The Later Records Relating To North Westmorland Or the Barony of Appleby. Originally published by Titus Wilson and Son, Kendal, 1932.
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THE PARISH OF ST. COLOMBE, WARCOP.
Including the Manors of Sandford, Burton and Bleatarn.
In this parish we have the "Druid's Temple, "half a mile N.E. of Scober. Tumuli, S. of main road near Platts, also sites near Sandford field corner, the largest opened in 1766; a stone circle 50 paces in diameter and two enclosures, one with a fosse. Foundations of round fort, 40 paces in diameter north of Coupland Beck bridge, and nearer the bridge square foundations which are supposed to be of the Hospital of Coupmanbeck. At Bleatarn the site of a cell of Byland Abbey at which remains were found in 1745; the fish-ponds and fence of Abbey Park were removed in 1777. On Castle Hill we have the site of Warcop Castle which covered more than an acre of ground; Machel speaks of the walls being 15 feet thick well cemented, with the tradition that the steeple of K. Stephen church was built with stones from here in 1606. Collingwood, Ancient Monuments.
It appears from the Records in the Tower of London that in 18 Edward 1 (1289) the advowson of Warcop Church was given by Isabella wife of Roger de Clifford to the Abbey of Shap. These canons having obtained the advowson procured in the following reign the Church to be appropriated to them. Accordingly in 9 Edward 11 the King's licence passed and Bishop Halton confirmed the appropriation in consideration of the poverty of the Abbey, occasioned by the incursion of the Scots reserving to himself and his successors a yearly pension of £4. The abbey was to endow a vicarage which was to be held by one of their canons who should serve the church by a secular priest. The abbot and convent agreed to this on 17 May, 1309.
The first vicar presented by the Abbey and Convent in the year 1311 was William de Warthecoppe their late abbot.
In the "Antique Taxatio Ecclesiastica" of Pope Nicholas IV, made in the year 1291, the church is valued at £35, but the " Novo Taxatio" of Pope Clement V, 1318, the value is reduced to £3. 6. 8. See page 22. The next 'Valor Ecclesiasticus" made by order of Parliament, 26 Henry VIII, 1535, is as follows:—
The Commonwealth Survey of 1657, is as follows:—
That the right of presentation to the church is in Mr. Richard Braithwaite, or in his guardian in his right. That Mr. Edward Mawson is the present incumbent and hath for his maintenance the glebe land worth £13 by the year and the tithes of wool and lamb and some tithe hay within the parish with some other small tithes worth £17 by the year.
Edward Hilton, parson of Blechingdon, near Oxford, by his will dated 20 February, 1525/6, gave the rent of a cottage to support a chantry, for the souls of himself and his relations, in St. John the Baptist's porch of the parish church of St. Combe of Warcop, and directed that his anniversary, or obit, should be observed on 15 July for ever.
Bishop Nicolson at his Visitation on 13 July, 1703, says that "on the north aisle there is a large burying porch belonging to Mr. Hilton of Ormeshead, it is now rebuilding on its old foundations having lately fallen down." He further says that he had "agreed with Mr. Brathwait the Patron that he should rebuild the ruinous quire three yards shorter than at present."
It is said that the vicarage house was formerly moated with a drawbridge at the entrance on account of it being situate on the road side out of Scotland.
A list of the Incumbents whose names have been met with during this present research.
It has been noted under Crosby Garrett that there was a sum of five shillings a year granted to these two schools, each school to receive the sum in alternate years. This payment has been made to the master of the parish school and a school-house has been built and supported by further subscriptions. A new house was built in 1863.
This Hall is now reduced to a farm house. It was the birthplace of Christopher Bainbridge who became Dean of York, Bishop of Durham, and at length Archbishop of York. He was sent Ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII where the Pope created him Cardinal of St. Praxis. However, after punishing his servant for his faults the revengeful Italian poisoned him, and he died at Rome, 14 July, 1511.
The Sandford family were here, it is said, from the time of K. John to the reign of Henry VI. In the 23rd Charles 11 Sir Thomas Brathwaite of Warcop and Elizabeth his wife sold to Andrew Wharton of Gray's Inn the manor of Sandford with all the profits arising from the same, and the said Andrew sold the demesne and rents to divers inhabitants, the Hall being sold to Richard Fawcett.
The abode of the Warthcops until the end of Elizabeth's reign when it came into the possession of the Braithwaites of Ambleside. A greater part of the building was rebuilt by George Stephenson in 1746. The Rev. William Stephenson Preston, patron of the advowson of the church, was living here in 1862.
This at one time was a large building and formed the manor-house. Cyprian Hilton of Burton, who died in 1649, had a son John who married Isabel daughter of John Farer, and a daughter, Mary, who married William Farer, both of Warcop Tower. It is now a farm house.
On 6 December, 1901, an application was received from the East Westmorland Rural District Council for a contribution towards the cost of rebuilding this bridge, the present structure being unsafe. The County Council offered to grant one-third of the cost provided that the bridge be built to the County Surveyor's satisfaction. On 12 May, 1902, a further application was made to have the new bridge taken over by the County when it was resolved to defer the point until the bridge was satisfactorily built. It was completed by February, 1905, at a cost of £511. 19. 5 to which the County contributed £170. 13. 2. In February, 1906, the bridge was accepted by the County but not the highway at either end.
On 21 August, 1903, the Rural District Council made an application to the County for a contribution of one-half the cost of the erection of a bridge over Stank Beck where the same crosses from east to west the highway near Milburn, the estimated cost being £360. The highway has a steep gradient on either side down to the bed of the stream so that a bridge with filled in approaches would ease materially the awkward and dangerous drop. The Council replied granting a sum not exceeding £90. In February, 1906, the bridge was accepted by the County to be repairable at the public expense, but not the highway at either end.
Warcop Old Bridge over the Eden
Thomas de Anandale, rector of Asby, left by his will, dated 18 November, 1374, one mark (13s. 4d.) each to eight bridges of which Warcop was one. Testa. Karl., 107.
Thomas Sandford in his will dated 29 August, 1380, bequeathed "ad emendandum pontem de Warthcopp xiijs. iiijd." Testa. Karl., 143. At the Sessions held on 12 April, 1602, it was ordered that the Bottom of Westmorland should be assessed 5d. in the pound for the repair of four bridges of which Warcop was one. On 8 April, 1678, Quarter Sessions ordered the High Constables of the East and West Wards to view the decay of Warcop Bridge that speedy care might be taken to repair it, and to bring to the next Sessions an estimte of what the charges would be to effect the same. The bridge appears upon the list of public bridges made on 28 April, 1679. On 14 October, 1738, it was ordered that the High Constables should forthwith contract for the repair of the east end of Warcop Bridge and 300 feet of the causway at the west end. It was further ordered that 2d. in the pound should be assessed and levied for the necessary repair to this bridge and that at Newbiggin. On 19 May, 1897, it was reported to the County Council that Warcop Old Bridge consisted of three segmental arches each of about 30 feet span and 8 feet rise, the piers supporting them being 10. 4 and 11. 4 in width; the total width of the bridge is 11 feet over all but there are recesses for foot passengers over each of the cut-waters; the arches are of tooled ashlar each being supported by four massive ribs, those of the central arch being very much decayed.
Hugh Farheyge of Warthecop was found killed on a certain moor called Lanegil by unknown malefactors. And the vills of Warthecop and Sandeford did not come to the enquiry therefore they are in mercy. Assize Roll, 1256, m. 11.
The jurors present that William Grenchend of Warthecop wishing to unyoke four oxen that drew his plough was struck by the plough-share of the same in the thigh so that afterwards he died from it. Judgment, misfortune. The price of the four oxen that were yoked in the plough and of the plough is two marks for which the sheriff answers. And John de Barton and Adam de Hoghump valued falsely the aforesaid oxen therefore they are in mercy. Assize Roll, 1256, m. 12. If a man driving a cart falls so that the wheel crushes him, or the horse kicks him to death, such wheel or horse, as in the case of the oxen and plough here, were considered deodand, given to God and sold for the benefit of the poor. "Omnia quœ movent ad mortem sunt Deo danda."
"What moves to death we understand,
Is forfeit as a Deodand."
A writ was issued against Robert de Musgrave, rector of Warcop, concerning a messuage in Great Ormside. Next year the abbey presented William de Warcop, their late abbot, and he was succeeded on 16 September, 1320, by Hugh de Houeden.
William de Warthecop by Adam Crosseby his attorney, appeared against Peter Gretheved in a plea that he render unto him 50s. which he owes. Defendant did not come. Case adjourned until the octave of S. Hilary. De Banco Rolls, 468, m. 124; 470, m. 54.
John del Pray, vicar of the church of Morland, Stephen de Meburn, parson of the church of Askeby, Thomas son of William de Warthecop, Joan who was the wife of William de Warthecop and Adam Crosseby, executors of the will of William de Warthecop, against Adam Waryner in a plea that he render unto them £20; and against John del Bakhous that he render six marks. The same executors against William Leche the king's bailiff in the county of Westmorland, and John de Futhergill in a plea that each of them render £30 which they owe. The same executors against John de la Chambre, Richard Walker, Henry Lorde and William Gilpyn in a plea that each of them render unto them £20 which they owe. De Banco Rolls, 478, m. 249 d.; 479, m. 378.
Thomas de Sandford made his will on the Feast Day of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist, 29 August, 1380, wherein he directs that his body should be buried in the church of St. Colombe of Warcop. He left 13s. 4d. to the repair of Warcop bridge, and a similar amount to the bridges of Sowerby, Salkeld, and the one between Tebay and Routhwaite. Further he left 13s. 4d. to the new bridge in Kirkby Kendal Testa. Karl., 143.
Agnes Spede, by her attorney, appeared against Richard Sawer for violently seizing her beasts at Warcop and imparking them until she paid a fine of 40s. to deliver them. De Banco Roll, 479, m. 476.
The trustees of Margery Ducket sold the manor of Warcop to Ralph, earl of Westmorland who held the same of Sir John Clifford in 1422. In 1469 George Nevil, late lord Latimer, before his death was seised of the manor which descended to his grandson Richard, son of Henry, son of the said George, then aged one year.
Warcop paid a fifteenth as a subsidy to the king amounting to 60s.; and Sandford, 50s.; a total of £5. 10s. od. Excheq. Q.R. Miscell. Books, vol. 7.
1669–1672 Hearth Tax Roll
1669–1672 Hearth Tax Roll, Lay Subsidy, 195, n. 73.
Eleven householders were exempted from paying the tax by Certificate.
Thirteen householders were exempted from paying the tax by Certificate.
1674 10 March.
Anthony Walker was presented to Quarter Sessions for teaching school without a licence to the prejudice and disadvantage of the parish as it hinders the building of a school house.
1676 8 May.
Upon the humble petition of Anthony Wetherall of Sandford setting forth that he had lived in Sandford 14 years and was ready to work for those that employed him and being destitute of a house, Quarter Sessions ordered that the inhabitants of Sandford do find him a house as desired. Again in 1679 Elizabeth Close petitioned that she had lived in Warcop several years last past and doth want a house, when it was ordered that the overseers do find her a house to dwell in she paying a reasonable rent for the same.
1685 5 October.
Presentment that George Scaife of Gargate Gate in Sandford doth keep very great disorder in his house and harbours none but vagabonds and vagrants, and suffers men to tiple on the Lord's Day, whereupon the Court ordered the constables of Sandford to suppress forthwith the said George Scaife from brewing and keeping an ale house.
1692–3 9 January.
Ordered that widow Mattinson, John Hartley and Robert Birkbeck of Sandford do scour out their water course before 1 May next upon pain of 40s. each.
1699 11 July.
Quarter Sessions sanctioned that the house of John Martindale of Bleatarn be licenced as a meeting house for religious worship. And on 8 January following they likewise licenced the house of Edward Hollyday of Bleatarn.
Whereas there is within the manor of Sandford certain large tracts or parcels of common and waste grounds, called Sandford High Moor and Sandford Low Moor and there is also within the said manor a parcel of open ground or stinted pasture. And whereas William Preston, clerk, Thomas Harrison, Richard Fawcett, Thomas Banks, Edward Stephenson and others are intitled to right of common. And whereas Matthias Ward is vicar of the parish and the said William Preston is patron of the living. May it please your majesty that it may be enacted that John Burn of Orton, Thomas Heelis of Appleby Castle and James Richardson of Birks be appointed as the Commissioners for dividing and enclosing the said commons and waste grounds.
1796 26 November.
For the provision of soldiers to serve in the army, the parish of Warcop together with the parish of Ormside, having 103 inhabited houses, had to provide two men or pay a fine of £20 for each missing from the quota.
1832 6 April.
The Award of the Commissioners under the Warcop Inclosure Act was deposited with the Clerk of the Peace.
1845 25 April.
Indenture made between John Stewardson of Burrow parish of Kirkby Lonsdale, farmer, and Isabel Abram of Stoneriggs, parish of St. Michael, Appleby, widow (formerly Isabel Atkinson, spinster), of the first part; and John Dent of Bolton parish of Morland, yeo. and many others of the second part. Whereas those of the second part are possessed of money sufficient to purchase land and erect a Chapel thereon for the use of the Wesleyan Methodists, now for £4 the said John Stewardson and Isabel Abram have sold to them a parcel of land upon which a Chapel has been erected recently, measuring 10 by 9 yards, portion of the croft called William Gregson's Croft in Warcop, bounded on the east by the remainder of the said croft, on the north-west by the Town Street of Warcop, and Shoregill, on the south by the dwelling house and garden of the said John Stewardson. Held by 1d. yearly rent to the lord of the manor of Warcop, one penny catches and other dues and services; such land and chapel to be used as provided in an Indenture enrolled 4 April, 1842, concerning a chapel in St. Paul's, Deptford, co. Kent. Close Roll 13285, pt. 132.
1847 20 November.
Indenture made between John Alderson of Low Green, Sandford, yeo. of the first part; and Joseph Craig of The Holme, parish of St. Michael, Appleby, and many others of the second part. Whereas those of the second part are possessed of money to purchase land and erect a Chapel thereon for the use of the Wesleyan Methodist Association, now for the sum of £7 the said John Alderson has sold to them a parcel of freehold land in the village of Sandford, measuring 27 by 20 feet, portion of a piece of garden ground and whereon a chapel is being built, bounded on the south by the Town Street, on the west by the lands of Hannah Rudd, and on the north and east by premises of the said Alderson. Which said piece of land formerly belonged to Matthew Lamb, D.D., Rector of Chipping Warden who by will dated 18 November, 1796, bequeathed the same to his niece Margaret wife of Isaac Alderson, parents of the said John, both now being dead. To have and to hold to them for the same purposes, etc. as contained in an Indenture of 27 January, 1842, concerning a Chapel in St. Paul's, Deptford for the use of the Wesleyan Methodists. Close Roll 13660, pt. 37.
Grant by the Rev. Charles Moyes Preston, vicar of Warcop, the Rev. William Stephenson Preston of Warcop Hall, patron and owner of the advowson of Warcop parish church, and with the consent of the Rt. Rev. Samuel Waldegrave, Bishop of Carlisle, and Matthew Chamley and Agnes his wife. Grant unto the vicar of Warcop of a piece of land containing 444 square yards, being a portion of the glebe land, to be used for a school building for the education of children and adults, or children only of the labouring, manufacturing and other poorer classes in the parish, to be at all times open to the inspection of the Inspector of Schools as by Order in Council of 10 August, 1840, and to be conducted according to the principles of the National Society for the Promotion of the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church, etc. Close Roll 15991, pt. 262, n. 14.