years the seat of a family of that name, long since extinct, is now occupied as a farm-house by the proprietor, Mr. William Hambly.
The great tithes of Quithiock were, in 1337, appropriated to a chantry at Haccomb, in Devonshire (fn. n3): they are now vested in Sir Henry Carew, Bart., of Haccomb, whose ancestors, the Courtenays, appear to have been, in the reign of Henry VI., patrons of the chantry (fn. n4): the Bishop of Exeter is patron. There was formerly a chapel at Towen in this parish, dedicated to St. Mary. (fn. n5)
An alms-house for poor widows was founded at Quithiock by one of the Coryton family. The endowment, if there ever was any, has been lost, and no further particulars are known respecting its foundation.
RAME, in the deanery and in the south division of the hundred of East, lies at the south-east extremity of Cornwall, near the point of land, called from this village Rame-head: it is four miles south-south-west (across the ferry) from Plymouth-dock, which is the post-office town. The principal villages in this parish are the church-town and Cawsand.
The manor of Rame belonged, at an early period, to the Rames, from whom it passed, by successive female heirs, to the Durnfords and Edgcumbes: the latter became possessed of it in or about the reign of Henry V.: it is now the property of their descendant, the Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe, who is patron of the rectory. The barton of Rame, now called Rame-place, has passed through several hands, and is now the property and residence of Thomas Edwards, Esq. The manor of Combe, which, in the reign of Edward IV., belonged to the Bastard family, has long merged in that of Rame. (fn. n6)
There was formerly a chapel on the Rame-head, dedicated to St. Michael (fn. n7), of which there are some remains. Rame-head is the nearest point of land to the Edystone light-house. Cawsand-bay is formed by part of this parish.
REDRUTH, a considerable market-town, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Penwith, lies on the road from Launceston to the Land'send, 49 miles from the former, 27¾ from the latter, and 262¾ from London. Two markets at this place, on Tuesday and Saturday, were granted in 1332 to William Basset, together with two fairs, each for four days, at Michaelmas and at the festival of St. Peter ad vincula. In 1502, John Basset, Esq., of Tehidy, then Lord of Redruth, had a grant of a weekly market at Redruth, and three fairs, April 21, July 23, and October 1. The markets were for a long time discontinued, and only the fairs kept. In Oliver Cromwell's time, Mr. Buller, of Morvall, procured a charter for a market on Fridays, which is said to have been confirmed by King Charles II. Mr. Tonkin observes, that the market was continued in his time, and enjoyed by the Buller family. There are now two weekly markets held on Wednesdays and Fridays: the latter, being the most considerable, is a great corn-market; Tonkin speaks of it as being, in his time, the best in the west of England. There are now three fairs; May 2, August 3, and October 12; chiefly for cattle, and osier manufactures. The two former, and the markets, are the property of James Buller, Esq., M.P.; the other, commonly called Roast-goose-fair, belongs to Lord De Dunstanville. Redruth, in consequence of its situation, in the midst of the mining-district, has greatly increased in population. Its principal increase has been during the last century, since the working of the copper-mines, it having been in the proportion of at least six to one, as appears by the average of baptisms. The number of inhabitants in 1801, was 4,924; in 1811, 5,903, according to the returns made to parliament at those periods. The principal villages in the parish of Redruth are, Plaingwary and Redruth-Highway: the former was, as its name denotes, the playing-place, and there are still the remains of one of those rounds, in which the ancient plays were performed.
Lord De Dunstanville claims right of freewarren over the parish, as appertenant to his manor of Tehidy. The manor of Tolgoose or Tolgus belonged successively to the Wolvedons and Tregians; and having passed with the Golden estate, is now the property of James Buller, Esq., M.P., who has also the manor of Treworgie in this parish. The barton of Tolgoose, which was some time the seat of the family of Renfrey, and passed by marriage to that of Hussey, is now a farm-house: this barton has produced vast quantities of tin and copper.
The manor of Treleigh belonged also to the Tregians, and, at a later period, to the Eriseys, of whom it was purchased by the last of the ancient family of Pollard, who had long inhabited the barton, and became extinct in 1731. The manor and barton (on which is now a farm-house) were afterwards purchased of their representatives by Mr. Edward Moore, and are now vested in the coheiresses of his descendant, the late John Moore Knighton, Esq. (fn. n8) The manor of Treruff has long been in the Trefusis family, and is now the property of Lord Clinton. The manor of Trefula, one of the estates which passed, by successive female heirs, from the family of Hiwis, to those of Coleshill, Arundell, and Whittington, was divided into severalties among the coheirs of the latter. One of the coheiresses of Whittington married an ancestor of Sir John St. Aubyn, Bart., who now possesses a fifth and a sixtieth part of this estate: the remainder is the property of John Scorrier, Esq. The barton-house of Nether-Trefula, now in ruins, was some time the residence of the family of Haweis, to whom the greater part of the barton belonged. Treworkie, some time a seat of the Howells, afterwards of the family of Haweis, and still the property of the latter, is in the occupation of Mr. William Jenkin.
The parish-church, dedicated to St. Uny, is situated nearly half a mile from the town: it was rebuilt about the year 1770: Lord de Dunstanville is patron of the rectory; the advowson of which has been, from time immemorial, annexed to the manor of Tehidy. There are the remains of a chapel in the town, near the road, dedicated to St. Rumon. Mr. Tonkin says, that it was unroofed in his time, but that divine service had been performed in it within the memory of persons then living. There are meeting-houses at Redruth for the quakers and anabaptists; the methodists have two in the town, and a third in the north part of the parish.
A large school-house was built by subscription at Redruth, in the year 1803; and a salary raised by the same means for a master to teach Latin, arithmetic, &c.; but the subscription having been discontinued, the school was afterwards kept open by the master on his own account. There is a Sunday-school for about 150 boys and girls, attended by gratuitous teachers.
ROCHE, more frequently but improperly now written Roach, lies in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Powder, five miles nearly eastsouth-east from St. Columb, which is the post-office town; the same distance northnorth-west from St. Austell, and six and a half south-west from Bodmin. The principal villages, exclusively of the church-town, are, Belovely and Tregoss.
The manor of Tregarrick is said to have belonged to the family of De Rupe, or De la Roche, which became extinct in 1357: it is said that the heiress married Blundell, who took the name of Roche; the descendant of this family, in the reign of Henry VIII., left four daughters coheiresses, three of whom marrried into the families of Fortescue, Penkevil, and Boscawen: this manor having been inherited by the latter, is now the property of Lord Viscount Falmouth. The manor of Tremoderet, in this parish, belonged also, at an early period, to the family of De la Roche (fn. n9), afterwards to the Bodrugans: after the attainder of Sir Henry Bodrugan, it was granted by King Henry VII. to Sir Richard Edgcumbe, ancestor of the Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe, who is the present proprietor. The advowson, which in 1620 was in moieties between the families of Arundell and Kendall (fn. n10), is now vested in trustees, under the will of the late John Thornton, Esq., of Clapham. The parish-church is said to have been dedicated to St. Gomonda: the name of the parish is sometimes improperly written St. Roche; whereas it was called Roche long before the only saint in the Calendar of that name was born (fn. n11); and no doubt was so denominated from the remarkable rock (already described), which is situated about a quarter of a mile south-east from the church: on this rock, are the ruins of a small chapel dedicated to St. Michael. There was a chapel, with a cemetery, at Holywell, near Tremoderet.
Hainsborough or Hensborough, which Carew calls the arch-beacon of Cornwall, commanding a most extensive prospect, is partly in this parish. (fn. n12)
RUAN-LANIHORNE, in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Powder, lies about two miles and a half south-west from Tregony, which is the post-office town, and about five miles and a half east-south-east from Truro. The only village, besides the church-town, is Treworga. Mr. Whitaker supposed that Ruan-Lanihorne was formerly a market-town (fn. n13). It seems not improbable that the market at Shepestall, granted to John Arcedekne in 1335 (fn. n14), was in this parish: Thomas Arcedekne, when summoned to parliament in the reign of Edward I., was described as of Shepestall. We have not been able to find any place so called in the county; the circumstance of the ancient property and residence of the Arcedeknes being in this parish, and of there being a field adjoining to this parish, called Little Shepestall, renders it probable, that though the name has been long forgotten, the seat of the Arcedeknes in this place might formerly have been called Shepestall. The manors of Lanihorne and Ellerkey, in this parish, and Veryan, were certainly the ancient property of the Arcedeknes, whose chief residence was at a castle in Lanihorne. William of Worcester speaks of it as standing, in his Itinerary of Cornwall, temp. Edward IV. A coheiress of Arcedekne married Lucy; and the coheiresses of Sir William Lucy married into the families of Corbett and Vaux. One moiety of the manor of Lanihorne, being described as lately parcel of the possessions of Sir William Vaux attainted, was granted in 1462 to Avery Cornburgh (fn. n15): this moiety passed by purchase to the Tregians, and in 1620 belonged to Ezekiel Grosse; the other moiety was then vested in Sir Henry Wallop, Knt. The manors of Lanihorne and Ellerkey now belong to Francis Gregor, Esq., of Trewarthenick, by purchase from Sir William Molesworth. They were formerly held under the honor of Launceston, by the annual render of a brace of grey-hounds (fn. n16). There are now no remains of Lanihorne castle: Leland describes it "as a castelle of an eight towers, then decaying for lak of coverture." Tonkin describes a large tower, which was pulled down in 1718; and says, that within 30 years of the time of his writing, six out of eight towers of the castle had been standing: some cottages have been built on the site. The learned John Whitaker, B. D., who is well known in the literary world as the author of "The History of Manchester," the "Defence of Mary Queen of Scots," and other esteemed works, was about 30 years the resident rector of RuanLanihorne, died there in the 73d year of his age, November 4th, 1808, and lies buried within the rails of the communion-table. The manor of Ardevora extends over part of this parish. The barton of Trelonk is held on lease by Mr. John Brown, under Sir William Lemon, Bart. Treviles, in this parish, formerly a farm-house, was purchased by the late John Luke, Esq. for his own residence, and is now the seat of his son, Rear-Admiral William Luke. The rectory of Ruan-Lanihorne is in the patronage of Corpus-Christi College in Oxford.
RUAN-MAJOR, in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Kirrier, lies about eight miles south-south-east from Helston, which is the post-office town. The manor of Erisey belonged, for many generations, to the ancient family of that name, which became extinct in the year 1722, and passed with their heiress to Colonel John West: it has been since purchased by the Falmouth family, and is now the property of Lord Viscount Falmouth. About two-thirds of the barton are in this parish, the remainder in Grade. The manor-house, which was the seat of the Eriseys, and was rebuilt about the year 1620, stands partly in each parish. The barton of Penhale, parcel of the manor of Erisey, belongs, also, to Lord Falmouth.
The church of Ruan-Major, described as in Tyrath, belonged to the Carminows, from whom it passed, by successive female heirs, to the Treverbins and Reskymers. The patronage of the rectory is now vested in the Rev. William Robinson, in whose family it has been for a considerable time. There are the remains of an ancient chapel about the centre of the parish.
RUAN-MINOR, in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Kirrier, lies about 10 miles nearly south-south-east from Helston, which is the post-office town. The principal village in this parish is Cadgwith, a populous fishing-cove. The manor of Tretheves, Lucies, and Rosswick, chiefly in this parish and Grade, was, in ancient times, in the Carminows: on the partition between the coheiresses of Carminow, it was allotted to Trevarthian, whose heiress brought it to the Reskymers: John Reskymer was in possession in 1620: it was afterwards in the Bellots, of whom it was purchased in 1704 by the Robinsons: having been alienated by the latter to the late Mr. Fonnereau, it was purchased of him, about the year 1780, by Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart., who is the present proprietor. The Robinsons had a seat at Cadgwith. The advowson of the rectory, which had before passed with the manor above-mentioned, was retained by the Robinsons, and still belongs to that family. The Rev. Thomas Robinson, rector of this parish, author of "Reasons for the Belief of a Christian," and other works, died in the month of April 1814. The rector of this parish, by ancient usage and prescription, claims a right (which always is admitted) of sending a horse into a certain field, in the parish of Landewednack, whenever it is cropped with corn, and taking away as many sheaves as the horse can carry on his back.