Magna Britannia: Volume 5, Derbyshire. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1817.
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A convent of Austin-friers, was founded at this place, before the year 1161, The countess of Chester was a principal benefactor to this house, on condition that it should be subject to the priory of Repton. The monks of Calke removed first to Depedale, (the site of Dale abbey,) and afterwards to Repton. The site of the priory, at Calke, was granted by King Ed ward VI., in 1547, to John Earl of Warwick. In 1577, Calke priory was the property and seat of Roger Wendesley, (or Wensley,) Esq. In 1582, the Calke estate was sold by Richard Wensley Esq. to Robert Bainbrigge, Esq. In 1621, Mr. Bainbrigge conveyed it to Henry Harpur, Esq., of Normanton, who, in 1626, being then described of Calke, was created a baronet. His son, the second baronet, inherited the estates of the elder branch, which became extinct in 1677. Sir Henry, the seventh and present baronet, in the year 1808, took the name of Crewe, it being that of his great-grandmother, one of the daughters and coheiresses of Thomas Lord Crewe, of Stene.
In the parish church is a handsome marble monument, in memory of Sir John Harpur, Bart., who died in 1741, he married Catherine, youngest daughter of Lord Crewe above-mentioned. In the chancel is the portrait of Sir John Harpur, the second baronet, who died in 1669, aged 53.
The church of Calke was given to the canons of that house by Harold de Leke before their removal; it was confirmed to the canons of Repton, in 1324. Sir Henry Crewe is impropriator of the tithes, and patron of the perpetual curacy.
CARSINGTON, in the wapentake of Wirksworth and in the deanery of Ashborne, lies about three miles from Wirksworth and seven north-east from Ashborne. Carsington (Ghersintune) is described in the Domesday Survey, as a hamlet of Wirksworth. Anthony Gell, Esq., who died in 1578 or 1579, was seised of a manor in Carsington, now the property of his representative, Philip Gell, Esq. of Hopton-hall, M. P.
The small church at Carsington was rebuilt in 1648. The Dean of Lin coln is patron of the rectory. John Oldfield, an eminent puritan divine, who wrote on the righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, was ejected from this benefice in 1662, and died in 1682. His son, Dr. Joshua Oldfield, an eminent presbyterian divine and tutor, was born at Carsington in 1656; he exercised his ministry successively at Tooting in Surrey, at Oxford, and in Maid-lane, London. His principal works were, Treatises on the Improvement of Human Reason, and on the Trinity. Mr. Ellis Farneworth, trans lator of the Life of Pope Sixtus V., Davila's History of France, and Machiavel's works, was presented to this rectory in 1762, the year before his death.
Mrs. Temperance Gell, in 1726, founded a school at Carsington for 20 children of that parish, and the adjoining township or hamlet of Hopton. Samuel Bendall, cook at Hopton, gave in the year 1727, the sum of 50l. for clothing the children. This sum having been added to Mrs. Gell's bene faction, was laid out in the purchase of lands at Ockbrook, now producing a rent of 6ol. per annum, which suffices for the clothing and educating of the number of children fixed on by the foundress.
There was anciently a market at this place, held on Wednesdays, which existed before the year 1222. (fn. n1) There is now neither market nor fair.
The manor of Castleton is described, in the Domesday Survey, as " Terra Castelli W (fn. n2). Peverel, in Peche fers." This estate belonged, in the reign of Edward the Confessor, to Gundeberne and Hundine. The expression in the Survey seems to import, that the castle, which gives name to the parish, was built by William Peverel, to whom William the Conqueror had given the manor, amongst other estates. The castle afterwards acquired the name of the Castle of Pec, or Peke, or Peak Castle. It was forfeited, with the manor, by William Peverel, the younger. King Henry II. gave them to his son John, afterwards King. During the absence of King Richard, this castle, pursuant to the agreement between Longchamp, Bishop of Ely, and John, then Earl of Morteyne, was placed in the hands of Hugh Nonant, Bishop of Coventry. (fn. n2) Hugh Neville was appointed governor of this castle in 1204. In 1215, Peak Castle was in the hands of the rebellious barons. William Earl of Derby took it by assault, and was made governor by the King. (fn. n3) In the note below (fn. n4), will be found a list of the subsequent governors, or castellans, before the year 1374, when it was granted, with the honor and forest of Peak, by Edward III. to John of Gaunt, and became parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster. Sir Ralph Shirley, who died in 1466, was constable of Peak Castle. In the reign of Henry VII., the castle was held, under the Duchy, by Robert Eyre, Esq., of Padley; in that of Henry VIII., successively by Robert Thornhill and William Gallins; in the reign of Ed ward VI., by Godfrey Somersall; and in that of Elizabeth, successively by John Eyre, Esq. and Godfrey Foljambe, Esq.
Peak Castle, which was a small structure, but, from its situation, a place of great strength, has been long in ruins. The Duke of Devonshire has the nominal appointment of Constable of the Castle, and is lessee of the honor, or manor, and forest of the Peak, of which Castleton was till of late years esteemed a member. Courts are now held for Castleton as a distinct manor, extending over many of the townships of the Peak.
The church of Castleton (then called the church of Peak Castle) was, in 1269, given by Prince Edward (afterwards Edward I.) to the Abbot and Convent of Vale-Royal, in Cheshire. After the dissolution, King Henry VIII. gave the great tithes, and the advowson of the vicarage, to the Bishop of Chester, and his successors. There is a meeting-house of the Wesleyan methodists at Castleton, and another at Edale.
There was formerly an hospital near Castleton, called the Hospital of the Castle of Peke, of royal foundation, for certain paupers, and a chaplain, endowed with lands, valued, in 1377, at 3l. per annum, and four bushels of oatmeal. It was situated about half-way between Castleton and Hope.
Mr. Richard Bagshaw, in 1750, gave by will a school-house and garden, for the use of a schoolmaster, and lands in Edale, then of the yearly value of 6l., for teaching twelve poor children to read and write. These lands have lately been let at 20l. per annum; and the endowment of the school, including some subsequent benefactions, is about 30l. per annum.
The chapelry of Edale lies about two miles from Castleton. In the Domesday Survey, Edale is described as a hamlet of Hope: it is now considered as parcel of the manor of High-Peak. The landed property is di vided into five large farms, called booths or vaccaries. The minister of the chapel is appointed by the Duke of Devonshire, and other trustees.
CHAPEL-EN-LE-FRITH is a small market-town in the hundred and deanery of the High-Peak. It is situated on one of the roads from London to Manchester; 39 miles from Derby, 23 from Chesterfield, nearly 20 from Manchester, and 165 from London. The market, which is held on Thurs day, for butchers' meat, &c., is by prescription: the market-house was built in 1700, by John Shalcross, Esq.
There are several fairs: Thursday before Old Candlemas Day; March 3 (fn. n5); March 29 (fn. n6); the Thursday before Easter; April 30 (fn. n7); Holy Thursday, and three weeks after; July 7; Thursday after Old Michaelmas-Day; and the Thursday before Old Martinmas-Day. These fairs are all for cattle, &c. The July fair was formerly noted for the sale of wool. (fn. n8) There was a fair (now discontinued) the Thursday before St. Bartholomew's Day, for sheep and cheese.
The parish of Chapel-en-le-Frith contains the townships of Bowdenedge, Bradshaw-edge, and Comb's-edge; the principal villages are, Milton, Ford, Malcalf, Slack-hall, Pichard-green, Tunstead-mill town, Sitting-low, White-hough, &c. The whole parish is within the great duchy-manor of High-Peak on lease to the Duke of Devonshire. The subordinate, or no minal manor of Blackbrook, in this parish, belonged for several generations to the family of Leigh. We have not been able to ascertain who is the present proprietor.
Bradshaw-hall, formerly the property and residence of the ancient family of Bradshaw, is now a farm-house, the property of their descendant, Hum phrey Bowles, Esq. Bowden-hall, long the seat of the family of Bowden, has been taken down: the site is occupied by a farm-house, the property and residence of Mr. Robert Hibberson. Bank-hall, in this parish, is the seat of Samuel Frith, Esq., who was sheriff of the county in 1781. Fordhall, a seat of the ancient family of Bagshaw, is occupied by the widow of Samuel Bagshaw, Esq., who died in. 804, and to whom there is a monument in the church-yard. The Ridge, formerly the seat of another branch of the Bagthaws, passed in marriage, with the daughter of the last heir-male, to Fitzherbert, and by sale to the father of the Rev. Thomas Gisborne, of Yoxall, who is the present proprietor. The hall u occupied as a farm-house.
A chapel at this place was originally built by the inhabitants, and conse crated by Bishop Savensby, between the years 1224 and 1238. It appears, by a record of the year 1317 (fn. n9), that it was then deemed a parish church. In the year 1719, Thomas Bagshaw, Esq. gave lands (then let at 20l. per annum, now at 62l. per annum) to the minister of Chapel-en-le-Frith; for whom a house was built, by subscription, in 1721. The minister is ap pointed by the freeholders and inhabitants. In the parish register, is an entry, which records the preservation of a girl of 13 years of age, after having been exposed, without food, to the severity of the weather for six days. (fn. n10)
There was formerly a presbyterian meeting at Chapel-en-le-Frith, of which James Clegg, who published the life of the Rev. John Ashe, was minister. There is now a meeting-house of the Wesleyan methodists at Chapel-Townend.
William Bagshaw, an eminent non-conformist divine, known by the name of the Apostle of the Peak, was of Ford, in this parish. He published a work, called " De Spiritualibus Pecci;" being " Notes, or Notices, con cerning the Work of God, and some of those who have been workers toge ther with God, in the hundred of the High-Peak, in Derbyshire," 1702. The Rev. John Ashe, a dissenting divine, of some note in his day, nephew of William Bagshaw, and born at Malcalf, in this parish, published an account of his uncle, with his funeral sermon, 1704. A life and character of John Ashe was published by John Clegg, as before mentioned, in 1736. On the extinction of the elder branch, the descendants of William Bagshaw, above-mentioned, became representatives of the Bagshaws of Abney.
There seem to have been two manors in Chellaston (Celardestune, or Celerdestune) at the time of taking the Domesday survey; one of which was in the crown, the other held by Amalric, under Henry de Ferrars. The manor of Chellaston was granted; in the year 1200, to William Fitz-Gefrrey (fn. n11); in 1307, to Robert de Holland, and his heirs. (fn. n12) William Asbby, Esq. died seised of the manor of Chellaston, in 1499. It is now the pro perty of the Marquis of Hastings, by inheritance from the Earls of Hun tingdon.
In the parish church is an alabaster monument, for Ralph Bancroft, and Alice his wife, without date. There were formerly other monuments for this family, which were nearly illegible when Bassano's Church Notes were taken, in 1710, and memorials for the family of Whinyats (1664—1702). There is still an alabaster tomb for — Bawredon, minister of the church, who died in 1523.
Chellaston was parcel of the rectory of Melbourne, which belonged to the Bishops of Carlisle, and had been a considerable time on lease to the family of Coke, when it was enfranchised, under an act of parliament passed in 1704. Lord Melbourne, representative of the Coke family, has sold the tithes to the several land-owners. The Bishop of Carlisle is patron of the perpetual curacy.
CHESTERFIELD, is the chief town of the hundred of Scarsdale, and of the deanery to which it gives name. Its distance from Derby is 24 miles; from London, 150. The name seems to import that it had been the site of an ancient castle, and probably a Roman station. It does not appear to have existed, as a town, before the Norman conquest. In the Survey of Domesday, Cestrefeld is described as a hamlet of Newbold, which was ancient demesne of the crown. Soon after the compilation of that Survey, the manor of Chesterfield was given to William Peverell. King Henry II. seized this, and other estates of William Peverell, the younger, after he had fled the kingdom, on account of the murder of the Earl of Chester. King John, in 1204, granted the manor of Chesterfield, with Brimington and Whittington, and the whole wapentake of Scarsdale, to William Briwere. Isabel, one of the coheiresses of William Briwere, the younger, brought this manor to Baldwin Wake (fn. n13); from whose family it passed, by an heir female, to Edmund of Woodstock, Earl of Kent. In the year 1442, Richard Nevill, Earl of Salisbury, became possessed of the manor of Chesterfield, in right of Alice his wife, one of the co-heiresses of Eari Edmund. (fn. n14) In the year 1472, an act of parliament passed, by which the castle of Scarborough, with lands in Yorkshire, were given to Anne, Duchess of Gloucester, one of the coheiresses of Richard, the succeeding Earl of Salisbury, in exchange for the manor of Chesterfield. (fn. n15) It appears, nevertheless, that it was after wards possessed by Margaret, Countess of Salisbury, daughter and heiress of Isabel, Duchess of Clarence, the Duchess of Gloucester's sister; and that she gave it to George, Earl of Shrewsbury, in exchange for other estates. (fn. n16) William, Earl of Newcastle, purchased this manor of the Shrews bury family. Having descended, in the same manner as Bolsover, to the late Duke of Portland, the manor of Chesterfield and the hundred of Scarsdale, were exchanged by him, in 1792, with the late Duke of Devonshire, for some estates in Nottinghamshire; and they are now vested in the present Duke.
King John, by his charter of 1204 (fn. n17) granted a weekly market at Chester field, on Saturday, and a fair for eight days, at the festival of the Holy-Rood. The market at Chesterfield, which is still held on Saturday, is for corn, (particularly wheat and oats,) and all kinds of provisions. The Quo Warranto Roll of 1330 mentions the Holy-Rood fair, and another on the eve of Palm-Sunday. The charter of 1631 grants four fairs: Feb. 28; May 4, for two days; July 4; and September 14, for eight days. The present fairs are, Jan. 27; Feb. 28; the first Saturday in April; May 4; July 4; Sept. 25; and Nov. 25. All these are for cattle, &c. The last-mentioned is the statute-fair, for hiring servants; the February fair is for horses, chiefly of the draught kind; the Michaelmas fair has a great supply of cheese, apples, onions, &c. The fairs in January, April, and November, were first established in the year 1750.
King John's charter, already mentioned, made Chesterfield a free bo rough, and granted to the burgesses the same privileges which were enjoyed by those of Nottingham. Queen Elizabeth, in 1594, granted them a new charter of incorporation; under which the corporate body consists of a mayor, six aldermen, six brethren, and twelve common-council, or capital burgesses, with a town-clerk, and other officers.
The assizes were held at Chesterfield, in the month of March, 1638, (pro bably on account of the plague). The Michaelmas sessions were held at Chesterfield, from the year 1618 to the year 1797: since that time, the Midsummer sessions have been held at Chesterfield, and the Michaelmas sessions at Derby. The present town-hall was erected about the year 1790, from the designs of Mr. Carr, of York.
It appears, by the Chantry Roll, that there were, in the parish of Ches terfield, in 1547, about 2000 persons of 16 years of age. (fn. n18) In the month of December, 1788, the town of Chesterfield was found, by an actual enu meration, to contain 801 houses, and 3626 inhabitants. In 1801, there were 895 houses, and 4267 inhabitants; in 1811, 951 houses, and 4476 inhabitants; according to the returns made to parliament at those periods.
The principal manufactures of the town are, cotton hose, woollen gloves, hats, and brown earthenware. There is a large iron-foundry, adjoining the town, whence cast iron is sent to every part of the kingdom. During the war, the proprietors had extensive contracts with government for cannon-balls, shells, &c. Salt-works were established at Chesterfield in 1715; the rock salt was brought from Northwich: but it was, ere long, abandoned as an unprofitable concern. (fn. n19)
We find few historical events relating to this town. Robert de Ferrars, Earl of Derby, being in rebellion against King Henry III., in the year 1266, was defeated near Chesterfield, by Henry, son of the King of Almain. The Earl flew for shelter to the church, where lie concealed himself, but was discovered through the treachery of a woman, and taken prisoner. (fn. n20) During the civil war of the seventeenth century, the Earl of Newcastle came to Chesterfield with his forces in the month of March, 1643, and again in the month of November of the same year. It was probably at one of these periods that the action happened, in which he is said to have defeated a body of the parliamentary army near Chesterfield. (fn. n21)
In the chancel and its south aisle, are several monuments of the ancient family of Foljambe, of Walton, in this parish. On a slab within the altar-rails, are the figures of Sir Godfrey Foljambe, who died in 1541, and his wife Katharine, daughter of John Leake, Esq., of Sutton, who died in 1529. (fn. n22) At the east end of the Foljambe aisle is an altar tomb for Henry Foljambe, Esq., who died in 1519 (fn. n23) (father of Sir Godfrey above-mentioned); there are the monuments also of Sir James Foljambe (son of Sir Godfrey) who died in 1558; and Sir Godfrey, (son of Sir James, by his first wife (fn. n24), a coheiress of Fitzwilliam, of Aldwark in Yorkshire) who died in 1585. The inscriptions on the two last have been lately restored. Sir Godfrey Foljambe, son of the last-mentioned, was buried at Chesterfield in 1595; there is a handsome monument of the Foljambe family, besides those already men tioned, with no inscription, and the date of 1592. (fn. n25) In the chancel also, are the tomb of John Pypys, chaplain of the chantry of the Holy Cross, (ob M. . . XI); the monument of Mary, wife of the Honourable Morgan Vane, of Beilby in Nottinghamshire, 1771; and memorials of the families of Milnes of Dunston (fn. n26) and Aldercar, Webster (fn. n27), Heathcote (fn. n28), and Burton (fn. n29); the monument of Thomas Smith, Esq., of Dunston, 1811; and Dorothy, wife of Anthony Lax Maynard Esq., (daughter of the Reverend Ralph Heathcote, 1811. In the south transept is the tomb of Dr. John Verdon, chaplain of the chantry of St. Michael, who died in 1500. There are memorials also for Robert Hallifax (1769), father of Dr. Samuel Hallifax, Bishop of St. Asaph; and some of the Calton family. (fn. n30) In the nave is the monument of Adam Slater, M. D. 1758.
In Bassano's volume of Church notes there are described, among others, the tombs of Mr. Richard Milnes, 1628; Richard Taylor, alderman of Chesterfield, 1637; George Taylor, Esq., of Durant-hall, 1668; William Champernown, Gent., 1688; Francis Stevenson, of Unston, Gent., 1690; and Mr. Richard Flintham, 1705. (fn. n31)
The church of Chesterfield, with its chapels, was given by William Rufus to the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln; and about the year 1100, it was appropriated to the Dean and his successors. Ever since that time, the Deans of Lincoln have been Lords of the rectorial manor, appropriators of the great tithes, and patrons of the vicarage. John Billingsley, who wrote against the Quakers, was ejected from this vicarage in 1662. Godfrey Foljambe, of Walton, who died in 1595, bequeathed a rent-charge of 40l. per annum, as the endowment of a lectureship, at Chesterfield, the patrorir age of which he vested in the Archbishop of York.
There were formerly three chantries in the church of Chesterfield; the chantry of St. Michael, founded in the year 1357 by Roger de Chesterfield, the revenues of which were valued, in 1547, at 11l. 7s. 3d. per annum; that of the Holy Cross, founded by Hugh Draper, valued at 10l, 6s. 8d.; and the gild of the Alderman, Brethren, and Sisters of the Virgin Mary and the Holy Cross, endowed, in 1392, by Thomas Dur and others (fn. n32), and valued, in 1547, at 15l. 10s. per annum.
There was formerly a chapel dedicated to St. Thomas, in Halliwell-street, the remains of which form part of a barn and stable; another dedicated to St. Helen, which, after the reformation, was appropriated to the use of the school; and a third, dedicated to St. James, at the Lord's-mill bridge. Of the last-mentioned there are no traces.
There was a meeting-house at Chesterfield about the middle of the seven teenth century, which, in process of time, was endowed with sundry benefactions. In the year 1703, an agreement was made between the congregations of Presbyterians and Independents, by which they were to have the joint use of the meeting-house, each minister having his alternate turn in the service. John Billingsley, son of Mr. Billingsley before-men tioned, was sometime minister of the Presbyterian congregation; he published a discourse on Schism, an Exposition of the Epistle of St. Jude, Sermons against Popery, &c. The congregation of this meeting-house are now Unitarians; there are meeting-houses also for the Independents, Quakers, Wesleyan Methodists, and Kilhamites.
The grammar-school at Chesterfield was founded soon after the Reform ation, when the chapel of St. Helen's was converted into a school-house, Godfrey Foljambe, Esq., who died in 1595, gave an endowment of 13l. 6s. 8d. per annum to the master. Mr. Alderman Large, who died in 1664, gave an addition of 5l. per annum; Cornelius Clarke, Esq., in or about the year 1664, gave 15l. per annum to the master, and the same sum for an usher. Mr, James Linguard, fellow of Brazen-nose College, gave 81. per annum. The upper master's income is now 6ol. per annum, besides a house and garden, valued at 20l. per annum. There has been no addition to Mr. Clarke's benefaction to the usher. The school and the master's house were rebuilt in 1710.
Mr. Clarke founded by his will a preparatory-school, called the Pettyschool, to which he gave 5l. per annum. The present salary of the master is 10l. The corporation appoint the masters of both schools. Natives of Chesterfield have a preference (after founder's kin,) for the scholarships and fellowships of Beresford's foundation, at St. John's college, in Cambridge.
There was an ancient hospital of lepers at Chesterfield, dedicated to St. Leonard, which existed before the year 1195, when a rent-charge of 6l. per annum, payable out of the manor, was assigned to the brethren in lieu of their fair. (fn. n33) The patronage of this hospital was annexed to the manor. King Henry VII. granted it for life to John Blythe in 1507; but Mar garet Countess of Salisbury seized it as an appendage of the manor: Fran cis Earl of Shrewsbury claimed it on the same grounds in 1547. (fn. n34) We suppose the site of this hospital to have been at a place called Spital, near the Rother, about half a mile south-east of the town, which belonged for merly to the Jenkinsons, and was sold by the coheiresses of Woodyear to the late Sir Thomas Windsor Hunloke, Bart. The house was many years occupied by the family of Bourne, and now by Mr. John Charge, attorney at law, who married one of the daughters of the Reverend John Bourne.
In the year 1678, Charles Scrimshire, Esq., of Norbury in Staffordshire, (afterwards Sir Charles) built an alms-house for six poor women, pursuant to the will of George Jaylor, Esq., of Durant-hall, who died in 1668, having bequeathed a sum of money for that purpose, and a rent-charge of 16l. per annum for the endowment. The pensioners were to have 3s. 4d. each monthly, coals, and a gown once in two years. Mr. Francis Moore, in 1715, gave a small yearly benefaction to the poor in Taylor's hospital. The cor poration are trustees.
In the year 1703, an alms-house for three poor persons, was built pursuant to the intention of Mr. Thomas Large, alderman of Chesterfield, who died in 1664, having bequeathed 40l. per annum for the endowment; but no funds having been appropriated for the building, it became necessary tolet the annual income accumulate for that purpose. Mrs. Sarah Roll added two dwellings to this alms-house. Under Mr. Large's will, the pensioners in his house were to have 5l. 3s. od. each per annum, and a gown every year. They have now 5l. 4s., being 2S. a week each. Mrs. Roll gave the sum of 200l. for the endowment of the additional pensioners, which having been laid out in houses, produces 8l. per annum. Mrs. Roll's pensioners receive is. 6d. a week each and a gown every year.
Mrs. Hannah Hooper, by her will, bearing date 1755, gave the sum of 2000l. three per cents, for the maintenance of six poor women, (widows or maids, being 50 years of age or upwards) who shall have lived in or been parishioners of Chesterfield for seven years, and not have received alms. This bequest took effect in 1762.
The venerable Dr. Pegge, the well-known antiquary, author of the Lives of Bishop Grossetette and his friend Roger de Weseham, the History of Beauchief-Abbey, of Bolsover and Peak castles, several treatises on coins and other antiquarian subjects, was born at Chesterfield in 1704. He died rector of Whittington in 1796. (fn. n35)
The extensive parish of Chesterfield comprizes the townships of Calow, Hasland, Newbold and Dunston, Tapton and Walton; the villages of Cutthorp, Hady, &c.; and the parochial chapelries of Brampton, Brimington, Temple-Normanton, and Wingerworth.
Hasland passed in marriage with one of the coheiresses of William Briwere, jun. to Ralph de Midleham. (fn. n36) The Duke of Devonshire is now Lord of the manor, it having been included in the exchange before-mentioned with the Duke of Portland. A younger branch of the Leakes were, for some generations, of Hasland-hall, of which John Linacre died seised in 1488. About the middle of the seventeenth century, Hasland-hall belonged to Colonel Roger Molineux, who sold it to Captain John Lowe, of the Alderwasley family (fn. n37): it is now the property and residence of Thomaa Lucas, whose ancestor purchased it of the Lowes in 1727.
The great manor of Newbold, described in the Domesday survey as having six berwicks or hamlets, of which Chesterfield was one, was parcel of the ancient demesne of the crown: it afterwards belonged to the abbot and convent of Welbeck, to whom Hugh Wake, in the reign of Henry III., released the quit-rent due to him (by inheritance from the Briweres). At the time of the dissolution of monasteries, it was parcel of the possessions of Beauchief-abbey, and appears to have been granted to Sir William West, whose son, Edmund West, Esq., sold it in the year 1570 to Anthony and Gervase Eyre. Thomas Eyre, of Newbold, a zealous royalist, was governor of Welbeck, under the Earl of Newcastle. It is said, that being captain of a troop, he was three times in one action personally engaged with Cromwell and obliged him to retreat. (fn. n38) The manor of Newbold is now the property of the Duke of Devonshire, having been included in the before-mentioned exchange.
Highfield, in Newbold, came into the family of Eyre by marriage with the heiress of Milnes of that place. It is now the property and residence of Vincent Henry Eyre, Esq. He is proprietor also of a Roman Catholic chapel at Newbold, which has been the burial place of the family.
The manor of Dunston and Holme, now esteemed parcel of the Duke of Devonshire's manor of Newbold, was given by Matthew de Hathersage, to the prior and convent of Lenton in Nottinghamshire. (fn. n39) King Henry VIII. granted it to Francis Leake, Esq. A younger son of the Eyres of Padley, having married the heiress of Whittington, settled at Holme-hall about the middle of the fifteenth century, as lessee, probably, under the priory of Lenton. Thomas Eyre, Esq., who died in 1595, sold Holme-hall to the Leakes, already possessed of the manor under King Henry's grant.
The manor of Tapton passed by marriage with one of the coheiresses of William Briwere, the younger, to Ralph de Midleham. (fn. n40) Tapton was held under the Briweres and their heirs by the family of Brimington, from whom it passed, in the reign of Edward III., partly by marriage and partly by pur chase to the Stuffyns of Sherbroke, in this county. It was afterwards, for some generations, in the family of Durant. The heiress of Durant married Alsop. In the year 1637, Durant Alsop and Thomas Alsop sold the manor of Tapton and Durant-hall to George Taylor, Esq. Sir Charles Scrimshire, the heir of Mr. Taylor, sold the estate to Thomas Gladwin, Esq., of Tupton-hall, in North-Winfield, one of whose coheiresses married Cox. (fn. n41) In 1746, the manor of Tapton and Durant-hall (fn. n42) were purchased of Dr. William Cox and Martha his wife, by Mr. Adam Slater, of Chesterfield, (afterwards M. D.) who rebuilt Durant-hall, now the property and residence of his son, Adam Barker Slater, Esq. Tapton-hall is a farm-house.
Walton lies about a mile and a half west from Chesterfield. The manor of Walton was the property, and Walton-hall for some generations the seat, of the ancient family of Breton, whose heiress brought it to Sir John Loudham. Sir John Loudham, the younger, having died without issue, in or about the year 1392, his sisters and coheirs brought this estate, in moieties, to Thomas Foljambe, Esq., and Sir John Beckering. The Foljambes eventually became possessed of the whole, and Walton-hall was their chief seat, till Sir Francis Foljambe, who had been created a Baronet in 1622, sold it, in 1633, to Sir Arthur Ingram the elder, and Sir Arthur Ingram the younger. The Ingrams, in or about the year 1636, sold Walton to Mr. Paul Fletcher, by whom it was bequeathed to his nephew, Richard Jenkinson. Paul Jenkinson, son of Richard, was created a Baronet in 1685. The title became extinct by the death of Sir Jonathan, the third Baronet, in 1741. Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Paul, the second Baronet, being possessed of this estate, gave it to her mother. Lady Jenkinson bestowed it on her second husband, William Woodyear, Esq, of whose heir, John Woody ear, Esq., of Crookhill, near Doncaster, it was purchased, in 1813, by the late Sir Thomas Windsor Hunloke, Bart., and is now the property of his son. The remains of Walton-hall have been fitted up as a farm-house.
There was formerly a chapel at Walton, the walls of which were standing a few years ago. It appears to have been a domestic chapel. Sir Roger Breton is said to have had a licence for a chantry in his chapel, at Walton, in the reign of Henry III. (fn. n43)
An estate at Walton, on which is now a house, the property and residence of Joshua Jebb, Esq., was sold by the Jenkinsons to the family of Soresby, with whose heiress it passed to Milnes, of Cromford: it was purchased of the heirs of Milnes, in 1768, by Samuel Jebb, Esq., father of the present proprietor.
The Survey of Domesday describes three manors in Brampton (Brantune); two of which belonged to Ascoit Musard, the third to Walter Deincourt. The two former appear to have been united at an early period. This manor of Brampton was given by King Henry II. to Peter de Bramp ton, whom we suppose to have been the second son of Matilda de Cauz, or Caus, heiress of the barony of Caus, by her second husband, Adam de Birkin. The grandson of this Peter assumed the name of De Caus. This family became extinct, in the male line, about the year 1460: two of the coheiresses married Ash and Baguley, or Balguy. The whole of the manor of Brampton, otherwise Caus-hall, became eventually, by purchase, the pro perty of the Earls of Shrewsbury (fn. n44): it was purchased of the Shrewsbury family by the Earl of Newcastle; and was, in 1641, valued at 142l. 4s. 8d. per annum. Having passed with other estates to the late Duke of Portland, it was included in an exchange with the late Duke of Devonshire, and now belongs to the present Duke.
Birley-grange, which belonged formerly to the monastery of Lowth; Linacre, formerly esteemed a subordinate manor, the property and residence of the ancient family of Linacre (fn. n45); and Wadescel, now Watchell, or Watshelf, which took its name from Wade, the Saxon owner in the reign of Edward the Confessor, and had been given by the Musards to Beauchief Abbey, are all now parcel of the manor of Brampton. The Abbot and Convent of Rufford had lands in Brampton, which were granted by Henry VIII. to the Earl of Shrewsbury, and have passed with the manor.
The manor which belonged to the Deincourts, passed with Sutton to the Leakes; was conveyed with that to the Ciarkes; and the estate, which has not of late possessed any manerial rights, is now vested in the Marchioness of Ormond as representative of the last-mentioned family.
The Clarkes of Chilcote had formerly a seat at Somersall, or Summershall, and another family of the same name at Ashgate, in this chapelry. Somersall is now a farm-house, belonging to the Marchioness of Ormond; Ashgate is the property and residence of Mr. John Gorrall Barnes. Wigley, in this chapelry, was the original residence of the ancient family of Wigley, of Wigwell.
In the church, are several monuments for the family of Clarke, of So mersall (fn. n46) and Chilcote, and a mutilated alabaster slab for Philip —— (fn. n47), who died in 1517. The ancient monument of Matilda de Cauz has already been described. (fn. n48) Bassano's volume of Church Notes, taken about the year 1710, describes an ancient tomb of " Hiskanda, Domina de Brampton" (without date), and some memorials of the family of Jackson (fn. n49), who inherited from the Bullocks, and were succeeded by the Beresfords in the possession of an ancient mansion in Brampton, now a farm-house the property of Mr. Dixon. There was formerly a chantry in this chapel, founded by Hugh Ingram. (fn. n50)
Brampton is now esteemed a separate parish; and, indeed, is said to have been long so deemed at the time of making the Chantry Roll, in 1547. The tithes are appropriated to the Dean of Lincoln, who appoints the per petual curate. In the year 1723, Godfrey Watkinson, Esq. gave 100l., and Dr. Godolphin, Dean of St. Paul's 100l. for procuring Queen Anne's bounty for this benefice.
In the year 1682, Cornelius Clarke, of Norton, gave 10l. per annum, for the purpose of teaching 12 boys of this chapelry. Sundry other bene factions (fn. n51), to the amount of above 81. per annum, were given to this school; but much of the endowment must have been lost, the whole of the present income being stated at between 9l. and 1ol. per annum.
Brimington lies about two miles north-east from Chesterfield. The manor, which had been an appendage of Newbold, was successively in the families of Breton, Loudham, and Foljambe. It was purchased about the year 1800, of Mr. Foljambe, deputy clerk of the peace for the West Riding of York, and is now the property of John Button, Esq. The hall is divided into small tenements, occupied by labourers.
The chapel was re-built in 1808; the tower had been built at the expence of Joshua Jebb, Esq., in 1796. This chapel was twice augmented by lot, in 1737 and 1753; and a third time by subscription, in 1762, when the sum of 500l., including Queen Anne's bounty, was laid out in the purchase of an estate in Ashover. The minister is appointed by the vicar of Ches terfield.
Temple-Normanton lies three miles from Chesterfield, on the road to Mans field. The manor, which belonged to the Knights Templars, and after wards to the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, was granted, in 1563, to George Earl of Shrewsbury. It is probable that the Leakes purchased it of the Shrewsbury family: it is now the property of the Marchioness of Ormond, whose ancestor, Godfrey Clarke, purchased the manor of Normanton, with Sutton, &c., of the trustees of the last Earl of Scarsdale, in 1742.
The chapel at this place is understood to have been originally a domestic chapel, belonging to the lords of the manor of Tupton, in the adjoining parish of North- Winfield. It is now considered as a chapel of ease to Ches terfield. In consequence of a benefaction given by Mrs. Jane Lord, widow of the late William Allwood Lord, Esq., the patronage of the chapel, with consent of the vicar of Chesterfield, and with the approbation of the Bishop of the diocese, was vested in Mr. Lord's family, to whom it now belongs.
Wingerworth, another chapelry of Chesterfield, lies about three miles south from that town. The manor, was in the family of Brailsford as early as the reign of Henry II. At a later period, it belonged to the Curzons, of whom it was purchased, in the reign of Henry VIII. (fn. n52), by Nicholas Hunloke. His grandson, Henry Hunloke, Esq., being then at a very advanced age, died sud denly at Ilkeston, in this county, in the presence of King James I., to whom as sheriff of the county, he went to pay his respects, and attended thus far on his progress, in the year 1624. His son Henry, who, according to the account in the Baronetages, could have been only four years of age, at the time of his father's death, distinguished himself as a zealous royalist, raised a troop of horse at his own expence for Colonel Frecheville's regiment, of which he was Lieutenant-Colonel, and distinguished himself at the battle of Edgehill, where he was knighted on the field, and soon after (in the same year, 1642) created a Baronet. The late Sir Thomas Windsor Hunloke, of Wingerworth-hall, the fifth Baronet, died in 1816, and was succeeded, in title and estate, by his son Henry, born in 1812.
Wingerworth-hall was taken possession of for the Parliament, and garri soned, in the year 1643. (fn. n53) It is said that the estate, although sequestered, was preserved from injury by Colonel Michel, a parliamentary officer, who married the widow of the loyal Sir Henry Hunloke, who died in 1648. The hall was rebuilt, between the years 1726 and 1729, by Sir Thomas Windsor Hunloke, the third Baronet. It is at present unoccupied.
In the chapel are several monuments of the Hunloke family. (fn. n54) The Dean of Lincoln appoints the minister. The chapelry was inclosed by act of parliament in the year 1757.
Chilcote, in this county, is a chapel of ease to Clifton-Camville in Stafford shire. It lies near the banks of the Trent, at nearly an equal distance from Tamworth, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, and Burton-on-Trent. (fn. n55) Tamworth is the post-office town. The manor of Cildecote is described in the Domesday Survey as a hamlet of Repton. It belonged, as early as the reign of Ri chard I., to the Berkeley family, who held it under the Earls of Chester. The heiress of Sir Thomas Berkeley brought it, early in the 15th century, to Sir Thomas Brydges. Sir Giles Brydges died seised of' it in 1511. After this, the manor of Chilcote was many years in the family of Milward; from the Milwards it passed in marriage to the Clarkes, and is now the pro perty of their representative, the Marchioness of Ormond, who is possessed of nearly 1400 acres of land in this chapelry. Chilcote-hall, which was a seat of the Milwards, and afterwards of the Clarkes, has been pulled down.