Magna Britannia: Volume 5, Derbyshire. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1817.
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KIRK-HALLAM, in the hundred of Morleston and Litchurch and in the deanery of Derby, lies about eight miles from Derby, seven from Nottingham, and eleven from Alfreton. The hamlet of Mapperley in this parish, is in the hundred of Appletree.
The manor of Kirk-Hallam belonged, when the Survey of Domesday was taken, to Ralph de Burun. It was in the Greys of Codnor as early as the reign of Edward I. (fn. n1) The heiress of a younger branch of the Greys brought it to the Leakes. The large estates of the Leake family were sold after the death of Nicholas Leake, Earl of Scarsdale, in 1736. Since this time, Kirk-Hallam has been in the Newdigate family. In 1762, Francis Newdigate, Esq., of Nottingham (fn. n2), bequeathed it to his nephew Francis Parker, Esq., who has taken the name of Newdigate, and is the present proprietor.
The church of Kirk-Hallam belonged to Dale-Abbey. (fn. n3) In 1562, the impropriate rectory and advowson of the vicarage, were granted to Francis Leake, Esq., and have since passed with the manor.
When the Survey of Domesday was taken, William Peverel held Mapperley for the King. Richard Sandiacre held this manor in the year 1235, by the service of providing a dog-kennel. In the year 1266, a market at Mapperley on Mondays, and a fair for three days at the festival of the Holy Trinity, were granted to Simon de Ardern. (fn. n4) This Simon had the manor of Mapperley, in which he was succeeded by Thomas de Luche. (fn. n5) Sir Richard Willoughby, the Judge, acquired this manor by marriage with the heiress of Morteyne. The Willoughby family had a park at Maperley. (fn. n6) The manor belonged, at a later period, to the Gilberts of Locko, who sold to Lowe. It is now the property of Edward Miller Mundy, Esq., of Shipley, M.P.
Nicholas de Chavincourt gave all his lands in Halum (fn. n7) to Dale-Abbey. The abbot of Dale had a park at Hallam in the reign of Edward III.
The manor belonged formerly to the Cromwell family (fn. n8), who, before the year 1467, were succeeded by the Powtrells. (fn. n9) John Powtrell, Esq., of West-Hallam, died seised of this manor in 1624, leaving Henry his son and heir. Under a settlement, bearing date 1666, it passed to the Hunloke family, but they did not become possessed of it till the year 1698. It is now vested in Sir Henry Hunloke a minor.
In the parish church are memorials of the Powtrell family (fn. n10), Henry Powtrell, the last heir male, died in 1666; he married Ann, daughter of Henry Hunloke, Esq., by whom he had seven daughters. It was this gentleman who made the settlement, under which West-Hallam eventually passed to the Hunloke family. On the west wall is the monument of William Darbishire, a learned physician and divine, who died in 1674. Sir Henry Hunloke, Bart., is patron of the rectory.
The Reverend John Scargill, rector of West-Hallam, who died in 1663, built a school-house, and endowed, it with the sum of 540l. since laid out in lands, (the value of which was returned to parliament at only 19l. 16s. 0d. per annum, in 1787, (fn. n11) for the education of twelve children, six of West-Hallam, two of Dale, two of Stanley, and two of Mapperley. The boys have nine-pence a week each towards their maintenance, except during a fortnight at Christmas, a week at Easter, and a week at Whitsuntide. The number of boys is now encreased to forty-six; the master's salary, which was originally l0l. per annum, is now 40l. per annum. Mrs. Ann Powtrell gave the sum of 50l. to this parish for apprenticing boys.
HARTINGTON, in the wapentake of Wirksworth and in the deanery of Ashborne, lies about ten miles from Ashborne. The parish is divided into four quarters or liberties, Hartington town, the lower quarter, the middle quarter, in which is the chapelry of Earls-Sterndale, and the upper quarter. The principal villages in the parish are, Biggin, Brandside, Crankston, Crowdecote, Foxlow, Heathcote, and High-Needham.
A market at Hartington on Wednesdays, and a fair for three days, at the festival of St. Giles, were granted to William Ferrars, Earl of Derby, about the year 1203. (fn. n12) The market has long ago been discontinued. There are now two fairs held at Newhaven in this parish, the second Tuesday in September and October 30, for horned cattle, sheep, and all kinds of hardware. The last-mentioned is said to be the most celebrated holiday fair in the county.
The manor of Hartington belonged to the noble family of Ferrars. On the attainder of Robert de Ferrars, Earl of Derby, it was granted to Edmund Earl of Lancaster (fn. n13), who had a capital mansion or castle at Hartington in the reign of Edward I. The manor continued to be annexed to the Earldom and Duchy of Lancaster till the year 1603, when it was granted by King James to Sir George Hume, Chancellor of the Exchequer. Having reverted to the crown, it was granted by the same monarch, in 1617, to Sir George Villiers. In the year 1663, it was purchased of the Duke of Buckingham, by William Cavendish Earl of Devonshire, and is now the property of his descendant the present Duke of Devonshire. The Duke is by far the greatest land-proprietor in this extensive parish; and among other estates, is possessed of Biggin-Grange, and Heathcote, which had been given to the monks of Gerondon by the Ferrars family (fn. n14); the manor or grange of Pilsbury and Cronkston-Grange, which had been given by the the same family to the abbey of Merivale in Warwickshire, and had been granted to George Earl of Shrewsbury; the manor of Foxlow which had belonged to the family of Lovell, and Cotes-Grange, which had been granted by Henry VIII. to George Cotton.
Hartington-hall was the property and residence of the Bateman family in the early part of the sixteenth century. The estate now belongs to their descendant, Sir Hugh Bateman, Bart. The hall is occupied as a farmhouse.
A capital messuage and estate at Hurdlow belonged for several generations to the family of Brereton, one of whose coheiresses, about the year 1681, brought it to the family of Swan. The daughter of a descendant married William Bullock, M.D., whose son, Mr. John Bullock, is the present proprietor. Sir Thomas Fletcher, Bart., and Sir John Edensore Heathcote have considerable estates in this parish.
When Hartington commons were inclosed in 1798, the late Earl Beauchamp, then William Lygon, Esq., being impropriator of the great tithes had an allotment in lieu of them, which allotment he afterwards sold to Sir Hugh Bateman, Bart. In right of the rectorial estate Sir Hugh is patron of the Deanery of Hartington. The dean has the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the parish, the probate of wills, &c., it being exempt from the authority of the Bishop and the Archdeacon. The Duke of Devonshire is patron of the vicarage.
HARTSHORN, in the hundred of Repton and Gresley and in the deanery of Repington, lies near the road from Ashby-de-la-Zouch to Burtonon-Trent; three miles and a half from the former and seven from the latter.
The manor of Hartshorn (Heorteshorne) belonged, at the time of taking the Domesday Survey, to Henry de Ferrars. The prior and convent of Repton had lands and a moiety of a park in Hartshorn. (fn. n15) The abbot of Crokesdon, in 1273, held an estate here under Theobald de Verdon (fn. n16), who seems to have been possessed of the manor. We find nothing further relating to it till the year 1504, when John Ireland held the manor of Hartshorn Upper-hall under William Abell, and Nether-hall under the Earl of Shrewsbury. (fn. n17) Sir William Compton died seised of it in 1528. The Comptons were succeeded by the Cantrells, who had been some time in pos session in 1712 (fn. n18) : the heiress of Cantrell married the grandfather of William Bailey Cant, Esq., who, dying in 1800, bequeathed this manor and other estates to Lord Erskine, (then at the bar,) for his able defence of John Horne Tooke and other persons, who were tried for high-treason, in 1794. In consequence of the omission of certain legal processes, the intention of the testator was defeated, and the manor of Hartshorn is now the property of John Murcot, Esq., in right of his wife, Miss Partridge, who was one of the cousins and coheiresses of Mr. Cant.
It is probable that the estate which belonged to the priory of Reptpn is the same which was purchased, in 1707 and 1712, of Lady Rokeby and Lady Philipps, coheiresses of the Honourable Edward Darcy, by Philip Earl of Chesterfield, and which is now the property of Earl Stanhope.
In the parish church is the monument of Humphrey Dethick, Esq., of Newhall, who died in 1599; his widow married Sir Humphrey Ferrers. Bassano's volume of Church Notes mentions the monuments of Hugh Royle, Esq., of Short-Hazles, 1602; and Ann, wife of James Royle, Esq., 1630.
The Earl of Chesterfield is patron of the rectory. The learned and eloquent George Stanhope, D.D., Dean of Canterbury, was a native of Hartshorn, where he was born in March, 1661; his father, the Reverend Thomas Stanhope, being then Rector. The Reverend Stebbing Shaw, the historian of Staffordshire, succeeded his father in the rectory of Hartshorn, in 1799: he died in London in 1803, and was buried at Hartshorn.
HATHERSAGE, in the hundred and deanery of High-Peak, lies about eight miles from Tides well, and about five from Stony-Middleton, where is a post-office. The parish contains the townships of Hathersage, Bamford, Outseats, and Nether-Padley; and the chapelries of Derwent and Stony-Middleton.
The manor of Hathersage (Hereseige) was, at the time of taking the Domesday Survey, the property of Ralph Fitzhubert. In the reign of Henry III. it belonged to the family of De Hathersage, whose coheiresses brought it to Goushill and Longford. In the reign of Henry VI. this manor, or rather perhaps Goushill's moiety, belonged to the family of Thorp, with remainder to Robert Eyre, and his heirs. Sir Nicholas Longford died seised of the other moiety in 1481. The manor of Hathersage is now the property of the Duke of Devonshire, whose ancestor purchased it in 1705 of the family of Pegge. The manor of Bamford was for several generations in the Talbots, Earls of Shrewsbury. (fn. n19) In 1802 it belonged to Francis Evans, Esq.; now to Mr. Francis Melland and Mr. Daniel Prime. The Rev. Robert Turie gave the sum of 35l. to the school in this township.
The manor of Upper Padley belonged to a branch of the ancient family of Bernake, which, settling here, took the name of Padley: a coheiress of Padley brought it to the Eyres; from whom it passed by marriage to Fitzherbert. In 1589 Sir Thomas Fitzherbert complains to the Earl of Shrewsbury, that his house and estate at Padley had been seized, in consequence of two seminary priests having been found harboured there unknown to him. (fn. n20) This manor, or reputed manor, belonged afterwards to the Ashtons, and is now the property of their representative, Ashton Ashton Shuttleworth, Esq., of Hathersage.
In the parish church are monuments of the family of Eyre (fn. n21), and some memorials also for that of Ashton. (fn. n22) The church of Hathersage (Hersege) was given to the Priory of Launde, in Leicestershire, by Richard Bassett, its founder, in the 12th century. In the year 1808, an act of parliament passed for inclosing the open fields and wastes in this parish, containing about 10,000 acres. At this time the Duke of Devonshire was entitled to the tithes of corn, wool, and lambs, in Hathersage and Outseats, and of wool and lambs in the township of Derwent: lands were given by the act in lieu of tithes. The Duke of Devonshire is patron of the vicarage. Benjamin Ashton, Esq., who died in 1725, gave l00l. towards procuring Queen Anne's Bounty; William Archer, Esq., gave 50l., and 50l. more was raised by subscription.
The chapelry of Derwent, is about seven miles from Hathersage, Derwent-hall, some time the property and residence of the Balguy family, is now a farm-house, the property of John Bennet, Esq. The chapel was built by one of the Balguy family, as a domestic chapel. The Rev. Robert Turie, in 1720, gave part of two tenements, called " The Abbey" and the Carr-house, for the augmentation of this chapel by Queen Anne's Bounty; and a rent-charge of 2l. per annum for a school. This school has now an income of about 61. per annum. The patronage of the chapel was sold by John Balguy, Esq., now of Duffield, to the late Joseph Denman, M.D.; and it now belongs to his nephew, Thomas Denman, Esq.
The parochial chapelry of Stoney-Middleton is situated about six miles from Hathersage, on the road from Chesterfield (from which it is eleven miles distant) to Manchester. The manor belonged at an early period to the Chaworths, under whom it was held by the Bernakes of Upper-Padley. Richard de Bernake sold it, in the reign of Edward I., to Thomas de Furnival. It has ever since passed with the adjoining manor of Eyam, and is now the property of Lord George Henry Cavendish. The principal landed property is vested in the different freeholders.
In the chapel are memorials of the family of Finney (1704–1790.) The late Dr. Joseph Denman married one of the daughters, and eventually sole heiress, of Richard Finney, Esq., and possessed the estates which had belonged to that family. The minister of the chapel is appointed by the vicar of Hathersage. The Presbyterians have a meeting-house at Stony-Middleton.
Adjoining to this parish is the extra-parochial chapelry of Peak-Forest, about four miles from Chapel-en-le-Frith, within the manor of the High-Peak, on lease to the Duke of Devonshire. In the chapel, which is dedicated to King Charles the Martyr (fn. n23), are memorials of the families of (fn. n24) Bower, and Needham (fn. n25) of Rushop. The Duke of Devonshire appoints the minister. The site of Peak-Forest village was anciently called the Chamber or Dam in the Forest.
HEANOR, in the hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, and in the deanery of Derby, lies nine miles north—east from Derby, on the borders of Nottinghamshire. The parish contains the townships of Heanor, Codnor, Codnor Castle and Park, and Shipley; and the hamlets or villages of Langley, Loscoe, Milnhay, and Shipley-wood.
The manor of Heanor is parcel of that of Codnor, hereafter described. A good estate at this place, with a mansion called Heanor-hall, belonged to the ancient family of Roper, who settled here early in the sixteenth century. It afterwards belonged to the Fletchers, who sold to Sutton; and is now the property and residence of Mrs. Sutton, widow of John Sutton, Esq., who died in 1803.
In the parish church are monuments of the Mundy family (fn. n26); of Patience, daughter of Francis Lowe, Esq., and wife of Thomas Burton, Esq., of Aldercar, 1679; and Mr. Samuel Watson, 1715. (fn. n27) Bassano's volume of Church Notes mentions memorials of Samuel Roper, Esq., 1658; the Lowes of Owlgreave (fn. n28); Mary, daughter of John Green, of Norwell, Notts, (the last of that ancient family), 1680; the Winters, of Langley (fn. n29); Clarke,. of Codnor (fn. n30), &c. The church of Heanor having been conveyed to the Abbey of Dale, by the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry and others in 1473, the great tithes were appropriated to that monastery. The impropriate tithes are now vested in the several landholders. The King is patron of the vicarage. Heanor was in the reign of Henry II. a chapel to the church of St. Mary in Derby (fn. n31)
The manor of Codnor (Cotenoure) was held, at the time of taking the Domesday Survey, by Warner, under William Peverel. It belonged to the family of Grey as early as the year 1211; and Codnor-castle became the seat of the elder branch. Henry de Grey, the first of this noble and wide-spreading family, whom we find upon record, possessed Codnor and Heanor: his elder son, Richard, who was settled at Codnor, was one of the loyal Barons in the reign of Henry III. John Lord Grey, of Codnor, distinguished himself in the Scottish wars in the reign of Edward III., and was in great favour with that monarch. Richard Lord Grey was employed by King Henry V. to bring the son of Henry Hotspur out of Scotland. Henry, the last Lord Grey of Codnor, died in or about 1526; when the Codnor estate devolved to Sir John Zouch, who had married Elizabeth his aunt. Sir John Zouch was a younger son of William Lord Zouch, of Harringworth. The Codnor estate was sold by Sir John Zouch and John Zouch, Esq., his heir apparent, in 1634, to Archbishop Neile, and his son, Sir Paul. Their descendant, Richard Neile, Esq., sold the manor and castle of Codnor, with its members (fn. n32) >, and the manor of Codnor-park, in 1692, to Sir Strensham Masters, who was High-Sheriff in 1712. This estate now belongs to his descendant, Charles Legh Hoskins Masters, Esq.
Robert Lord Grey, in 1330, claimed the right of having pillory, tumbrel, and gallows, and four parks within the manor of Codnor. (fn. n33) > There are still considerable remains of the castle which stands on an eminence, command ing an extensive view over Nottinghamshire. A part of it has been fitted up as a farm-house. The extensive park connected with the castle has long ago been converted into tillage.
The manor of Shipley (Scipelei) was held, at the time of taking the Domesday Survey, by Malger, under Gilbert de Gand. This Gilbert gave it to Sir Robert de Muskam, his steward, whose great grandson of the same name conveyed it to Sir Robert le Vavasour. (fn. n34) > The heiress of Vavasour brought it to the Strelleys; which family were in possession in 1330. (fn. n35) Sir Anthony Strelley died seised of it in 1591. Sir Philip Strelley, his son, devised Shipley to be sold for the payment of his debts. Nicholas, son of Sir Philip was the last of this elder branch of the Strelleys. Shipley was afterwards in the family of Leche or Leech; from whom it passed, by suc cessive female heirs to the families of Miller and Mundy, and is now the property and seat of Edward Miller Mundy, Esq., one of the representatives for the county.
Robert Strelley, Esq., in 1330, claimed two parks in the manor of Ship ley; but only one was allowed: the other, called Estinker, was stocked with deer, but, being only a new inclosure, was not allowed as a park.
Aldercar-park, in this parish, was a seat of the Burtons. The Milnes family possessed it, and resided there in 1712. It is now vested in the trustees of the late William Milnes, Esq., and the residence of one of them, the Rev. John Smith, who married one of the coheiresses.
Loscoe-park was for several generations the seat of the Draycot (fn. n36) > family. It has long ago been disparked, and the house pulled down: the estate, or part of it, belongs to the Morewoods.
HEATH, in the hundred of Scarsdale and deanery of Chesterfield, lies about five miles from Chesterfield, which is the post-town, and about eight from Alfreton. The manor, which was given by Robert de Ferrars to the monks of Gerondon, in Leicestershire, was probably granted to the Shrewsbury family. The Earl of Shrewsbury possessed it in 1588; it is now the property of his Grace the Duke of Devonshire.
Oldcotes, or Owlcote, in this parish, near Sutton, was one of the three mansions built by Elizabeth Countess of Shrewsbury. This man sion and estate passed with one of the Earl of Shrewsbury's grand daughters to the Pierrepont family. It appears, by Blome's Britannia, that Oldcotes was, in 1673, the seat of George Pierrepont, Esq., grand son of the Earl of Kingston. The house was taken down before the memory of any person living: the estate is the property of Earl Manvers.
The church of Heath, alias Lowne, or Lund, was given to the Abbey of Croxton, at the time of its foundation in 1162, and the great tithes were appropriated to that monastery. The advowson of the church was given by Queen Mary to the burgesses of Derby. The patronage of the vicarage is now vested in the Duke of Devonshire, who is impropriator of the great tithes.
The parish comprises the parochial chapelry of Fairfield, and the townships of Abney, Aston, Bradwell, Brough, Fernilee, Grindlow, Hazlebache, Highlow, Great-Hucklow, Little-Hucklow, Offerton, Shatton, Stoke, Thornhill, Thornton, Wardlow, Woodland-Eyam, and Woodlands; besides the villages of Alpert, Coplow-dale, and Small-dale. Part of Buxton also is in this parish.
In the year 1715, John Balguy, Esq., of Hope, procured a grant for a weekly market at this place on Saturday; and four fairs — on Friday in the last week of January, May 1, on Friday in the first week of July, and Friday in the last week of September. Of late years the market was only attended by a few butchers, and is now wholly discontinued. There are now four fairs: March 28 (a new fair), for cattle; May 13, for cattle, &c., and for hiring servants; the day preceding the second Wednesday in September (a new fair also), for horned cattle and sheep; and Oct. 11, a small cattle fair.
The manor of Hope, which was parcel of the ancient demesne of the crown, appears to have been of considerable extent, and to have had seven hamlets annexed to it at the time of taking the Domesday Survey. It was afterwards considered as parcel of the great manor of the High-Peak; and that manor having been since divided into two, it is now esteemed parcel of the manor of Castleton, held on lease under the duchy of Lancaster, by his Grace the Duke of Devonshire.
Hope-hall was a seat of the ancient family of Balguy: it is now the pro perty of Mr. John Dakin, and occupied as an inn. The Balguys had ano ther residence at Rowlee in this parish. The ancient and widely-spreading family of Eyre are originally to be found at Hope, where they had a mes suage and lands in the reign of Edward I.
The church of Hope, and the chapel of Tidesweil, then an appendage to it, were granted by King John, in 1205, to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry (fn. n37); by some subsequent arrangements this church became vested in the Dean and Chapter, by whom the rectory manor was granted in the reign of Edward VI. to Ralph Gell, Esq., of Hopton. The devisees in trust of the late Philip Gell, Esq., sold it to John Bagshaw, Esq. The latter conveyed it to the late Mr. Micah Hall, of Castleton; and it is now the property of his devisee, Mr. Isaac Hall.
The Presbyterians and Methodists have meeting-houses at Great-Hucklow; the former was originally established by William Bagshaw, called the Apostle of the Peak. The Methodists have a meeting-house at Bradwell. Most of the Methodists in this parish are of the Wesleyan persuasion.
There is a free-school at Hope, of the foundation of which nothing is certainly known. The present value of the endowment is about 10l. per annum. John Champion, in 1785, gave the sum of 70l. to this school.
The manor of Abney (Habenai) belonged to William Peverel at the time of the Domesday Survey. In the reign of Edward II. it belonged to the family of Archer; at a later period, to a branch of the Bagshaw family, by whom it was sold to the Bradshaws: after having possessed it for two centuries, it passed from the latter by marriage to the Galliards, of Edmonton, in Middlesex. The sister and coheiress of the latter brought it to the late Charles Bowles, Esq., of East-Sheen, in Surrey. It is now the property of his son, Humphrey Bowles, Esq.
Brough is supposed to have been a Roman station. Brough-mill, which in the reign of Edward III. belonged to the family of Strelley, was then held by the service of attending the King on horseback whenever he should come into Derbyshire, carrying a heroner (or heron-falcon (fn. n38) ); if his horse should die in the journey, the King was to buy him another, and to provide two robes and bouche of court. (fn. n39)
Combes-edge, Buxton, Fairfield, Fernilee or Ferney-Ley, and Great-Hucklow, are parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster manor of the High-Peak, on lease to the Duke of Devonshire. Ralph le Archer held a messuage and lands in Great-Hucklow in the reign of Edward I., by the service of keeping the King’s forest with a bow and arrows. (fn. n40) A considerable freehold estate, then called a manor, in Great-Hucklow, belonged to the Earl of Newcastle in the reign of Charles I. This estate was sold to John Bagshaw, Esq., of Hucklow; from whom it passed by descent to the family of Rich, and the principal part was purchased a few years ago by John Radford, Esq., of Smalley.
The manor of Grindlow, by the name of Greneslaw in Pecco, was given by King John, in 1199 or 1200, to the monastery of Lilleshull, in Shrop shire. (fn. n41) King Edward VI., in 1552, granted it, by the name of Greenlowgrange to. Sir William Cavendish (fn. n42) : in 1641, it belonged to William Caven dish, Earl of Newcastle; being then valued at 156l. 8s. per annum. It is now vested in the daughters of the late Honourable William Cockayne, as representatives of their mother, who was heiress of the late Serjeant Hill.
The manor of Hazlebach, or Hazlebadge, (Heselebec), belonged to Wil liam Peverel at the time of the Domesday Survey. In the fourteenth cen tury it was in the family of Strelley (fn. n43); afterwards in the Vernons (fn. n44); and is now by inheritance the property of his Grace the Duke of Rutland.
The manor of Highlow belonged in the reign of Edward II. to an ancient family of the name of Archer, supposed to have been extinct at an early period. In the following century, Highlow became the property and seat of a younger branch of the family of Eyre; one of whose descendants, in the early part of the eighteenth century, took the name of Archer. (fn. n45) After the death of John Archer, Esq. (fn. n46), it was sold under a decree of Chancery (in 1802), to the late Duke, and is now the property of his Grace the present Duke of Devonshire. Offerton, which was a seat of the Eyres is now a farm of the Duke of Devonshire’s.
The manor of Stoke was sold, in or about the year 1473, by Henry Lord Grey, of Codnor, to Robert Barley, Esq., of a younger branch of the Barleys of Barlow, whose posterity resided at Stoke for several generations. In the reign of Charles I. it was one of the manors of William Cavendish, Earl of Newcastle. Jacinth Sacheverell was lord of the manor of Stoke in 1656. It is now the property of the Honourable John Simpson, second son of the Right Honourable Lord Bradford, whose father, the first Lord Bradford, acquired it in marriage with the heiress of Simpson. Stoke-hall is in the occupation of Robert Arkwright, Esq.
The manor of Thornhill belonged to a family, who took their name from the place of their residence; and by whom it was conveyed, about the latter end of the fourteenth, or beginning of the fifteenth century, to the Eyres of Hope. John Eyre, of Hope, sold it, in or about the year 1602, to Adam Slack, of Tideswell, yeoman; by whose family it was alienated, in 1613, to Thomas Eyre, Esq., of Hassop, ancestor of Francis, Earl of Newburgh, who is the present proprietor.
Shalcross (fn. n47), in this parish, was for many generations the residence of an ancient family, to whom it gave name. John Shalcross, Esq., the last heir male, sold it to his son-in-law, Roger Jacson, Esq., of whose nephew it was purchased by Mr. Foster Bower, uncle of Francis Jodrell, Esq., of Henbury, in Cheshire, the present proprietor.
The parochial chapelry of Fairfield lies about eleven miles from Hope, and within a mile of Buxton, part of which, as before mentioned, is in Hope parish. (fn. n48) The minister of the chapel is appointed by six resident governors, pursuant to letters-patent of 37 Eliz.; by which the gover nors of the perpetual chapel of Fairfield, and of the alms-houses there to be erected for six poor persons (of which foundation, if it took effect, there is no trace), were incorporated, and empowered to hold lands, and to pur chase to the amount of 40l. a year. In default of the governors appointing a minister within six months after a vacancy, the appointment lapses to the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield. William Dakin, Esq., one of the present go vernors, is a lineal descendant and namesake of one of those appointed by the letters-patent.
The charity-school at Fairfield was founded in 1662, by Anthony Swan, and endowed with a rent-charge of 4l. per annum, " towards the daily maintenance and bringing up at school of ten of the poorest children of the town and chapelry." In the year 1772 an allotment of land was made to the school under the inclosure act, which now lets for 44l. per annum.
HORSLEY, in the hundred of Morleston and Litchurch, and in the dean ery of Derby, lies about six miles nearly north from Derby. The parish contains the townships of Horsley, Woodhouse, and Kilburn, and the parochial chapelry of Denby.
The manor of Horsley belonged, at the time of taking the Domesday Survey, to Ralph de Burun, who had a castle upon it called Horestan, or Horston, which was the seat of his barony. Robert de Burun was pos sessed of Horestan-castle in 1200. (fn. n49) It is probable that he was afterwards in rebellion, for that monarch is said to have granted his whole barony to W. de Briewere. (fn. n50) Horestan-castle appears to have reverted ere long to the crown; for William de Ferrars, Earl of Derby, was appointed governor in 1214. (fn. n51) Peter de Montfort was made governor in 1250 (fn. n52); Hugh Despencer in 1255. (fn. n53) Walter de Stokesley was, in 1274, made keeper of Horestancastle and of the soke of Horsley, during pleasure. Ralph Pipard was made governor for life, in 1291. (fn. n54) In 1298, Jordan Foliot died seised of Horestan-castle, which had been granted to Richard his father (fn. n55) Sir Ralph Shirley was governor of this castle in 1314. (fn. n56) King Edward III., in 1347, granted it in tail-male to Henry Plantagenet afterwards Duke of Lancaster. (fn. n57) John de Holand, afterwards Earl of Huntingdon, had a grant of it for life in 1391. (fn. n58) King Henry VI. granted this castle, in 1452, to Ed mund Hadham, Earl of Richmond, and Jasper, Earl of Pembroke. (fn. n59) In 1514, King Henry VIII. granted the manor of Horsley, and the castle of Horestan, with other estates, to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, as a reward for his services at Flodden-Field. In or about 1530, this estate was conveyed to Sir Michael Stanhope, from whom it has descended to the Earl of Ches terfield.There are no remains of the castle, on the site of which is now a heap of rubbish: it stood on the summit of a hill, about a mile from Horsley church. The lord of the manor of Horsley claimed the right of having a gallows for the punishment of offenders. (fn. n60)
King James I., being on a progress in Derbyshire, amused himself with the diversion of hunting in Horsley-park. (fn. n61) The park has long ago been converted into tillage.
In the parish church is a monument in memory of several of the family of Fletcher (fn. n62), who acquired opulence by successful speculations in the collieries at this place. The inscription begins, “ Near this place are deposited the earthly remains of a family of colliers.“
Kilburne belonged for many generations to the family of Draycot. It was afterwards in the family of Hunter; and is now the property and re sidence of William Hunter Hunter, Esq., son of the late Henry Fletcher, Esq. He took the name of Hunter on the death of his maternal uncle, Mr. Vickers Hunter, about the year 1795.
Stanesby or Stainsby house, in the township of Horsley-Woodhouse, was some time the property and residence of the family of Moor; by whom it was sold, in 1712, to John Fletcher, Esq., (sheriff for the county in 1732.) In 1783, it was purchased of the assignees of his nephew and devisee, John Barber, by Mr. Samuel Buxton; who, in 1785, sold it to Edward Sacheverell Wilmot Sitwell, Esq., the present proprietor.
The parochial chapelry of Denby, lies about eight miles north from Derby. The manor belonged, at the time of the Domesday Survey, to Ralph de Burun; under whose family it was held, in or about the reign of Henry I., by Patrick de Rossel, or Rosel; the heiress of the last-mentioned family brought it, in the reign of Henry VI., to Lawrence Lowe, Esq., serjeant at law, ancestor of the late Richard Lowe, Esq. It is now the pro perty of William Drury Lowe, Esq. The Rosels had a park at Denby in the reign of Henry III.
Richard Lord Grey, of Codnor, held a small manor at Denby which he possessed by the gift of William Rosel and William Bernack repre sentatives and coheirs of John de Denby: this manor afterwards acquired the name of Park-hall. Richard Lord Grey procured, in 1334, a charter for a market at Denby on Thursdays, and a fair for two days at the festival of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary. (fn. n63) From the Greys the manor of Parkhall passed to the Frechevilles, and was sold about the beginning of Henry VIII.'s reign, by Sir Peter Frecheville, to Vincent Lowe, Esq., of Denby, who settled it on his younger son. On the death of Francis Lowe, Esq., of Denby, without issue, in 1563, Jasper Lowe, Esq., of Park-hall, succeeded to the Denby estate, and they have since continued to be united.
In the chapel are some monuments of the Lowes of Locko. (fn. n64) The im propriation of Denby was vested in the family of Hazlewood in 1561. (fn. n65) In 1638, Robert Wilmot, Esq., being possessed of the great tithes, charged them with the endowment of the alms-houses at Derby and Spondon. Sir Robert Wilmot, Bart., of Chaddesden, is the present impropriator. Mr. Lowe is patron of the perpetual curacy. The subjection of the chapel of Denby to the vicar of Horsley was acknowledged by an instrument bearing date 1484.
HAULT-HUCKNALL, in the hundred of Scarsdale and deanery of Chester field, lies on the borders of Nottinghamshire about seven miles from Ches terfield, which is the post-town, and about six from Mansfield. The parish contains the township of Stainsby, and the villages or hamlets of Astwith, Harstoft, and Rowthorn.
In the parish church is the monument of Anne, daughter and coheir of Henry Kighley, Esq., and wife of William Cavendish, the first Earl of De vonshire, 1628; and the tomb of Thomas Hobbes (fn. n66), the celebrated philo sopher and free-thinker, who died at Hardwick in 1679, in the 92d year of his age. This well-known writer had been tutor to the second and third Earls of Devonshire; and continued to reside in the family till his death. For many years he spent his summers in Derbyshire, removing with the family as they visited Chatsworth or Hardwick. The five last years of his life were spent wholly in Derbyshire. Among his numerous publications was a Latin descriptive poem on the wonders of the Peak, “ De Mira bilibus Pecci.” A few weeks preceding his death, his situation being then hopeless, the Earl of Devonshire removing with his family from Chatsworth to Hardwick, he insisted on being removed also, although it was necessary to carry him on a feather-bed.
The church of Hault-Hucknall was appropriated to the priory of Beau chief. In 1544, the impropriate rectory was granted to Francis Leake, Esq. The Duke of Devonshire is now impropriator and patron of the vicarage.
The manor of Hardwick was granted by King John, in 1203, to Andrew de Beauchamp. (fn. n67) In the year 1288, William de Steynesby held it of John le Savage by the annual render of three pounds of cinnamon and one of pepper. (fn. n68) John Steynesby, his great-grandson, was seised of it in (fn. n69) 1330. The Hardwicks afterwards possessed it for six generations. Elizabeth, the third daughter and (after her brother's death) coheiress of John Hard wick, Esq., brought this estate to her second husband, Sir William Cavendish, from whom it has descended to his Grace the Duke of Devonshire.
The dilapidated shell of the ancient hall at Hardwick, which re mains by the side of the more modern structure, built by the heiress of Hardwick (then Countess of Shrewsbury) in her last widowhood, has been already spoken of. The present hall, which has acquired an imaginary interest, on the supposition that it was one of the prisons of Mary Queen of Scots, was built after the death of that unfortunate princess. The second floor of this mansion is said to have been allotted for the resi dence of the royal Prisoner, and the rooms are shown as retaining their furniture in the same state as when she inhabited them. Over the door of a bed-room, said to have been appropriated to her, are the arms of the Queen of Scots with her cypher. There is a portrait of Queen Mary in one of the apartments, said to have been painted in the tenth year of her cap tivity (fn. n70) A bed, a set of chairs, and a suit of hangings are shown as having been the work of the royal Captive: it is very probable that they were; we have proof that she was very fond of needle-work, and that she employed many hours of the day during her captivity in that occupation. (fn. n71) The furniture was probably used by her, and brought from Chatsworth, before the old hall at that place was taken down.
We have only presumptive evidence that the unfortunate Mary ever was at Hardwick; it is certain, that if she was, it was only during a short and occasional visit of the Earl of Shrewsbury to that place. The Countess, being at Hardwick, in 1577, several years before the present hall was built, wrote to the Earl, intimating her wish, that he would come to Hardwick, if the Queen would give him permission. In the postscript she says, “ Lette me here how you, your charge, & love dothe, & comende me, I pray you. Yt were well, you cente fore or fyve peces of the great hangengs, that they myght be put oup, and some carpetes; I wyshe you wollde have thynges yn that redynes, that you myht come whin 3 or foure dayes after you here from courte." (fn. n72)
Among other interesting portraits at Hardwick, are those of Queen Eli zabeth, Lady Jane Grey, Sir Thomas More, Cardinal Pole, Bishop Gardiner, the Countess of Shrewsbury, Sir William Cavendish, the first Earl of Devonshire, Colonel Charles Cavendish, and Thomas Hobbes, aged 89. Hardwick-hall stands on an eminence, in an extensive and wellwooded park. (fn. n73).
Near Hardwick-hall is a school, built by the second Duke of Devonshire in 1724. We are informed that the then Duchess of Devonshire, and a gentle man whose name is not now known, gave 200l. each, in lieu of which, 20l. per annum was charged on the Hardwick estate, a moiety of which is pay able to this school, and the other moiety to the school at Edensor. Mr. Thomas Whitehead of Rowthorn, in 1729, gave a messuage and twenty-acres of land, now let at 16l. per annum, to this school; 10s. of which is to be laid out in books, and the remainder to be given to the master. Mr. John Philips, in 1734, gave 50l., 4 per cents, to this school.
The manor of Rowthorn (Rugetorn) was, at the time of taking the Domes day Survey, the property of Roger de Busli. It afterwards belonged to the family of Tilly, whose heiress married Savage. Robert de Lexington, to whom it had been conveyed by the last-mentioned family, gave it to the abbot and convent of Newsted in Nottinghamshire. (fn. n74) In the year 1563, this manor was vested in the coheiresses of Roger Greenhalgh. In 1583, Lord Chancellor Bromley, acting, as it is supposed, as a trustee, conveyed it to Sir William Cavendish, ancestor of the Duke of Devonshire, who is the present proprietor.
The manor of Steynesby was held, at the time of taking the Domesday Survey, by Roger de Poitou. In the reign of King John it was in the family of Savage: in the year 1235, William son of Walkelin de Savage, held it by the annual render of a sore hawk. (fn. n75) In 1580 or 1581, John Savage conveyed this manor to Lord Chancellor Bromley, by whom, it is probable, it was again conveyed, about the same time as Rowthorn, to Sir William Cavendish, It is now the property of the Duke of Devonshire.