Magna Britannia: Volume 3, Cornwall. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1814.
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EGLOSHAYLE, in the hundred of Trigg and deanery of Trigg-Minor, lies one mile south-east from Wadebridge, part of which is in this parish, and where there is a post-office and market (fn. n1), and about six miles nearly west from Bodmin; about eight east from Padstow, and somewhat more north-east from St. Columb. The principal villages in this parish, exclusively of the Church-town and Wadebridge, are Bodeeve or Bodive, Burlawn, Slade's-bridge, Trevilder, and Treworder.
The manor of Burnere or Brenere, where the Bishops had a country-seat, belonged to the see of Exeter when the survey of Domesday was taken. At a later period, it was held under the see by the Noseworthy family. The lease having dropped in by the sudden death of Edward Noseworthy, Esq., the last of the family, in 1701, Sir Jonathan Trelawney, then Bishop of Exeter, granted a fresh lease to his own family. The present lessee is James West, Esq., who resides near Swansea in Glamorganshire.
The manor of Treworder belonged to the ancient family of Roscarrock, and was one of the last estates which they had in the county. There is now no manor of that name: the barton of Lower Treworder, which probably was the seat of the Roscarrocks, is now the property of the Rev. Henry Hawkins Tremayne, in right of his wife, one of the coheiresses of the family of Hearle.
Crone or Croan, a seat of the Roscarrocks, was sold, by that family, to the Hills, and by the latter to the Hoblyns. Mrs. Damaris Kirkham, an heiress of the last-mentioned family, bequeathed it to the Rev. Henry Hawkins Tremayne, the present proprietor. The house, which was lately occupied by Francis Hearle Rodd, Esq., is at present inhabited by a bailiff.
The manor of Park was the property and seat of the Peverells, an ancient equestrian family, two of whom were buried in the church of the Grey-Friers at Bodmin. The coheiresses of Peverell brought this estate to the families of Basset and Bottreaux. "My Lorde of Huntingdune," says Leland, "hath a place caulled the Parke, wher Bottreaux had a faire manor castelle, a vi miles by south from Bottreaux. The late Lord Hungerford had half the lordship (fn. n2)." This estate was, at a later period, in the families of Opie and Hickes. In the reign of Queen Anne, it passed, by purchase, to Sir John Molesworth. It was afterwards in the Hoblyns, and passed, by the will of Mrs. Kirkham before-mentioned, to Mr. Tremayne, by whom it has been conveyed, in exchange for other lands, to the late Sir William Molesworth, Bart., father of the present proprietor. A farm-house now occupies the site of the barton: part of the remains of the old mansion has been converted into stables.
The manor of Pencarrow was, at an early period, in the family of Stapleton, nearly a century later in that of Serjeaux, which ended in coheiresses. It is now the property of Sir A. O. Molesworth, Bart. The barton was for many years the seat of a family to whom it gave name. It was forfeited, by attainder, in the reign of Henry VII., and was afterwards, successively, in the families of Walker and Molesworth. John Molesworth, a younger son of a Northamptonshire family, settled at Pencarrow, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth: his grandson Hender, some time governor of Jamaica, was created a baronet in 1689, with remainder to his elder brother, Sir John Molesworth, Knt., of Pencarrow (then Vice-Admiral of Cornwall) and his heirs-male. Pencarrow is now the property and seat of their descendant, Sir Arscot Ourry Molesworth, Bart. The present mansion was built about the year 1730, with stone from a quarry on the barton estate. Borlase speaks of it as perhaps the most capacious mansion in Cornwall.
The manor of Pendavy, which is said to have had extensive privileges with the royalties of the river and the bushelage of coals brought to Wade-bridge, is the property of Sir A. O. Molesworth, Bart. The barton, on which is now a farm-house, was a seat of the ancient family of Kestell, from whom it passed, by marriage, to the Moyles, and from the latter, by sale, to the Usticks.
Kestell, the original seat of the family of that name, as early as the reign of King John, is now also a farm-house of Sir A. O. Molesworth's. It was sold, in 1734, by James Kestell, Esq. Tregleah, a seat of the Keckwich family, and afterwards of the Hoblyns, is now a farm-house, the property of the Rev. H. H. Tremayne, by bequest from Mrs. Kirkham, as before-mentioned.
In the parish-church is the monument of Sir John Molesworth and his lady (without date), and some memorials of the family of Kestell (fn. n3). The church of Egloshayle was given by William, Earl of Gloucester, to the priory of St. James in Bristol, and confirmed by King Edward II. (fn. n4) The great tithes of this parish are now appropriated to the Subdean of Exeter cathedral: the Dean and Chapter of that church are patrons of the vicarage. In the registers of the see of Exeter, are records of chapels at Pendavy and St. Wence, in this parish (fn. n5). Two charityschools, the one for boys, and the other for girls, conducted upon the new system, and combining the plans of Dr. Bell and Mr. Lancaster, have been lately established, and are supported by voluntary subscription.
Wadebridge, which connects this parish and St. Breock, consisting of seventeen arches, and nearly 320 feet in length, was built in the reign of Edward IV., by public contributions, set on foot by John Lovibond, then vicar of Egloshayle. Hals says, that an indulgence was granted to the contributors to this bridge in the year 1485; but we find no record of any such document in the registers of the see of Exeter. The same author adds, that Lovibond gave lands then worth 20l. per annum, for the support of the bridge: these lands are not let now for quite so much. The profit of the tolls is very small. This bridge was made a county-bridge in the reign of James I.
Padstow haven is navigable to Wade-bridge, whither vessels of about forty or fifty tons go up with coals, salt, lime, &c.
Castle-Killibury, an ancient entrenchment, with a treble ditch inclosing about six acres, is in this parish.
EGLOSKERRY, in the hundred and deanery of Trigg-Major, lies four miles north-west from Launceston, which is the post-office town, and nine south-east from Camelford. The only villages, except the Church-town, and part of Tregeare, are Badharlick and Trebeath.
The manor of Penhele, which extends over the whole of this parish, is one of the few which can be satisfactorily traced from the time of the Domesday survey. It was then held, with several other manors, under Robert Moreton, Earl of Cornwall, by Ricardus, whose son, William Fitz-Richard, left a daughter and sole heiress, married to Reginald, Earl of Cornwall, natural son of King Henry I. (fn. n6) This Reginald gave Penhele to William Botterell or Bottreaux, the husband of his aunt, Alice Corbet; and it was afterwards confirmed by him to William Boterell the son (fn. n7), who, in 1199, gave a fine of 300 marks and two goshawks, for livery of this manor and other lands in Cornwall (fn. n8). From that of Bottreaux, Penhele passed, by heirs-female, to the families of Hungerford and Hastings: it was sold, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by Henry or George (fn. n9), Earl of Huntingdon, to George Grenville, Esq. The latter alienated it to John Speccot (fn. n10), Esq., who was sheriff of Cornwall in 1622. The grandson and namesake of this John, who was one of the members of the county in three parliaments of William III., died in 1703, having settled this estate on the heirs-male of his aunt Long. Thomas Long, Esq. of Penhele, was sheriff of Cornwall in 1724. Margaret, daughter and heiress of Mr. Long, brought this estate to the late John Bidlake Herring (fn. n11), Esq. who resided at Penhele, and died in 1806. Two-thirds of this estate are now vested in * * * Hill, Esq., a natural son of the late Mr. Herring; the remainder was recovered in a suit at law (after Mrs. Herring's death) of her surviving husband, by the Rev. Charles Sweet, of Kentisbury, in Devonshire. The old mansion is divided in like proportions: Mr. Hill's part is occupied by a servant. The house was new-fronted by the last of the Speccot family.
The barton of Tregeare, partly in this parish, and partly in Laneast and Tresmere, has belonged, for many years, to the family of Baron. The old bartonhouse is in the parish of Tresmere; a new mansion, built by the late Jasper Baron, Esq., on that part of the estate which is in the parish of Laneast, is now occupied by his widow: Mr. Baron left a son, who is a minor.
The barton of Treludick, in this parish, which belonged also to the Barons, passed, by marriage, to Saltern; of which family it was purchased, by the grandfather of Mr. Peter Hurdon, the present resident proprietor.
In the parish-church, said to have been dedicated to St. Kyryasius or St. Kyriacus, are some monuments of the Speccots. George Owen, Esq., of Tiverton, is patron of the vicarage, and impropriator of the great tithes, which belonged formerly to the priory of Launceston. There is a meeting-house of the Wesleyan methodists at Tregeare.
ENDELYON, now spelt Endellion, in the hundred of Trigg and deanery of Trigg-Minor, lies about five miles from Wade-bridge, and about seven from Camelford, which is the post-office town. The principal village in this parish is Port-Isaac, where a considerable pilchard-fishery is carried on, and there is a small market on Fridays for butchers'-meat. The principal export of this place is slate, from the Delabole quarries: coals are imported hither from Wales. Norden speaks of Port-Isaac as wonderfully increased in buildings. Port-Guin, which was formerly a large fishing-town, and has since declined, he observes, was increasing also. Leland also speaks of both these havens, and another in the same neighbourhood, called Porth Karne: at "Porthissk," he observes, "was a pere, and sum socour for fisschar botes." Norden describes Port-Kerne "as a little cove and haven, where had been divers buildings, all decayed since the growing up of PortIsaac."
The manor of Trefrike or Trefreke belonged to the family of Serjeaux. On the death of Sir Richard Serjeaux, in 1396, it passed, by a coheiress, to the Marneys, and was afterwards in the family of Passelew, descended from another coheiress of Serjeaux (fn. n12). In 1736 the manor of Trefrike belonged to John Hamley, Gent. It is now the property of Frederick Cock, Esq.
The manor of Treore or Treroare belonged to the Boscawens. The heiress of Hugh Boscawen, Esq., who died in 1701, brought it, in marriage, to Hugh Fortescue Esq., of Philleigh, in Devonshire, grandfather of Earl Fortescue, who is the present proprietor.
The manor of Roscarrock belonged to the ancient family of that name, as early as the year 1347, at which time John de Roscarrock was one of the representatives of the county. In 1670 it was sold by Charles Roscarrock, Esq., who is supposed to have been the last of the family, to Edward Boscawen, Esq. The manor has since been successively the property of the Earl of Westmorland and Dr. Mean. It was purchased of the latter by Mr. Warwick Guy, the present proprietor and occupier, who had been many years tenant of the barton.
The manor of Bodannan or Bodannon was formerly a seat of the ancient family of Chenduit, corruptly called Cheyney (fn. n13). Sir John Chenduit, of this family, was one of the representatives of the county in the reigns of Henry IV. and Henry V. His son, William, left two daughters coheiresses, married into the families of Trejago and Roscarrock. An ancient uninscribed tomb in the chancel is said to have belonged to one of this family, and is, by a vulgar but groundless tradition, said to be that of a Lord Cheyney. This manor fell to the share of the Roscarrocks, and was sold, in 1586, by John Roscarrock, Esq., to Nicholas Dagge, yeoman, who, in 1597, conveyed it to Henry Rolle, Esq. In 1739, it was purchased of a descendant of the same name by John Lyne, Esq., father of the Rev. Philip Lyne, LL. D., the present proprietor.
To this manor was anciently annexed the bailiffry of the hundred of Trigg, which, by Norden, is said to have been sometimes called the hundred of Bodannan. (fn. n14)
Strickstenton or Triggstenton, parcel of this manor, said to have been a seat of the Cheynduits, belonged to the Matthew's in the year 1620. It is now the property of Mrs. Clements. There are no remains of any mansion.
The barton of Tresonger or Tresungers, was, in Norden's time, a seat of the Matthew's, who had married the heiress of Tresonger; from the Matthew's it passed, by sale, to the Arthurs. It is now a farm-house, the property of William Wymond, Esq., who purchased the estate of the Arthurs.
Pennant, some time a seat of the Rowes, is now a farm-house, the property of Mr. John George.
Endellion church being situated on high ground, the tower is seen as a landmark at a great distance. The north aisle is the burial-place of the Roscarrocks. The church is collegiate, and has three prebendaries, exclusively of the rector. The rectory, and the prebend called the King's prebend, are in the patronage of the crown; the prebend of Trehaverock, in that of the Hon. Mrs. Agar, as representative of the family of Robartes, Earl of Radnor; and that of Heredum-Marney (fn. n15), in the patronage of Richardson Gray, Esq., whose family have possessed the advowson of it for more than a century. The prebends are sinecures; all the prebendaries have portions of tithes; and those of Heredum-Marney, and Trehaverock, houses and glebes.
The manor of Roscarrock pays, in lieu of tithes, a modus of 9l. per annum, which is divided in equal portions between the rector and two of the prebendaries. This modus was formerly paid, according to an ancient custom, on the morning of Michaelmas-day, before sun-rising, in the church porch.
There were formerly chapels at Roscarrock and St. Illick (fn. n16), of which the ruins are still to be seen.
At Port-Isaac is a charity school, established about the year 1804, and supported by voluntary subscriptions.
ST. ENODER, in the hundreds of Pyder and Powder, and in the deanery of Pyder, lies about five miles west from St. Columb, and about ten east from Truro, which is the post office-town. The principal villages in this parish, exclusively of the church-town, are Fraddon, Penhale, and Summer-Court. Part of the small borough of Michell, also, is in this parish. There are three great fairs held at Summer-Court for horses, bullocks, sheep, &c. One of these, held on the 28th of July, is of modern date, the others are ancient chartered fairs; and the right of holding them was lately purchased of the Rev. Dr. Luttrell Wynne, by Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart. Both these fairs belonged to the Veres, Earls of Oxford; one of them, attached to the Earl's manor of Polsew in St. Erme, was held at a place called Long-Chepyng on Holyrood day (fn. n17); the other, still called Penhale fair, held on the 25th of September, has been transferred from that village to SummerCourt. It belonged, in the reign of Edward II., to John le Seneschall (fn. n18), and in that of Edward IV. to the Veres. (fn. n19)
The manor of Argallez or Arrallas was formerly in the Dinham family (fn. n20), afterwards in that of St. Aubyn. Having become vested in the crown, it was granted, successively, to the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Gloucester (fn. n21) : it is now the joint property of Sir Carew Vyvyan, Bart., and William Rashleigh, Esq. of Menabilly, by inheritance and bequest from the Carew family. The site of the manor is occupied by a farm-house.
The manor of Borthy was many years in the family of Penrose; afterwards in the Boscawens: it is now the property of Lord Falmouth.
The barton of Carvynick was a seat of the Willoughbys, a Dorsetshire family, whose coheiress brought it to a branch of the Arundells of Lanherne. The heiress of Zach. Arundell married Anthony Tanner, a younger son of the Tanners of Court in Brannell, one of whose coheiresses brought it to the grandfather of the Rev. Thomas Penwarne, the present lessee of this estate under the church of Windsor. The mansion is occupied as a farm-house.
Pencoose or Pencorse, formerly a seat of the family of Jolly: it was purchased in the reign of Charles II. by Arthur Fortescue, whose descendant, Captain Fortescue of the guards, sold it, about the year 1790, to Mr. William Basset. The house has been modernized by Mr. Basset for his own residence.
Trewhela, some time the seat of a younger branch of the Hoblyns, is now the property of Mr. John Basset, of Chytane, in this parish.
The barton of Treweese, some time a seat of the Trewithicks, an ancient family now extinct, belongs to Sir Carew Vyvyan, Bart., and Francis Retallack, of St. Michell. The latter purchased his moiety of the late Philip Rashleigh, Esq. of Menabilly (fn. n22). The site of the barton is now occupied by a farm-house.
Gonronson, the seat some time of a younger branch of the Flamanks, was sold by them, in 1724, to the Hawkins family: it is now a farm-house, the property of Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart. Boswallow, which was sold by the Richards family to John Stephens, Esq. of St. Ives, is now a farm-house, the property of Samuel Stephens, Esq., of Tregenna Castle.
Goonhaskin, spoken of by Norden as a house of the Coswarths, is now a farmhouse, belonging to a minor of the name of Bennet, as heir of the Gullys.
Bodanna or Bodannan, in this parish, belonged to the Footes of Lambesso, of whom it was purchased by Mr. Johnson Vivian, great uncle of John Vivian, Esq. of Pencallenick, the present proprietor.
The parish-church, which had fallen down, was rebuilt in the reign of Charles II. Tonkin supposes, that St. Athenodorus gave name to the church and parish. The great tithes, appropriated formerly to the college of Glaseney, are held on lease by Samuel Stephens, Esq., under the Bishop of Exeter, who is patron of the vicarage. At Arrallas are the ruins of a chapel, and a meadow, called the Chapelmeadow; at Michell and Hendra are meadows of the same name, but no remains of chapels. All these meadows pay great tithes to the vicar.
Partly in this parish as before observed, and partly in that of Newlyn, is the small borough-town of Michell, improperly so called, and still more improperly St. Michael: it is written in ancient records Modeshole. In the year 1301, John de Arundell certified his right to a market and fair in his manor of Modeshole: this market and fair had been granted to Walter de Ralegh, of whose son Peter, his ancestor, Ralph de Arundell, had purchased the manor (fn. n23). The market has been long disused; an annual fair is held on the 15th of October, chiefly for sheep, of which from three to four thousand head are generally offered for sale.
The manor of Michell passed, by sale, from the Arundells to the Scawens of Carshalton in Surrey: it was afterwards in Sir Francis Basset, Bart. (now Lord de Dunstanville), of whom it was purchased by Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart. This borough, which has sent two members to parliament ever since the reign of Edward VI., is governed by a portreeve annually elected at the court-leet of the High Lord, by a jury consisting of the principal inhabitants of the borough nominated by the High Lord; which portreeve, by prescription, must be one of the five chief tenants or mesne-lords. The present portreeve (1812) is Mr. Richard Curgenven: the other deputy-lords are the Rev. Henry Hawkins Tremayne; Thomas Carlyon, Esq. of Tregrehan; the Rev. T. Carlyon, rector of Truro and vicar of Probus, and the Rev. Richard Hennah, vicar of St. Austell. "The members to serve in parliament," says Browne Willis, "have been elected several ways; sometimes by a jury of the principal inhabitants; and at others, by the inhabitants in general; but on the 20th of March 1700, the right of election was settled by a vote of the House of Commons to be in the lords of the said borough, capable of being portreeves, and in the inhabitants paying scot and lot, who were then not above sixteen, but are now twenty-six (fn. n24)." The present number of voters, exclusively of the lords, is only four.
Richard Carew, Esq., of Anthony, who wrote the survey of Cornwall, was one of the representatives of this borough. It appears by the registers of the see of Exeter, that there was formerly a chapel at Michell, dedicated to St. Francis; this chapel has been long ago demolished, and a dwelling house built on the site. The adjoining field is still called the Chapel-field.
ST. ERME, in the deanery, and in the west division of the hundred of Powder, lies three miles and a half from Truro, which is the post-office town. The principal villages in this parish, exclusively of the Church-town, are Trevispan, commonly called Trispan, Stairfoot, and that part of Tresilian which lies west of the bridge, that on the east side being in the parish of Merther. At this bridge was concluded the treaty between Sir Ralph Hopton and Sir Thomas Fairfax, in the month of March 1046, by which the county of Cornwall was surrendered to the parliament. There are two annual fairs at Tresilian bridge; viz. on the second Monday in February, and on the Monday before Whitsuntide, for cattle, &c.
The manor of Polsew or Polzue, called in the Domesday Survey, Polduh, was part of the large estate held under Robert, Earl of Cornwall, at the time of taking that survey by Ricardus, and passed with the daughter of his son William Fitz-Richard, to Reginald, Earl of Cornwall. This manor was one of the estates which came into the family of Vere, Earl of Oxford, by marriage with one of the coheiresses of Serjeaux. It was forfeited by the attainder of John, Earl of Oxford, who held St. Michael's Mount against King Edward IV., in 1471. (fn. n25) It appears, by an inquisition taken after the death of Richard, Earl of Oxford, in 1416, that the advowson of the church was attached to this manor, and a fair, called Long-Chepyng fair, now held at Summer-Court in St. Enoder, and that it was held of Sir John Dinham, as of his manor of Cardinham (fn. n26). At a later period, this manor was successively in the families of Mapowder and Luttrel (fn. n27); from the latter, it descended to Richard Wynne, Esq., Serjeant-at-law, father of the Rev. Luttrel Wynne, LL.D., the present proprietor. The barton of this manor is held on lease by Mr. Zaccheus Andrew, whose family have occupied it nearly a century.
The manor of Tregasa or Tregasow became, by purchase, the property of John Coke, Gent., about the year 1600. His son, Thomas Coke, Esq., was sheriff of the county in the latter end of the reign of Charles I. (fn. n28) His grandson sold this estate to Hugh Boscawen, Esq., ancestor of Lord Viscount Falmouth, who is the present proprietor. Tregasow house was built, but left in an unfinished state, by Thomas Coke the younger: it is now a farm-house.
The manor of Killigrew belonged to the ancient family, now extinct, to whom it gave name. They continued to possess it till about the year 1636, when it was sold to John Jagoe (fn. n29), Esq. His descendant, Itai Jagoe, alienated it to Mr. Robert Corker of Falmouth, who died in 1731. In 1737, Mr. John Stephens, of St. Ives, (ancestor of Samuel Stephens, Esq., the present proprietor,) bought this manor of Sir John Molesworth and Edmund Prideaux, Esq., who, the preceding year, had purchased of the Prince of Wales all the lands which had been Mr. Corker's, and afterwards Mr. Tregagle's. There are no remains of the ancient mansion, the site of which is now an arable field.
The manor of Trevenen, partly in this parish, and partly in Gorran, belonged to the priory of Tywardreth, and was one of those which, in 1540, were annexed to the duchy of Cornwall in lieu of the honour of Wallingford.
The barton of Ennis was formerly a seat of the Opies (fn. n30), and was sold by them, in the reign of James I., to the ancestor of Mr. Samuel Jagoe, who now resides at Ennis. The former residence of the Jagoe family had been at the barton of Truthan, which was held under the Borlases, as lessees under the see of Exeter, it being parcel of the Bishop's manor of Cargol in Newlyn. Mr. Borlase, who was sheriff of the county the two last years of James II., and is said to have been created a peer by that monarch after his abdication, had built a house on this barton for his own occasional residence (fn. n31). He afterwards leased the barton for lives to the family of Williams. John Williams, Esq., of Truthan, was sheriff in 1705; the last of that family who resided there, was John Williams, Esq., who died in 1764. Truthan is now the seat of Edward Collins, Esq., who purchased the lease of John Thomas, Esq., Vice-warden of the Stannaries. The see of the manor of Cargol, under which this barton is held, is now (by a late purchase made under the powers of the land-tax redemption act) vested in Sir Christopher Hawkins, Baronet.
The barton of Trevellow, which was for several descents a seat of the family of Laugherne, is now the property and residence of Mr. George Simmons.
The barton of Polglase was sold by the Killigrews in the year 1610; and having been successively in the families of Luxton and Rosogan, was purchased, in 1659, by Thomas Tonkin, Esq., of Trevaunance. This small estate, on which is a farmhouse, is now in severalties among his representatives, or persons who have purchased of them.
The barton of Treworgan belonged to the family of Trencreek, from whom it passed, by a female heir, to the Polwheles. John Polwhele, Esq. sold it, in the early part of the last century, to Mr. John Collins: it is now, by purchase from a cousin, the property of Edward Collins, Esq. of Truthan. The house, which was some time a seat of the Polwheles, and afterwards of the Collins family, is now occupied by a farmer.
Treworgan-Vean, which, in Hals's time, was the residence of Mr. Andrew Ley, is now a farm-house, the property of his descendant, Mr. Hugh Ley. Trehane-Vean, in Hals's time, a seat of a younger branch of the Courtenays of Trethurfe, passed, by female heirs through the Bawdens, to the present proprietor, Joseph Beauchamp, Esq. of Pengreep in Gwennap: it is now a farm-house.
In the parish-church are monuments of Robert Trencreek (fn. n32), Esq. of Trencreek in Creed, 1594; Joan, wife of John Coke, Esq. of Tregasow, 1630, and John Jagoe, Esq. (fn. n33) of Truthan, 1652. The benefice is a rectory in the patronage of Dr. Wynne, the advowson having been always attached to the manor of Polsew. There is no endowed school in this parish, but the poor children are taught to read at the expence of the Rev. Dr. Cornelius Cardew, the rector.
ST. ERNEY, in the hundred and deanery of East, lies about two miles north by east from St. Germans. The principal village, exclusively of the Church-town, is Markwell.
The manor of Trelugan was, at an early period, in the family of Dawney, from whom it passed, by a female heir, to the Courtenays, Earls of Devon, and continued in that family as late as the reign of Henry VII. (fn. n34) It is not now known as a manor: the barton is the property and residence of Francis O'Dogherty, Esq., who inherits it from the family of Blake.
The manor of Markwell was parcel of the estate of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster (fn. n35), attainted in the reign of Edward II.; afterwards of the Bodrugans (fn. n36). In the reign of Henry VII., it was granted (after the attainder of Henry Bodrugan) to Sir John Poulett, from whom it descended to the late Duke of Bolton: it is now vested in the Duchess Dowager.
At St. Erney, which is a daughter-church to Landrake, divine service is performed only on the first Sunday in every month, when there is no service at the mother-church. (fn. n37)
ST. ERTH, in the hundred and deanery of Penwith, is situated on the river Heyle, five miles from St. Ives, four from Marazion, which is the post-office town, and seven from Penzance, which is the chief market-town of the neighbourhood. Leland says, that St. Erth bridge was built 200 years before his time (which would carry it back to the middle of the fourteenth century), and that good tall ships came up to that place before the haven was barred up with sands.
The manor of Trelowith, in this parish, has been long in the St. Aubyn family, together with that of Trenhale, of which there is now no knowledge or remembrance, it having been long merged in the former. The barton of Trenhale or Trenhayle was formerly the seat of a family of that name (fn. n38); it is now in severalties; and there are no remains of any mansion upon it which has the appearance of having been a gentleman's seat.
The manor of Trelisick was purchased, in the reign of Charles II., of Sir James Smith, by the family of Paynter or De Camborne. The heiress of the elder branch of the Paynters brought Trelisick to the Hearles. It is now the property of Francis Hearle Rodd, Esq., whose mother was one of the coheiresses of the last-mentioned family. Great part of the old mansion on this estate has been taken down; what remains has been fitted up as a farm-house.
The barton of Trewinnard belonged to an ancient family of that name, two of whom were successively members for the county in the reign of Edward III. The last who appears to have possessed this barton was William Trewinnard, one of the members for Helston, in the reign of Henry VIII. From the Trewinnards it passed to the Mohuns, who some time resided at Trewinnard. It is said to have been settled, by one of this family, on his three daughters (fn. n39), one of whom brought her share to Arundell of Tolverne: this share, to which the mansion was annexed, was purchased of the Arundells by Sir Nicholas Hals of Fentongollan, who occasionally resided at Trewinnard; his son sold this share, with the mansion, to Thomas Hawkins, Esq., ancestor of Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart., the present proprietor, who keeps Trewinnard house in his own hands, and occasionally resides there. The other shares were held some time by the Hawkins family under the families of Praed and Penrose (fn. n40). The fee of these is now vested in Sir John St. Aubyn, Bart. and Mr. Praed of Trevethow, under whom Sir Christopher Hawkins has a lease for life.
The barton of Cuskease belonged formerly to the family of Burges of Trethingey, and passed from them, by a female heir, to the Hoblyns of Nanswhyden, in whom it is still vested.
Gurlyn (fn. n41), successively a seat of the families of Gurlyn, Tregender, Nansperian, Matthew, Prideaux (fn. n42), and Gregor, is now the property of Francis Gregor, Esq., and occupied by the Rev. William Vaudrey. Gear, some time a residence of the Vivian family, is now occupied by John Vivian Tippet, Esq.
Tredrea, held on lease under the St. Aubyns, was formerly the seat of an ancient family who took their name from this barton, and afterwards successively of the families of Phillipps and Davies: it is now the residence of the Rev. Edward Giddy (fn. n43), who married the heiress of Davies. The Phillipps's had another mansion in this parish, called Boswordy.
This parish was anciently called Lanhudnow; a tenement of that name adjoining the Church-town, is now the property of Mr. Rodd, who is lessee of the great tithes under the church of Exeter. The south aisle of the parish-church is called Trewinnard's aisle. In the church-yard are some memorials of the family of Davies. There are the remains of an ancient chapel at Porthcullumb in this parish, the property of Mr. Andrew Hoskins. There is a charity-school at St. Erth, endowed with a house and 5l. 19s. 4d. per annum, being the interest of money given by the Rev. Thomas Ralph and Christopher Hawkins, Esq. (fn. n44)
A little above the vicarage-house is a circular double entrenchment, called Carhangives, said to have belonged to the Dinham family: it is still held under the manor of Cardinham.
ST. ERVAN, in the hundred and deanery of Pyder, lies four miles and a half north from St. Columb, which is the post-office town, and four miles south from Padstow. The principal villages are Penrose and Rumford.
The manor of Trewinnick, which, about the year 1500, passed from the family of Halep, whose coheiresses married Boscawen and Trefusis, was sold by Lord Falmouth, in the year 1774, to Mr. William Brewer, and by him, the same year, to the Rev. John Bassett Collins, father of G. F. Collins Browne, Esq.; the latter in 1805 sold the barton to Mr. William Eplett, by whose representatives it is now occupied as a farm. The remainder of the estate has since been sold in parcels. The manerial rights are now vested in Mr. Thomas Key. This manor was held under that of Trevose in St. Merryn.
The manor of Trembleth or Trembleigh was the property of an ancient family of that name, whose heiress brought it to the Arundells about or before the commencement of the fourteenth century. It was purchased, not many years ago, of Lord Arundell of Wardour, by Mr. Francis Crosse of Crediton, the present proprietor. Trembleth was the chief seat of the Arundells before their match with the heiress of Lanherne.
The manor of Trenowth was, for several generations, the property and residence of the family of Hore (fn. n45). It has long ceased to be considered as a manor. The barton is the property of Mr. Peter Day, whose ancestors had long occupied it as a farm under the family of Hawkins. The small manor of Bojea, in this parish, is claimed by Peter Bowen Harris, Esq. and by Mr. Peter Day.
Treraval, a seat of the Beres, is now a farm-house, the property of John Hicks, Esq.
In the parish-church are some memorials of the families of Keate and Pomeroy. The benefice is a rectory in the patronage of Sir A. O. Molesworth, Bart.
ST. EVALL, in the hundred and deanery of Pyder, lies about five miles northwest from St. Columb, which is the post-office town, and the same distance southwest from Padstow. The principal villages in this parish are Treburthick and Downhill. The manor of Trethewell belonged to the ancient family of Nanfan (fn. n46), several times sheriffs of the county in the fifteenth century. Richard Nanfan having died without male issue, this estate passed, by a female heir, to the family of Erisey, and, by successive sales, to those of Grenville, Smith, and Leach. It is now the property of Mrs. Crosse, a descendant of the last-mentioned family, who resided many years at Trethewell (fn. n47). The barton was purchased, about the year 1798, by Lovell Todd, Esq. (Captain of the Prince of Wales packet), who is the present proprietor: the house is occupied by a farmer.
The tower of the parish-church having fallen down towards the commencement of the last century, was rebuilt from the foundation, and completed in 1727. The expence, which amounted to nearly 400l., was defrayed by collections in the county, aided by a contribution from the Bristol merchants, to whose vessels navigating the north sea, it is, from its loftiness, a conspicuous sea-mark. In the church are some memorials of the family of Trevelick (1693 — 1731.) The Bishop of Exeter is patron of the vicarage; Captain Todd is lessee of the great tithes under the Bishop.
ST. EWE, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Powder, lies about six miles from St. Austell, and three from Mevagissey, which is the postoffice town. The principal villages, exclusively of the Church-town, are Polmasick and Crowswin.
The manor of St. Ewe was in the family of Hiwis as early as the beginning of Edward the Third's reign (fn. n48), and passed, with Tremoderet (fn. n49), and other estates, to the coheiresses of Arundell, of that place: a portion of it, which fell to the share of the St. Aubyn family by the marriage with the coheiress of Whittington, was lately purchased of Sir John St. Aubyn, Bart. by Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart. who is now proprietor of the whole; his family having inherited the remainder (which had passed through several hands) from the Seymours, Tredenhams, and Scobells.
The manor of Lansladron or Lanshadron, called in the Domesday Survey, Lanlaran, was held by Reginald de Valletort of Robert, Earl of Moreton and Cornwall: it was afterwards the seat of Serlo de Lansladron, who was summoned to parliament in the reign of Edward I. Miranda, his daughter, having married Govely, whose heiress married Trerice, on the failure of issue from the great grandson of this Serlo, the Trerices, or their representatives, the Arundells, appear to have been heirs of this ancient family. We find, however, that this manor, by purchase probably, came to the Arundells of Lanherne. The manor of Lanhadron, and that of Tregenna in St. Ewe, which belonged also to the Arundells, were, not many years ago, sold in severalties. The barton, on the site of which is now a farm-house, was purchased by the Rev. Henry Hawkins Tremayne. Norden calls Lanhadron "an auntient howse of the Arondells, where was the moste statelieste parke within the shire, now utterly decayde, and the woodes rooted up and the land sowed with corne. There is an oke within the circuit of this decayde parke, called Arondell's oke, which is sayde to beare leaves as whyte as whyte paper. Some suche leaves are ordinarye on manie others, but to be so generall is more straunge." The barton of Tregenna was, for many years, on lease to the family of Robins, afterwards to that of Randyll. The fee of this barton was purchased lately by Mr. John Gaved, of St. Mewan, who has rebuilt the house for his own residence.
The manors of Treworick, Tucoyse, and Penstrasa, belonged, anciently, to the family of Bodrugan. On the attainder of Sir Henry Bodrugan, they were granted by King Henry VII. to Sir Richard Edgcumbe, and are now the property of his descendant, the Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe. The barton of Treworick was for many years a seat of the Carkeits.
The manor of Helligan was, at an early period, in the Helligans, from whom it passed, by successive female heirs, to the Tregarthians and Whitleghs, and from the latter, by coheiresses, to the families of Grenville and Hals. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, it was purchased by Sampson Tremayne, Esq., ancestor of the Rev. Henry Hawkins Tremayne, the present proprietor. Helligan-house, which was built by Sir John Tremayne, Serjeant-at-law, about the year 1692, is now the seat of his descendant above-mentioned.
The manor of Polsew is supposed to have been formerly in the family of Nanspyan or Nansperian; on a partition of whose estates among coheiresses, it fell to the share of the Vyvyan family. About the year 1611, it was purchased of the Vyvyans by the Seccombes of Merther, who alienated it to the Slades. It is now the property of * * * Allen, yeoman, of Perran-Zabuloe.
The manor of Tregian or Tregyan, gave name to an ancient family, who, upon their removal to Golden in Probus, suffered the mansion on this estate to go to ruin. The manor of Tregian was forfeited in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Francis Tregian, Esq., its owner, having been convicted of secreting a Romish priest (fn. n50). This manor has been dismembered; the barton became the property of the Hicks's, a branch of the Gloucestershire family of that name, who possessed also the barton of Trevithick, in this parish. At the latter place they built a capital mansion, which continued to be the seat of the family till the death of John Hicks, Esq. without issue, in 1734. The barton of Tregian now belongs to Mr. Gaved of St. Mewan; what remains of Trevithick is a farm-house, belonging to Arthur Kempe, Esq., Admiral of the Blue.
There was formerly a manor called Trelewick or Treluige, in this parish, many years ago dismembered. The barton was the seat of John Archer, Esq., who died in 1733. The house soon afterwards fell to decay, and is now a farm-house, the property and residence of Mr. John Harris. The estate was sold, about twenty years ago, by Addis Archer, Esq., cousin of Mr. Archer, of Trelask.
Tonkin speaks of the following bartons in this parish: — Pensiquillis, the last seat of the Penkevills in this county (fn. n51) (where Benjamin Penkevill died unmarried, in 1699), now a farm-house, the property of Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart.; Trelisick, within the manor of Polsew, some time a seat of the Tremaynes, afterwards of the Hookers, now a farm-house, belonging to Thomas Carlyon, Esq., of Tregrehan; Tregonan, within the manor of Tucoyse, some time a seat of the Beaumonts, afterwards, successively, of the Tredenhams and Scobells, partly dilapidated, the remainder being fitted up as a farm-house, the joint property of Mr. Tremayne and Thomas Hext, Esq., as descended from the Scobells; and Kestell-Wartha and Kestell-Wollas, formerly seats of the Tremaynes, now farms belonging to their descendant, the Rev. H. H. Tremayne. One of these was the residence of Colonel Lewis Tremayne during the civil war, and was plundered by the soldiers of the Earl of Essex.
Lithney alias Luny was the seat of a family of that name, one of whose coheiresses, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, married into the family of Kempthorne of Tonacombe (fn. n52). It was afterwards a seat of the Mohuns, who rebuilt the old mansion about the year 1700. Luny is now a farm-house, the property of the Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe: his father, the late Earl, purchased it of the representatives of Mrs. Birkhead, who possessed it by bequest of her first husband, William Mohun, Esq.
Bosew, held some time under the Arundells, by the family of Crusse, is now a farm of Mr. Tremayne's.
Levalsa, some time a seat of the Henwoods, was, not long since, in the occupation of Captain Warwick, of the Navy, son-in-law of Mr. Peter, then proprietor: it is now a farm-house, belonging to the Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe.
Tonkin says, on the authority of Mr. Lewis Tremayne, that the famous Hugh Peters was born at Trelean, in this parish.
In the parish-church are monuments of the Penkevills of Pensiquillis; Robert Quarme, Esq., 1708; William Mohun, Esq., "the last of that ancient name and family," 1737; and of the Tredenham family, particularly that of Elizabeth, only daughter of Sir Edward Seymour, Bart., and wife of Sir Joseph Tredenham of Tregonan, who was buried in Westminster-Abbey, in 1706. (fn. n53) In the north aisle, belonging to the Tregonan estate, is a monument of one of the Scobell family.
The advowson of the rectory was purchased, about the year 1750, of the families of St. Aubyn and Hawkins (it having been annexed to the manor of St. Ewe), by the Rev. John Pomeroy, from whom it has passed, in moieties, to the representatives of his daughters, who married William Carlyon, Esq., and Edward Cregoe, Esq.
Dr. Hugh Atwell, rector of this parish, is spoken of by Carew for his singular practice of physic (fn. n54), which is said to have been applied with great benevolence, and to have been attended with such success, that his cures were ascribed to the magic art. Risdon says, that he lived to be 100 years of age, and that the maidservant who attended him was 120; but Prince tells us, that he died at the age of ninety-one years, on the 4th of May 1617: he adds, that it was a received tradition in the parish of St. Ewe, that he was buried naked, and that the shroud in which he had been wrapped, containing thirty ells of linen, was given, by his own direction, to the poor at his grave.