Magna Britannia: Volume 5, Derbyshire. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1817.
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DOVERIDGE, more properly Dovebridge, lies on the river Dove on the borders of Staffordshire, about two miles from Uttoxeter in that county, and seventeen from Derby. This parish, which is in the hundred of Appletree and in the deanery of Castillar, is called in ancient records Dubridge, or Dubbridge, and Dovebruge; it comprises the hamlets of Eaton-Dovedale, and West-Broughton.
A market on Thursdays at Dovebruge, was granted, in 1275, to the prior of Tutbury. (fn. n1) It has been long ago discontinued.
The manor of Doveridge, which had belonged to Edwin Earl of Mercia, was held by the prior of Tutbury under Henry de Ferrars, at the time of the Domesday Survey. It appears that Bertha, wife of Henry de Ferrars, gave it to the priory. (fn. n2) The monks, not long afterwards, became possessed of an estate in this parish, called Holt-park, to which Sir William de Eyton and Henry Deneston quitted claim. (fn. n3) In 1552, the manor of Doveridge and Doveridge-holt, were granted to Sir William Cavendish, then Treasurer of the Chamber. (fn. n4) Henry Cavendish, Esq., his eldest son, settled this estate, in 1611, on Henry, his natural son. This Henry was the immediate ancestor of Henry Cavendish, Esq., who held successively some important offices in the revenue department in Ireland, and was created a Baronet in 1755. In 1792, Sarah, the Lady of his son, Sir Henry Cavendish, was created Baroness of Waterpark, of the kingdom of Ireland, which title, with the baronetcy and the Doveridge estate, were inherited by her eldest son, Richard, now Baron Waterpark. Doveridge-hall, the seat of Lord Waterpark, built about the year 1770, is pleasantly situated on a rising ground, commanding an extensive view towards Staffordshire, with the town of Uttoxeter.
In the parish church are the monuments of Sir Thomas Milward (fn. n5), Chief Justice of Chester, who died in 1658; William Davenport (fn. n6), Esq., of Henbury, Cheshire, 1640; and several of the family of Cavendish. (fn. n7)
There was a chantry in this church, founded, in 1392, by Sir Robert Kniveton, Vicar, in honour of the Virgin Mary, and for the sustenance of poor people; the revenues were valued, in 1547, at 61. per annum. (fn. n8)
The manor of Eaton-Dovedale belonged, in the reign of Edward I., to the family of St. Pierre, whose heiress, about the year 1356, brought it to Sir Walter Cokesey. Sir Hugh Cokesey, grandson of Sir Walter, died seised of it in 1445: one of his sisters and coheirs married John Greville, whose grandson, Sir Thomas Greville, alias Cokesey, died without issue in or about the year 1499. This estate, in consequence, devolved to the Russels, descended from the other sister and coheir of Sir Hugh Cokesey. (fn. n9) Sir John Russel died seised of it in 1556: a few years afterwards, it appears to have passed by sale to the Milwards. Robert Milward, Esq., died seised of it in 1566. The heiress of Milward brought it to the Clarkes of Somersall, and it is now the property of their representative the Marchioness of Ormond.
The old mansion, in which Sir Thomas Milward is said to have entertained King Charles I. (fn. n10), was taken down some years ago.
The manor of West-Broughton, which, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, belonged to the family of Palmer, is now the property of Lord Vernon. Farme-place, in West-Broughton, was granted in 1544, to William Parr, Earl of Essex, afterwards, Marquis of Northampton. We cannot learn who is the present proprietor of this estate, or, indeed, that any estate is now called by the name.
DRONFIELD, in the hundred of Scarsdale and deanery of Chesterfield, lies about six miles north of Chesterfield, on the road to Sheffield. The parish contains the township of Unston, the hamlets or villages of Apperknowl, Coal-Aston, Cowley, Hundall, Stubley, and Summerley, besides the parochial chapelries of Dore and Holmesfield.
There was formerly a small market at Dronfield on Thursday, which has been many years discontinued. There is still an annual fair on the 25th of April, for cows, sheep, &c. (fn. n11)
The manor of Dronfield appears to have belonged to the crown till the reign of King John, when it was granted to William Briewer. (fn. n12) One of the coheiresses of his son, was twice married, and this manor passed with Isabel, the second daughter, and coheir of her second husband, Ralph Fitz-Ranulph, to Robert de Tatshall; from the Tatshall family it passed by marriage to the Cromwells, and from the latter to William Lord Hastings, who died seised of it in 1489. In 1541, William Selioke died seised of this manor, then held of the heirs of Tatshall. In 1577, at the death of his grandson, it was stated to have been held by him immediately of the Queen. Anthony Blithe died seised of the manor of Dronfield in 1601. From the Blithes it passed by sale to Anthony Morewood, Esq., of Hallowes, who soon after wards sold it to Francis Burton, Esq.; Ralph Burton, son of Francis, dying without issue, in 1714, this manor passed to Clement Rossington, who had married one of his sisters and coheirs. John Rotheram, Esq., who was sheriff in 1749, purchased of Rossington; Samuel Rotheram, Esq., his son, who was sheriff in 1773, died seised of it in 1795. His sister and heir bequeathed the manor of Dronfield to the late Mr. Joseph Cecil, and it is now the property of his younger son.
The parish church of Dronfield, is a handsome Gothic structure, with a spire. In the south aisle is an ancient monument for Sir Robert Barley of Dronfield- Woodhouse. (fn. n13) In the chancel are memorials of the families of Fanshawe (fn. n14), Burton (fn. n15), Barker (fn. n16) of Dore, Morewood (fn. n17) of Hallowes, Rotheram (fn. n18), &c. Bassano's volume of Church Notes mentions memorials of the families of Bullock (fn. n19) of Unston, Wright (fn. n20) of Unthank, Eyre (fn. n21) of Horsley-gate, and Nevill (fn. n22) of Thorney, Notts.
The church of Dronfield was given to Beauchief-abbey by Sir Henry de Brailsford, who lived in the reign of Edward I. It was appropriated to that monastery in 1399, and a vicarage endowed in 1403. (fn. n23) Dr.Pegge supposed that the rectory of Dronfield was granted to the Fanshawes. It had for some time past been held with the manor, the rectorial tithes have lately been sold to the several land-owners. The vicarage, which, in 1730, was augmented by Queen Anne's bounty, is in the gift of the crown.
It appears that there was a chantry in Dronfield church, amply endowed by Ralph Barker and others, in the year 1392. (fn. n24)
The grammar-school at Dronfield was founded, in 1579, by Thomas Fanshawe, Esq., Remembrancer of the Court of Exchequer, in pursuance of the will of Henry Fanshawe, Esq., his predecessor in that office, (to whom he was executor,) and endowed with lands. (fn. n25) By an order of Sir Thomas Fanshawe, in 1638, the usher's salary was fixed at 15l. per annum, and the head master was to have the remainder. By a subsequent order, made, in 1786, by Mrs. Alathea Fanshawe, widow, then patroness of the school, the salaries of the master and usher were to increase in proportion to what they then received. The rent of the estate is now 200l. per annum. The master's salary is 130l. per annum, with a dwelling-house, the usher's, 68l., with a dwelling-house. General Fanshawe, an officer in the Russian service, is patron of this school, as representative of the founder.
The manor of Unston, or Onston, was parcel of the ancient demesne of the crown. In the reign of Edward I., it belonged to Sir Henry de Brailsford (fn. n26): it was afterwards, successively, in the families of Stretton and Newbold. The coheiresses of the latter married Grey and Tetlow. Grey's moiety was purchased by the Bullocks, who for some time were settled at Unston. The coheiresses of Tetlow married Chaderton, Belfield, and Birdhill. The manor was afterwards in severalties; and, in 1760, there was a law-suit between George Mower, Esq., who inherited from the Bullocks, and Moresby, who derived his title from the coheiresses of Tetlow. The late Dr. Pegge had a moiety of this moiety, which he sold to Moresby. The whole of the manor now belongs to George Mower, Esq., of Holt-House, in Darley-dale, who possesses also the manor of Hallowes, which formerly belonged to the Morewoods.
The parochial chapelry of Dore is situated about four miles from Dronfield, and about nine from Chesterfield. The village or hamlet of Totley is in this chapelry. The manor belonged to Roger de Busli, at the time of the Domesday Survey. It was afterwards held by the families of Hathersage and Longford, as an appendage to their manor of Kinwaldemarsh or Killimarsh. The family of Kelke possessed it as early as the reign of Henry VI. Christopher Kelke sold it, in 1551, to Robert Swift, Esq., of Rotheram. Francis Wortley, Esq., and Mary his wife, the heiress of Swift, sold it, in 1564, to Sir Francis Leake of Sutton, in whose family it continued many years. It is now the property of the Duke of Devonshire, whose ancestor purchased it, in 1705, of the family of Pegge. The late Duke was impropriator when an inclosure act was passed in 1809: an allotment was then given in lieu of tithes. Earl Fitzwilliam is patron of the chapel, to which a perpetual curate is appointed.
The manor of Totley, (Totingelei) is described in the Domesday Survey, as belonging to the King's Thanes. In the reign of Edw. I., it appears to have been in the Longford family, as an appendage of the manor of Killimarsh. (fn. n27) Sir Walter Blount was seised of it in the reign of Edward IV.: it was afterwards successively in the families of Bradshaw, Leche, and Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury. The manor of Totley now belongs to Henry Lord Middleton, of Wollaton; the whole of the landed property is divided amongst the freeholders.
The parochial chapel of Holmsfield, is situated about a mile and a half from Dronfield and about six and a half from Chesterfield. In this chapelry are the hamlets or villages of Cartlidge, Horsley-gate, Lydgate, Millthorp, and Unthank.
The manor belonged to the Deincourts, when the Survey of Domesday was taken, and continued in that family, till the death of William Deincourt, in the reign of Henry VI.; one of his sisters and coheirs married Sir William Lovell: on the attainder of his son, Francis Lord Lovell, in the reign of Henry VII., this manor was granted to Sir John Savage. It is now the property of the Duke of Rutland, whose ancestor purchased it of the Savage family in the year 1586. The Deincourt family had a park at Holmesfield in 1330. (fn. n28)
In the year 1717, Mr. Robert Mower gave a nouse and some closes to the Minister of Holmsfield chapel; and, in 1718, lands then valued at 10l. per annum, towards procuring Queen Anne's bounty. In 1808, the income of this chapel was again augmented with 100l. given by Mr. Godfrey Watts, 100l.by the trustees of Mrs. Pincombe's charity, and 200l., of Queen Anne's bounty, which was laid out in the purchase of lands. Mr. William Rowland is the patron.
In the year 1719, Mr. Robert Mower gave the rent of two closes for the purpose of teaching ten poor children of this chapelry English. In 1725, Mrs. Prudence Mower gave 60l. to the school, on condition, that the Lordship should make up the income 10l. per annum; and that it should be a grammar-school. The income is now 15l. per annum.
At Horsley gate was an estate, which was, for nearly four centuries, the property and residence of a branch of the ancient family of Wolstenholme of Lancashire. A branch, of the Eyres of Hassop resided at Horsley-gate, in the 17th century. Unthank, sometime the property and residence of the Wrights, is now a farm house, the property of Mr. John Lowe.
DUCKMANTON, in the hundred of Scarsdale and deanery of Chesterfield, lies about four miles from Chesterfield. The parish contains the villages of Long-Duckmanton, in which was the church, Middle-Duckmanton, and Far-Duckmanton.
Wulfric Spott gave the manor of Duckmanton to Burton-Abbey. (fn. n29) At the time of taking the Domesday Survey it was the property of Ralph Fitzhubert. Geffrey Fitz-Peter purchased the manor of Sir Richard de Wyverton, for Welbeck-Abbey. (fn. n30) Sir Richard Basset gave the vill of Duckmanton to the Abbey. It appears that both these parties held under Leonia de Reynes, whose son Henry de Stuteville confirmed Duckmanton to the Abbey. (fn. n31) King Henry VIII. granted the manor, in or about 1538, to Francis Leake, Esq. It has since passed with Sutton, and is now the property of the Marchioness of Ormond. The impropriate rectory, and the advowson of the vicarage, have passed with the manor.
There has been no church at Duckmanton within the memory of any person living: it is probable that it was pulled down about the year 1558, when this benefice was consolidated with the rectory of the adjoining parish of Sutton.
DUFFIELD, in the hundred of Appletree and deanery of Derby, lies about four miles from Derby, on the road to Chesterfield. The parish contains the townships of Hazlewood, Shottle, and Windley; the villages of Chevinend, Makeney, and Millford; and the chapelries of Belper, Heage, Holbrook, and Turndich.
The manor of Duffield (Duuelle) was, at the time of taking the Domesday Survey, part of the demesne of Henry de Ferrars. His immediate descendants, the Earls Ferrars, had a castle here, the site of which is still known by the name of the Castle-field. Duffield-Castle is said to have been garrisoned by Robert Earl Ferrars, Jun. when he took up arms on behalf of Prince Henry, against his father King Henry II. It is probable that it was one of those castles which were soon afterwards demolished by the King's command. (fn. n32) King Henry III., in 1266, gave this manor, with other estates of the Ferrars family, to his son, Edmund Earl of Lancaster. In the year 1330, among other claims, in answer to a quo warranto, Henry Earl of Lancaster claimed seven parks in Duffield-frith; namely, Ravensdale, Schethull (Shottle), Postern, Bureper (Belper), Morley, and Schymynde-cliffe. The manor of Duffield became parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster, to which it continued annexed till the reign of Charles I., when it was granted to Ditchfield and others. It was afterwards in the family of Leech, from whom it passed by purchase to the Jodrells, and is now the property of Richard Paul Jodrell, Esq., of Lewknor, in Oxfordshire.
The families of Wilmot and Newton had good estates and mansions at Duffield. John Balguy, Esq., one of His Majesty's Justices for South-Wales, possesses and inhabits the mansion which belonged to the Wiimots, having purchased it, with the greater part of the estate, of that family, about the year 1791. The estate which belonged to the Newtons passed afterwards to the Coapes by purchase; on the death of Henry Coape, Esq., in 1778, it devolved to Henry Porter, Esq., who took the name of Sherbrooke; and on his death, to the late Thomas Porter Bonell, Esq., whose daughter, the lady of Sir Charles Henry Colvile, is the present proprietor.
The parish church of Duffield is a handsome Gothic structure, with a spire. In the north transept is the monument of Anthony Bradshaw, Esq., of the Inner-Temple, a younger son of William Bradshaw, of Bradshaw, put up by himself in 1600. The monument has half-length figures, carved on stone, of the deceased and his two wives, Griselda, daughter and heir of Richard Blackwall, Esq., and Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Hawghton: he had four children (fn. n33) by his first, and sixteen (fn. n34) by his second wife. In the chancel are memorials for Samuel Bradshaw, of Holbrook, thirty years receiver-general of the land-tax, 1716; some of the family of Lowe, 1732—1778 (fn. n35); and Thomas Porter Bonell, Esq., 1797. Bassano's volume of Church Notes describes an alabaster monument of a Knight, with his effigies in armour, with the date of 1536, and the arms of Minors, which he supposes to have been that of Sir Roger Minors, of Windle-hill, in the parish of Sutton-on-the-hill; and some memorials of the Gregsons of Turndich, then nearly obliterated; one had the date of 1681.
The church of Duffield was given by Henry, Earl of Lancaster, to Newark College, in Leicester, to which it became appropriated. (fn. n36) The rectory manor, and impropriation, belonged for many years to the family of Pindar, who resided in the rectory house: it is now the property of their descendant, Earl Beauchamp. The Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry is patron of the vicarage, which has been twice augmented by Queen Anne's Bounty, and once by Parliamentary grant. (fn. n37)
An ancient chantry in Duffield church was founded for the purpose of saying mass for the keepers of Duffield-frith and the town of Duffield. There was formerly a meeting-house of the Presbyterians at Duffield; the congregation of which are now Unitarians, The General Baptists have a meeting-house here; and the Wesleyan Methodists.
There is an old established charity-school at Duffield, the revenues of which are about 70l. per annum. It appears by a renewed deed of trust, bearing date 1586, that the school was then considered an old foundation. Joseph Webster, of Stanton, in the parish of Youlgrave, by his will, bearing date 1685, charged his estate at that place with the payment of 30l. per annum to the parish of Duffield; 20l. to the poor, and 10l. to the (fn. n38) school, (included in the sum before-mentioned.) A Sunday-school has lately been established, in which there are now about 120 scholars.
Mr. Anthony Bradshaw, who died in 1614, built an alms-house for four poor persons (two old men, and two widows), to be appointed by his heirs. An estate at Holbrook is charged with the payment of a shilling a week to each pensioner; 5s. yearly to each for fuel; the men to have a coat, and the women a gown, once in two years. Mr. William Potterell, in 1735, gave the interest of 100l. four per cent, to be divided among the pensioners. (fn. n39)
There was another alms-house in Duffield for four poor persons, founded by Edward Potterell, of Derby, who died in 1667, and erected pursuant to his will by John Potterell, of Oakham, his executor, in 1676, as appeared by an inscription on the building. (fn. n40) The pensioners of this alms-house had an allowance of one shilling a week each, a gown every other year, and fuel at Christmas. What were the funds out of which this endowment was paid is not now known. Nothing having been received for many years; and the house, which was used by the parish for the residence of paupers, having become very ruinous, it was agreed by the inhabitants, at a vestry about the year 1810, that, in consideration of the payment of a sum of money, Mrs. Bonell should be permitted to take it down and inclose its site within her grounds.
The manor of Shottle (the Sothille of Domesday) belonged to the Ferrars family, and was afterwards annexed to the Duchy of Lancaster: it was one of the seven parks within Duffield-frith. It was alienated by the crown in the reign of Queen Elizabeth; probably to the Earl of Shrewsbury. In 1630, it was sold by Philip, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, to Christiana, Countess of Devonshire, who procured a confirmation of this manor and Postern-park, from the crown in 1661. They are now the property of his Grace the Duke of Devonshire.
The manor of Wyndley belonged in the reign of Henry VII. to the Knivetons. John Bradshaw, Esq., who died in 1523, was seised of a moiety of this manor, and of the manor of Champeyne, inherited by his family from the Fouchers, who had married the heiress of Champeyne, The Fouchers had a park here in 1330. (fn. n41) The manor of Wyndley is now the property of Mr. Jodrell. The family of Minors, who were possessed of the manor of Windle-hill in Sutton, as before-mentioned, had also lands in Wyndley in the reign of Henry VIII.
There is an Unitarian chapel at Millford, supported by Mr. Strutt; who supports also a Lancasterian school, in which the numbers are about 300: a room to accommodate about 400 is now building at Millford. The girls in this school, and that at Belper, are taught to sew, cut out, &c. as well as to read and write. A chapel has lately been erected here for the Wesleyan Methodists.
Belper lies about three miles from Duffield, and eight from Derby. A market has been many years established at Belper, in consequence of its greatly increased population. It is held on Saturday, and is abundantly supplied with Butchers' meat, and other provisions. There are three fairs, Jan. 28, May 15, and Oct. 31, for horned cattle and sheep.
Belper appears to have been a considerable village in the reign of Henry V1II. (fn. n42) Fifty-one persons died of the plague there in the year 1609. Its population began to increase most rapidly about the year 1776, in which the first cotton-mill was erected by the late Jedidiah Strutt, Esq. There are now four great mills (fn. n43) belonging to this family at Belper; which till lately employed about 1350 hands. The manufacture of nails has been long carried on at Belper; but is now very much on the decline. The number of inhabitants in 1801 was 4500; in 1811, 5635; it being, in point of population, the second town in Derbyshire.
The manor of Belper, then called Beaurepaire, belonged to Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, who died in 1296. The inquisition taken after his death describes a capital mansion then belonging to that Earl; and as this is the earliest record in which there is any mention of the manor, it is not improbable that it originated in his inclosing of a park, and building a hunting-seat, to which, from its beautiful situation, he gave the name of Beau-repaire, afterwards corrupted to Belper. The manor became annexed to the Duchy of Lancaster; and having passed with Duffield, is now the property of Mr. Jodrell.
The chapel of Belper has been at several times augmented by Queen Anne's Bounty, to the amount of 2700l. (fn. n44) The minister is appointed by the vicar of Duffield.
There was an old established meeting-house of the Presbyterians at Belper; the congregation of which are now Unitarians. The present chapel was built in 1782. The Rev. D. P. Davies, author of a History of Derbyshire, in one volume 8vo. (1811), is minister. There are two meeting-houses at Belper for the Wesleyan Methodists.
Sixty-four children are taught here in day-schools, and 650 in Sunday-schools, on Mr. Lancaster's plan, at the expence of Messrs. Strutt (fn. n45), who are building a school-room capable of containing 500 children. Eight hundred children attend the Sunday-schools supported by the Calvinists and Wesleyan Methodists. There is no charity-school at Belper belonging to the Church establishment.
An alms-house for two poor persons was founded at Belper by Mr. Matthew Smith, of Derby, in 1713, and endowed with land, then 81. per annum in value. (fn. n46) Mr. John Sims built two cottages for the habitation of poor persons, and in the year 1719 endowed them with 12s. per annum.
Heage, alias High-edge, lies about five miles from Duffield, upon the road from Chesterfield to Derby. The manor, which had been parcel of the Earldom and Duchy of Lancaster, was granted, with Duffield, to Ditchfield and others. In 1629 it was conveyed to the Stanhope family. Sir William Stanhope bequeathed it, in 1703, to Godfrey Wentworth, Esq. his nephew, whose son of the same name sold it, in 1767, to Francis Hurt, Esq., grandfather of Francis Hurt, Esq., of Alderwasley, who is the present proprietor.
Morley-park, in this chapelry, which in 1677 was found to contain about 560 acres, was granted by Queen Elizabeth, in or about the year 1573, to John Stanhope, Esq. Since the purchase of Heage, it has passed with that manor; and is now the property of Mr. Hurt.
A branch of the Poles had formerly an estate and mansion at Heage: the coheiresses of this branch married Frith and Chaworth: the estate was sold in parcels. The Thackers had an estate also in this chapelry, and an old stone mansion called Thacker-hall. The family still remains, but in a reduced state: the estate was the property of the late Henry Richardson, Esq., of Derby.
The chapel is annexed to the vicarage of Duffield, to which it is a chapel of ease. This chapel was destroyed by the tempest of 1545 (fn. n47), and rebuilt. It has been at several times augmented by Queen Anne's Bounty and Parliamentary grant, to the amount of 2000l. (fn. n48)
Holbrook, lies about two miles to the north-east of Duffield. The manor appears to have been the only estate in Derbyshire belonging to the Earl of Derby which was not seised by King Henry III. on account of his rebellion. (fn. n49) Nevertheless Edmund, Earl of Lancaster was possessed of it at the time of his death, in 1296. In the reign of Charles I., it was purchased of the crown by certain copyholders, who held under the Duchy. The manor is now in four shares; two of which having belonged to the Bradshaw family were sold by Francis Bradshaw, Esq. to the late Charles Upton, Esq., and are now vested in his widow. Another share belongs to William Brooks Johnson, M. D.; the fourth to Mr. — Fowler, of Derby.
A capital messuage, called Cocksbench, or Coxsbench, with a considerable estate adjoining, belonged for many generations to the ancient family of Franceys, whose residence it was. It is now the property of William Brooks Johnson, M.D., whose grandmother was the eldest daughter and coheir of Mr. Robert Franceys, the last heir male of the family. Coxsbench is supposed to have been the Herdebi mentioned in the Domesday Survey, as held under Henry de Ferrars; and the adjoining part of the manor of Horsley is supposed to have been the Herdebi held under Ralph de Burun.
Holbrook chapel was founded about the year 1761, by the Rev. Samuel Bradshaw, and endowed with 30l. per annum, charged on the Holbrook estate. The minister is appointed by trustees, and must be approved by the Bishop.
The parochial chapel of Turndich, or Turnditch, is about three miles north-west of Duffield. Turndieh is parcel of the manor of Duffield. The Roper family had considerable landed property in this chapelry as early as the reign of Henry VI., which they continued to possess for several generations.