Magna Britannia: Volume 3, Cornwall. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1814.
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CONSTANTINE, in the hundred and deanery of Kirrier, lies about five miles east from Helston, which is the post-office town, and about the same distance south-west from Penryn. The principal villages in this parish, exclusive of the church-town, are Calmanjak, Dergon, and Gweek.
The manor of Carwithenack, in this parish, belonged anciently to the family of Stapleton (fn. n1) : it is now the property and seat of Peter Hill, Esq., whose grandfather purchased it, about the year 1730, of the Chapmans. Hals relates an extraordinary escape of one of the Chapman family, who fell into a mine twenty fathoms deep, and was taken out alive.
The manor and park of Merthen belonged, in ancient times, to the Carminows, and passed, in marriage with one of the coheiresses of Sir Thomas Carminow, to the Trevarthians; it afterwards came to the Reskymers, and was purchased, in or about the year 1626, of that family, by the ancestor of Sir Carew Vyvyan, Bart., the present proprietor; Merthen is now a farm-house: it had become dilapidated before Leland's time; he describes it as "a ruinus maner place, with a fair park well wodded."
The manor of Tucoise, which belonged to the Mohuns, was sold, in 1777, by the representatives of William Mohun, Esq., the last heir-male of that family, to James Vivian, Esq., uncle of John Vivian, Esq. of Pencallenick, who is the present proprietor. Lord Clinton has two manors in this parish, called Treveses and Treworvac. The Trefusis family had formerly a seat in this parish.
Trewardreva, in this parish, was the seat of the family of Rise, whose heiress, about the year 1500, brought it to the ancestor of Thomas Trewren, Esq., whose son-in-law, Charles Scott, Esq., now resides at Trevardreva. Before this match, the Trewrens had resided for several generations at Driff. Budockvean was the seat of the late Benjamin Pender, Esq.; Bosvathack is the residence of Mrs. Moor; and Bosverran, of Mrs. Boulderson. Trethouan, formerly the seat of the Trethouan family, has long been the property of the Vyvyans, and occupied as a farmhouse. Benallack, the seat of the ancient family of Benallack or Benethlake, passed with its heiress, in the early part of the fourteenth century, to the family of Gerveys, whose heiress, in 1671, married Charles Grylls, great grandfather of the Rev. Richard Gerveys Grylls, of Helston, the present proprietor. The old hall at Benallack, which has painted glass in the windows, and retains other vestiges of having been a mansion of considerable consequence, is now a farm-house.
In the parish-church are monuments of the families of Gerveys (fn. n2) and Pendarves.
The church of St. Constantine appears to have been collegiate at the time of the Domesday survey. It has been conjectured, indeed, that the church there spoken of might have been the dilapidated church at Constantine in St. Merryn; but in the Inquisitio Geldæ, at Exeter, a record coeval with the Domesday survey, the collegiate church of Constantine is stated to be in the hundred of Winnenton, now Kirrier. This church became afterwards vested in the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, to whom it was appropriated in the reign of Edward I. (fn. n3) The Dean and Chapter are patrons of the vicarage.
The manor of Grogoth, which was the ancient name of the parish (fn. n4), is the property of J. T. P. Bettesworth Trevanion, Esq., of Carhayes, in whose family it has been long vested (fn. n5). The manor-house, which is now occupied by a farmer, was formerly one of the seats of that family. This manor has been lately offered for sale.
The manor and barton of Trewarthenick were purchased, in the year 1640, of Thomas Seely (fn. n6), of Lyme-Regis, by Mr. John Gregor, of Truro, ancestor of Francis Gregor, Esq., of Trewarthenick, some time one of the representatives for the county.
Kellio, in this parish, was formerly a seat of a family of that name, whose heiress married Tredenham, of Probus; after this, Kellio was for several generations a seat of the Tredenhams. It has since belonged to the Trevanions, and has been lately purchased by Lord Falmouth. The old mansion is occupied as a farmhouse.
CRANTOCK, in the hundred and deanery of Pyder, lies about ten miles north from Truro and about eight west from St. Columb, which is the post-office town: the principal villages in this parish are Trevelveth and Trevimber.
The manor of Triago, in this parish, belonged anciently to the family of Triago or Treago, who built the south aisle of the church; in the reign of Edward IV., the heiress of Triago married Mynors, and in that of Queen Elizabeth the heiress of Mynors brought Triago to the Tregians. In 1605 this estate was purchased by the Cokes, of Trerice, in St. Allens. In the reign of Charles II., the Cokes sold it to Hugh Boscawen, Esq., of Tregothnan. It is now the property of his descendant Lord Viscount Falmouth. This manor, among other extensive privileges long since disused, had formerly a prison. (fn. n7)
Tregonell, in this parish, was the ancient seat of the family of that name, whose coheiresses, in the reign of James I., married into the families of Bauden, Pollamonter, and Penpoll. It now belongs to Mr. Martyn and Mr. Tynney.
The collegiate church of St. Carantoc, which consisted of a Dean and nine prebendaries (fn. n8), afterwards reduced to four, was given by the Earl of Moreton to the Prior and convent of Montacute, who, in 1236, conveyed it to the church of Exeter (fn. n9). The college was dissolved in 1534. The collegiate estate, in the reign of Charles I., belonged to the Cokes of Trerice, afterwards successively to the families of Lewis, Goldingham, and Luttrell; it is now the property of Mr. Johns.
The great and small tithes, which were appropriated to the Prior of Bodmin, were many years in the Buller family, and are now, together with the patronage of the curacy, which is annexed to that of Lower St. Columb, vested in the representatives of the late Sir Francis Buller, Bart. one of the justices of the King'sBench. In this parish is a small harbour called the Gonell.
CREED, in the deanery and in the western division of the hundred of Powder, lies about two miles north of Tregony, and about a mile south of the borough of Grampound, which is the post-office town, and the greater part of it in this parish.
The manor of Tybesta, in this parish, was one of the ancient manors belonging to the Earls and Dukes of Cornwall; it continued to be attached to the duchy till the year 1798, when it was sold, under the land-tax redemption act, to Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart. the present proprietor.
Carvennick, a farm in this parish, now the property of Zaccheus Andrew, Esq. is described, in some ancient records, as a manor; it belonged, in the fifteenth century, to the family of Reskymer. (fn. n10)
Pennance, belonging formerly to the family of Huddy or Hody, was sold by them to Mr. Thomas Lower, "brother of the famous Dr. Lower," and by Lower to the Hawkins family: it was the seat of Dr. John Hawkins, master of PembrokeCollege, in Cambridge, who died in 1736. Pennance is now a farm-house, the property of Thomas Carlyon, Esq., of Tregrehan.
Trevelleck was some time the seat of a branch of the Boscawens, which became extinct, in the male line, in the reign of Charles I. This place passed, by female heirs, to the families of Towson and Collins (fn. n11); it was afterwards successively in the Polkinhornes and Trevanions, and has lately been sold by J. P. B. Trevanion, Esq. to the Rev. George Moore: Trevelleck is now a farm-house.
Trencreek, formerly a seat of the family of that name, passed by marriage to a younger branch of the Mohuns; the house having gone to decay in the early part of the last century, Warwick Mohun, Esq. removed his residence to Luny, in St. Ewe. Trencreek is now a farm-house, the property of Lord Mount Edgcumbe.
Garlinneck, which was for many years a seat of the Woolridges, was purchased, a few years ago, of Captain Woolridge, by the Rev. George Moore, who is building, on the site of the old house, a mansion for his own residence. (fn. n12)
Trewinnow, which was a seat of the Seccombs, is now a farm-house, the property of Mr. Samuel Trethewey; there is another estate of the same name belonging to Francis Gregor, Esq. and the Rev. Francis Bedford.
In the parish-church are some monuments of the family of Quarme, of Nancor. The church is a rectory in the patronage of Sir Christopher Hawkins, who purchased the advowson of the duchy, together with the manor of Tybesta, as before-mentioned.
The borough of Grampound, in this parish, is situated on the great road from London, through Plymouth, to the Land's-end, being 247 miles from London, about 43 from Plymouth, eight from Truro, and about 40 from Penzance. The borough is of ancient origin, although it does not appear that it ever sent burgesses to parliament before the reign of Edward VI.
John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, granted a gild-merchant to the burgesses of Grampound in the year 1332, and at the same time, among other privileges, a weekly market, on Tuesday, and two fairs, one at the festival of St. Peter in Cathedrâ (January 18), and the other at the festival of St. Barnabas (fn. n13). Tonkin says, "the market is come to little or nothing, St. Austell having ruined this and done much hurt to that of Tregony. Of late they have endeavoured to recover a small market, for victuals only, on Saturday in the morning, as subordinate to that of Tregony, on the same day." The market, which is still held on Saturday, continues to be inconsiderable. The fairs are held on the 18th of January and the 15th of June; another fair, called Grampound fair, formerly held on the 25th of March, in that part of the borough which is in the parish of Probus, has for many years been transferred to the village of Probus: these are all cattle-fairs. The corporation of Grampound, which exists by prescription, there being no charter extant, consists of a mayor and eight aldermen, a recorder, and town-clerk. The mayor is elected on the Sunday before Michaelmas. The mayor for the time being chooses two aldermen, who are styled eligers, and have the power of choosing eleven freemen. These form a jury, who make presentments, appoint persons to municipal offices, and have the power to choose new freemen, the number of whom is indefinite. The members of parliament are chosen by the magistrates and freemen. The number who polled at the general election in 1812, was 63. The number of inhabitants in Grampound were 525 in 1801; in 1811, 601, according to the returns made to parliament at those periods.
The sum of 15l., out of certain funded property, given by John Buller, Esq. of Morval, in the reign of Queen Anne, for charitable uses, was, for many years, appropriated for the support of a school in the borough of Grampound, and 2l. 2s. every two years towards the clothing of the children; but the fund from which it was supported being in the long annuities, the establishment ceased upon their expiration.
CROWAN, in the hundred and deanery of Penwith, lies about four miles south from Camborne, which is the post-office town, and about five miles south from Helston. The principal villages in this parish are, the church-town, Cargenwen, Drym, Praze-an-beoble, Trethannas, and Trevoole. The manors of Helligan and Clowance belonged to the ancient family of Helligan, who had their residence at the former place. The heiress of Helligan married into the family of Kemyell of Kemyell, in St. Paul. In the reign of Richard II., Geffrey St. Aubyn became possessed of this estate by marrying with Elizabeth, daughter of Piers Kemyell. Clowance has ever since been the chief seat of the ancient family of St. Aubyn, now represented by Sir John St. Aubyn, Bart., whose ancestor of the same name was raised to that dignity in the year 1672. There is a view of Clowance house in Borlase's Natural History. This place has been much improved by extensive plantations, both by the last and the present Baronet. The manor of Binnerton belonged, in the reign of Richard II., to the Beauchamps, afterwards to the Despencers: it is now the property of Sir John St. Aubyn, Bart., whose ancestor purchased it, in 1567, of Sir George Speke: the manor-house is now occupied by a farmer.
Tregeare, in this parish, was for many generations the seat of an ancient family of that name, which became extinct by the death of Richard Tregeare, in the year 1732: it is now a farm-house, the property of Sir John St. Aubyn, by purchase from the Honourable Mrs. Boscawen, about the year 1781.
Kerthen, formerly a seat of the Cowlins, from whom it passed, by a female heir, to the Godolphins, was, in Leland's time, the residence of Mr. Godolphin (son of Sir William), to whom, at this place, that industrious antiquary was for some time a guest: he calls it in his Itinerary, Cardine. Kerthen is now a farm, belonging to the Duke of Leeds, as heir of the Godolphin family. The barton of Bolitho belongs to the family of the late Mr. Justice Buller.
The church of Crowan was given, by William Earl of Gloucester, to the priory of St. James, in Bristol (which was a cell to Tewksbury Abbey), and confirmed by King Henry II. Sir John St. Aubyn is now impropriator of the great tithes, and patron of the vicarage. There was formerly a chapel of ease at Binnerton, of which there are no remains. The charity-school in this parish was endowed with the interest of 100l., by the St. Aubyn family, about the year 1730.
CUBERT, in the hundred and deanery of Powder, lies about nine miles south-west of St. Columb, and about eight north-west of Truro, which is the post-office town. The principal villages in this parish, exclusive of the church-town, are Trescaw and Treveal.
The manor of Hellanclase, in this parish, or, as it is now written, Ellenglaze, belonged formerly to the family of Trencreek, and passed, with other estates, to Digory Polwhele, who sold it to Sir Richard Robartes. In 1736, it belonged to his descendant, the Earl of Radnor: it has been many years in the family of Hosken, and is now the property of Joseph Hosken, Esq., who has built a handsome house on the estate, for his own residence.
Chynoweth, in this parish, was for many generations the residence of an ancient family of that name, by whom it was at length conveyed to the Angoves: it has since been sold in parcels. On the site of the barton, which still retains the name, is a small modern farm-house, the property and residence of Mr. Robert Glasson. The family of Chynoweth is reduced to the situation of mechanics, still remaining in the neighbourhood. The immediate representative is a blacksmith, in the adjoining parish of Newlyn.
Carynes, formerly the residence of the Davis family, is now the property of Joseph Hosken, Esq., and occupied by his brother, Richard Hosken, Esq. The great tithes, formerly appropriated to the priory of Bodmin, are now vested in Joseph Hosken, Esq.: this estate belonged, some years ago, to the Prideaux family. The Rev T. Stabback is patron of the vicarage, by purchase from Richard Edwards, M. D.
This small parish, the population of which does not now exceed 290 souls, was, in 1564, visited with a great pestilence, of which seventy persons died, as appears by an ancient parish-register. (fn. n14)
CUBY, in the deanery, and in the western division of the hundred of Powder, adjoins the borough of Tregony (fn. n15), which forms part of the same parish. This borough sent members to parliament in the reign of Edward I., and, after a long disuse, recovered its ancient privileges in the year 1559; the right of election is vested in the townsmen who are housekeepers; the number of voters who polled in 1812, was 183. The number of inhabitants at Tregony, in 1811, was 923. The burgesses of this town were incorporated by King James I., in the year 1620, by the style of "mayor, recorder, and eight capital burgesses," the senior of whom is a justice of peace. The market, which is on Saturday, for butchers'-meat and other provisions, is held by prescription. Henry de Pomeroi certified his right to it in the reign of Edward I.; King Henry III., in the year 1266, had granted to the said Henry, a fair at the festival of St. Leonard (fn. n16). There are now five fairs; ShroveTuesday, May 3, July 23, September 1, and November 6. Both the fairs and market have for many years been in a declining state; before the middle of the last century, they were very considerable, and particularly noted for the sale of woollen cloth, of which there was then an extensive manufactory at Tregony. Mr. Whitaker has taken great pains to shew that Tregony was formerly a place of considerable consequence, and a sea-port (fn. n17). He mentions also that Charles Trevanion, Esq., of Crega, procured, in the reign of Charles II., an act of parliament to convey the tide as high as Crowe-hill, in St. Stephens, but failed in his attempt to carry it into execution. (fn. n18)
The manor of Tregony was, at a very early period, in the ancient family of the Pomeroys (fn. n19), who are supposed to have acquired it by the marriage of Joel, son of Ralph de Pomeroy, who came over with William the Conqueror, with a natural daughter of Henry I., and sister of Reginald, Earl of Cornwall (fn. n20). His descendant, Henry de Pomeroy, was summoned to parliament, as a baron, in the reign of Henry III., being the only one of the family who was thus distinguished. This manor, which appears to have been very extensive, continued, for several descents, in the Pomeroys. The elder branch of the Pomeroys of Tregony became extinct, in the male line, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when, according to Hals, this manor passed, with its heiress, to the Penkevils. In the reign of Charles I., the manor of Tregony-Pomeroy was purchased by Hugh Boscawen, Esq. (fn. n21), ancestor of the Right Hon. Lord Falmouth, who is the present proprietor.
Tregony-Castle, of which there are no remains, is said to have been built by Henry de Pomeroy, on behalf of John Earl of Cornwall, at the time that King Richard I. was in the Holy Land (fn. n22) : it was standing, and was the seat of the Pomeroys, in the reign of Edw. VI. (fn. n23) : its site was at the lower end of the town, a little below the hospital.
The manor of Goveyley or Govilly, in this parish, belonged to an ancient family of that name, the heiress of which brought it to the Arundells of Trerice, under whom it was some time held by the Petyts (fn. n24) : it has since passed with the Trerice estate, and is now the property of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, Bart.
The manor of Carvath, in this parish, belonged, in 1483, to John Lithton (fn. n25) : there is now only a tenement of the name, which belonged, in 1727, to J. Tanner, Esq., afterwards to T. Hearle, Esq., some time vice-warden of the Stannaries, from whom it descended, by a coheiress of the Hearles, to the present proprietor, Samuel Stephens, Esq.
In the parish-church of Cuby, which stands just above the town, is a memorial for Hugh Pomeroy, Esq., of Tregony-Pomeroy (of a younger branch, it is probable, of the ancient family of that name), who died in 1674.
On the north side of the town stood, what is called Old Tregony, where was a church, dedicated to St. James; the walls of which were standing when Tonkin made his collections (about the year 1736); part of the tower remained many years later (fn. n26). This church was a rectory, the advowson of which belonged to the Abbey de Valle, in Normandy, and was given by that convent, in the year 1267, to the Prior and convent of Merton, in Surrey, in exchange, together with the priory of Tregony, a small cell to that alien monastery (fn. n27). Mr. Whitaker says, that the site of the priory of Tregony was opposite the old mount of the castle, and speaks of a door-way belonging to a stable, as having been the gate-way of the priory (fn. n28). The rectory of St. James is held with the vicarage of St. Cuby.
The great tithes of St. Cuby, which were appropriated to the priory of Merton, in Surrey, were, for many years, in the Prideaux family, and are now vested in the Earl of Darlington, who is patron of the vicarage.
In the year 1696, Hugh Boscawen, Esq. founded a hospital for decayed housekeepers, and endowed it with lands, now let at 30l. per annum, but capable of being soon raised (at the expiration of the present lease) to about three times that sum.
CURY, in the deanery and the western division of the hundred of Kirrier, lies about five miles from Helston, which is the post-office town. The principal village in this parish, is called Cross-Lanes.
The manor of Bochym, in this parish, belonged anciently to a family of that name; in the reign of Henry VIII. it belonged to John Winslade (fn. n29), who was executed for being concerned in the rebellion of Humphrey Arundell, in 1549. Norden says, it was "the house, in which that instrument of rebellion, Winslade, dwelled, at the time wherein he undertook to be one of the leaders of the Cornish rebellious troops." King Edward VI. granted this manor to Reginald Mohun, who gave the barton, in marriage with one of his daughters, to Francis Bellot, the last of which family (Renatus Bellot, Esq., who died about the year 1730,) sold it to Mr. George Robinson. The late Thomas Fonnereau, Esq. purchased it of the son of Mr. Lancelot Hicks, who was devisee of Mr. Robinson, and had, pursuant to his will, assumed that name. It is now the property of the Rev. Sir Harry Trelawny, Bart., by purchase from Mr. Christopher Wallis, to whom it had been conveyed by the representatives of Mr. Fonnereau. The old mansion is now occupied as a farm-house. Sir Harry Trelawny has the manor also, which, in Hals's time, continued in the Mohun family.
The manor of Skewis belonged to an ancient family of that name: the barton is now the property of Sir William Lemon; the house is occupied by a labourer. The manor was dismembered about the year 1770.
Bonython or Bonithon, for many generations the seat of an ancient family of that name, the elder branch of Bonython of Carclew, was sold to Humphrey Carpenter, about the year 1720. It was, of late years, some time the seat of John Trevenen, Esq., from whom it passed, by sale, to Graham, and, from the latter, to Thomas Hartley, Esq., the present proprietor.
Cury is a daughter-church to Breage, and is held under the same presentation: the great tithes belong to Thomas Grylls, Esq. There was a chapel at Bosham (Bochym), in the parish of St. Corentine, dedicated to St. Mary (fn. n30). In the Valor of Pope Nicholas, this parish is called St. Ninian; in the King's books, the chapel of Corantyn alias Cury.