Magna Britannia: Volume 4, Cumberland. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1816.
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Bromfield or Brumfield
BROMFIELD or BRUMFIELD, partly in the Ward of Allerdale, below Derwent, and partly in Cumberland ward, contains six townships, Bromfield and Scales, Allonby, Blencogo, Dundraw (fn. n1), Langrigg and Mealrigg, and WestNewton. In 1811, the whole parish contained 387 houses and 1808 inhabitants, according to the returns then made to parliament.
The manor of Bromfield anciently written Brunfield, was given by Waldieve, Lord of Allerdale, to his physician Melbeth, whose posterity took the name of De Brunfield. Adam de Brunfield gave the manor of Brunfield to the abbey of Holme-Cultram. The abbey of St. Mary at York had also a manor belonging to their church, which was given them by Waldieve. The whole was granted by King Edward. VI. to Henry Thompson, in lieu of the hospital of Maison Dieu, in Kent. The greater part of this estate was afterwards in the Porters of Weary-hall, who enfranchised most of the lands; the manor and demesne of Bromfield, passed by successive sales to the families of Osmotherly and Barwis, and are now the property of the Reverend John Barwis, who has also the manor of Lower-Scales. The demesne of Scales was sold by the Porters to Sir John Ballantine, whose heiress brought it to Dykes. It is now the property of Joseph Dykes Ballantine Dykes, Esq.
Over an arch in the north wall of the parish church, is the following inscription in black letter, evidently modern, but most probably copied from one of older date: —
"Here lieth entomb'd I dare undertake
The worthy warrior, Adam of Crookdake, Knight, 1514."
Mr. Boucher, who drew up the account of this parish for Hutchinson's History, supposes this person to have been the grandfather of Cuthbert Musgrave, who held the manor of Crookdake in the reign of Henry VIII.; but there is no mention of Sir Adam Musgrave, in the pedigrees of that family. There are memorials also for the families of Barwis and Thomlinson, Richard Garth, vicar, 1673; John Child, vicar; and for the father and mother of the late Rev. Jonathan Boucher, author of a set of loyal discourses preached in America, in which country he had preferment, and which he was obliged to leave in consequence of the Revolution: this learned divine, who was a native of Blencogo, after he returned to his native country was employed for the fourteen years preceding his death, in compiling a glossary of provincial and Archæological words, as a supplement to Dr. Johnson's Dictionary, which he left uncompleted: he contributed largely to Hutchinson's History of Cumberland, particularly to the biographical department.
The church of Bromfield, which is in the diocese of Carlisle and deanery of Wigton, was appropriated at an early period to the abbey of St. Mary, in York: the patronage of the vicarage was at the same time vested in the Bishop of Carlisle. The impropriate tithes of the greater part of the parish were granted with the manor to Thompson as before-mentioned. An act of parliament having recently passed for the inclosure of the commons of Bromfield, Scales, and Langrigg, Sir Henry Fletcher claimed to be entitled to the corn tithes of those townships, the vicar to the hay tithes. The allotments have not yet been made. The great tithes of Allonby, Mealrigg, and West-Newton, belong by purchase to the land-owners. The townships of Dundraw and Allonby have been inclosed under acts of parliament passed in 1813 and 1814. Allotments of land were given in lieu of tithes in the township of Dundraw. Before the reformation, there was a chantry of St. George at Bromfield, endowed with lands of considerable value.
A free-school was founded at Bromfield in 1612, by Richard Osmotherly, and endowed by him with 10l. per annum, payable by the merchant-taylors' company (fn. n2) : this has been augmented by subsequent benefactions; and the endowment is now about 40l. per annum, including the rent of certain lands (12l. per annum) the donor of which cannot be ascertained. The principal modern benefaction was that of Mr. Thomas Thomlinson, who died in 1802, having by will, bearing date 1798, bequeathed the fourth part of his residuary property amounting to the sum of 354l. to this school.
ALLONBY, five miles from Maryport and nearly twelve from Wigton, is a fishing town, and a bathing-place of considerable resort. A small market for provisions, of modern date, is held weekly, on Saturdays. This town contained in 1811, 156 houses and 655 inhabitants: the population appears to have been doubled, since the publication of Hutchinson's history. The fishery is chiefly for herrings; during the last two summers (1813 and 1814) it was particularly productive. Sometimes cod are taken in considerable quantities in the winter season.
The manor of Allonby belonged antiently to a family who took their name from this the place of their residence: from them it passed by successive female heirs, to the families of Martindale, Flimby, and Blennerhasset; by the latter it was sold to the Thomlinsons, about the beginning of the last century, and now (under the will of their uncle, John Thomlinson, Esq.) belongs to Anne and Catherine, daughters of the late Colonel Thomlinson, who are minors. A chapel at Allonby, built by the Reverend Dr. Thomlinson, (of the Blencogo family) was consecrated in 1745. The founder having given 200l. for that purpose, it was soon afterwards augmented by Queen Anne's bounty, and has since received a second augmentation: the patronage was vested in Dr. Thomlinson and his heirs. There is a Quakers meeting-house at Allonby. The widow of Dr. Thomlinson gave the sum of 100l. for the use of a school at this place: this having been laid out in the purchase of lands at Blencogo, now produces 8l. per annum.
The manors of Blencogo and Dundraw were given by Waldeof or Waldieve, Lord of Allerdale, to Odard de Logis. Blencogo being then in the crown, was granted by King Henry VII. to Sir Richard Cholmley. Queen Elizabeth in 1589, granted this manor, described as having been lately in the tenure of Sir Richard Cholmley, to Walter Copinger and Thomas Butler of London, Gentlemen, trustees, probably, for the Barwis family, to whom it was conveyed by them (fn. n3). The Thomlinsons purchased it about the latter end of the seventeenth century: it now belongs to the daughters of Colonel Thomlinson.
The posterity of Odard de Logis above-mentioned, assumed the name of Dundragh or Dundraw from the place of their residence. From a coheiress of the Dundraws, the manor or demesnes of Dundraw passed at an early period to the Croftons, and from them in like manner to the Briscoes. Dundraw and the two neighbouring hamlets of Wheyrig and Moor-row are now the property of Sir Wastell Briscoe, Bart. When this township was inclosed as before mentioned, by act of parliament, the Earl of Egremont claimed the royalties of this manor as parcel of his barony of Wigton.
The manor of Langrigg was given by Waldieve, Lord of Allerdale, to Dolphin, whose posterity possessed it for some descents: it was afterwards in a family who took their name from the township. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the Porters were possessed of the manor, and the Osmunderleys or Osmotherleys of the demesne. It appears that the latter had then been a considerable time in possession. William Osmunderley of Langrigg was Sheriff of Cumberland in the reign of Henry IV., and in the preceding reign the same person, or a person of the same name, was one of the knights of the shire. They purchased the manor, at a subsequent period, of the Porters. The Reverend Salkeld Osmunderly, the last of this family sold the manor and demesne in 1735, to Thomas Barwis, Esq. They are now the property of the Reverend John Barwis, Rector of Niton, in the Isle of Wight. The widow of the late John Barwis, Esq. died at Langrigg hall in 1814, aged 100 (fn. n4). The hall is at present in the occupation of Mr. Barwis's sister.
The manor of Crookdake, in this township, was at an early period, in the Lowther family, of whom it was purchased in the reign of Henry IV. by the Musgraves, a younger branch of the last mentioned family had their seat here: one of the coheiresses of Musgrave brought it to Sir John Ballantine. This family after two or three generations ended in daughters, one of whom married Lawson Dykes, the late proprietor, who in 1773, took the name of Ballantine by the King's licence: it is now the property of his son, Joseph Dykes Ballantine Dykes, Esq. The old mansion is occupied as a farm-house.
In Hutchinson's History of Cumberland is an account, taken from the Gentleman's Magazine (fn. n5), of a family of freeholders named Reay, said to have been, from a very early period, possessed of an estate called the Gill, in this parish, now the residence of Mr. John Reay, father of John Reay, Esq., one of the present sheriffs of London. William Reay, some time Bishop of Glasgow, and William Reay, author of a volume of sermons, still in much esteem, are said to have been of this family; and John Ray, the celebrated naturalist, who was a native of Essex, is said also to have been descended from it.
Greenhow, in this township, formerly the seat of a family of that name, passed with its heiress to a younger branch of the Briscoes: it is now a farm-house, the property of Mr. William Glaister.
The manor of West-Newton, was given by Alan, second Lord of Allerdale, to Odard de Wigton, whose posterity took the name of Newton. The heiress of Newton brought this estate to the Martindales, who continued to possess it for four or five generations, after which a co-heiress brought it to the Musgraves. It is now the property of Mrs. Joliffe, relict of William Joliffe, Esq. M. P., and sole heiress of Sir Richard Musgrave Hylton, Bart. The mansion belonging to this estate was castellated; nothing remains of it but the fragment of an old tower.
BURGH-UPON-SANDS, in Cumberland ward, lies about five miles from Carlisle: it contains five townships, Burgh-upon-Sands, Boustead-hill, Long-Burgh, Moorhouse, and West-end. The total number of houses in the parish in 1811, was 164; that of inhabitants, 668: the village of Burgh contains 83 houses and 369 inhabitants. The barony of Burgh was given by Ranulph de Meschines to Robert de Estrivers or Trivers, who married his sister. The heiress of Robert married Ranulph Engayne, whose grand-daughter Ada, brought this barony to the Morvilles. Sir Hugh Morville, Lord of Burgh, was one of the four knights who murdered Thomas a Becket. Ada, one of his coheiresses, brought Burgh to the Multons, who were also barons of Gilsland. The Dacres, by marriage, inherited both baronies; and the co-heiresses of Dacre brought them to two branches of the Howard family. Henry Howard, Duke of Norfolk, in the year 1684, sold the Barony of Burgh to Sir John Lowther, Bart., from whom it has descended to the present noble owner, the Earl of Lonsdale. There was formerly a castle at Burgh, which is said to have been taken by William, King of Scotland, in 1174 (fn. n6) : the custody of it was granted in 1253, to Stephen Longespee (fn. n7). Leland speaks of the ruins of this castle, as still remaining in the year 1539. King Edward I. died at Burgh, on his expedition against the Scots, July 7, 1307 (fn. n8). An obelisk, commemorative of this event, was erected in 1685, by Henry Duke of Norfolk, on the marsh where this illustrious monarch is supposed to have died in camp; but it is more probable that he was lodged and died in the castle. The inscription on the west side of the obelisk, was as follows: "Memoriæ æternæ Edwardi I. Regis Angliæ longe clarissimi; qui in belli apparatu contra Scotos occupatus, hic in Castris obiit 7 Julii A. D. 1307." That on the south side, detailed, at full length, the titles of the noble Duke by whom the monument was put up, mentioning the circumstance of his descent from King Edward I. This monument being in a ruinous state was restored in 1803, by the present Lord Lonsdale, when the following inscription was placed on it: "Omni veneratione prosequens inclytam Edwardi primi famam, optimi Angliæ Regis, columnam hanc humifusam dirutamque, hic reponendam curavit Gulielmus Vice-comes de Lowther, Anno Salutis MDCCCIII."
The tower of the parish church, which is adapted for the purposes of defence, has been already described. The church is in the diocese and deanery of Carlisle: it was given by Sir Hugh Morville to the abbey of Holme-Cultram, to which monastery, the great tithes were appropriated: they are now in severalties. The vicarage is in the gift of the crown. There is a Quakers meeting house at Moorhouse.
The mansion at Moorhouse, which was some time the seat of Joseph Liddell, Esq. is now by purchase, the property of Major Richard Hodgson, and unoccupied. Mr. Liddell now resides at a newly erected mansion, called Moor-park, between Moorhouse and Thurston-field. Mr. George Henry Hewett has a good house in the village of Burgh; Mr. Mayson Hodgson, at Long-Burgh, and Mr. William Nixon, at Boustead-hill.
Most of the manufactures mentioned in Hutchinson's account of this parish, have been removed to Carlisle; that of tobacco is still carried on upon a small scale. The manufacturers at Burgh are almost wholly employed in weaving ginghams for the Carlisle houses.
There is a charity school at Burgh, to which Richard Hodgson gave the interest of 50l. and Mr. John Liddell the interest of 25l. There are schools also at Long-Burgh and Moorhouse, with no other endowment than a share of the interest of 100l. given by Mr. Thomas Pattinson of Easton, in 1785, to be divided among the schoolmasters of Burgh, Long-Burgh, and Moorhouse.