The Later Records Relating To North Westmorland Or the Barony of Appleby. Originally published by Titus Wilson and Son, Kendal, 1932.
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THE PARISH OF ST. MICHAEL, BROUGH
In this parish we have the Roman forts of Verterae, and Maidencastle on Stainmore. The earthwork of Roper Castle. Rey Cross which formerly marked the County boundary but which is now on the Yorkshire side. Brough Castle, founded c. 1170, repaired 1200, hall built c. 1380, burnt down 1521, restored by the Lady Anne Clifford in 1662, dismantled in 1695 and commenced to be preserved by H.M. Office of Works in 1923. Beacon on Stainmore, 15th century, flashing between Bowes and Orton.
The church of Brough is first mentioned in an Award made by the Prior of Carlisle and others between Bishop Walter Malclerk (1223–46) and the Abbot of St. Mary's at York, touching the church of Kirkby Stephen and its chapels. From this we learn that Brough was a chapel dependant upon the church of K. Stephen, which church was given by Ivo de Tailbois to the abbot and convent of St. Mary's at York. The abbot granted the advowson of the Vicarage of K. Stephen to the Bishop of Carlisle and his successors and thus the bishops of the See deemed themselves entitled to the patronage of the Vicarage and also to the patronage of its chapel at Brough.
This right became an object of contention. Robert de Veteripont having obtained a grant of Appleby and Brough with their appendages, among which he considered the patronage of Brough to have passed to him as appendant to the manor, his successors claimed against the See of Carlisle; as also did the Crown asserting that the patronage had never passed out of its hands with the grant of the manor. Naturally judgment was given for the King and the advowson of Brough as an Ecclesiastical Rectory remained with the Crown until the reign of Edward III.
In the "Antique Taxatio Ecclesiastica" of Pope Nicholas IV, made in 1291, the church as a rectory before appropriation by the abbey was valued at £30. But in the "Novo Taxatio" of Pope Clement v, made in 1318, it is only valued at £6. 13. 4.; for the reason of this see page 22.
At the earnest entreaty of his chaplain, Robert Eaglesfield, who was rector of Brough and founder of Queen's College in Oxford, Edward III granted the advowson to the said College in 1341. The endowment of the Vicarage must have taken place soon after as Pope Clement VI confirmed it in 1344 when the value was stated to be £53. 16. 7. including a mansion, glebe lands and the usual tithes and oblations excepting the tithe of hay on Stainmore which was to remain to the College; the Vicar to pay a pension of 20s. to the Bishop of Carlisle and maintain the roof of the chancel.
In the Westmorland Certificate under date 10 March, 1645–6, appear the names of William Richardson, vicar, and Thomas Ewbanke and John Monkhouse as elders of the church. Richardson is here described as an "non-covenanter and disaffected" and it is evident that he with his brother James continued to be troublesome.
The Commissioners " for ejecting the scandalous, ignorant and insufficient ministers" ordered Mr. William Richardson, minister of Brough, to appear the last Wednesday in February next at Penrith to answer the Articles of Charge exhibited against him. However, he was not disturbed in the living and he continued on after the Restoration.
The Commonwealth Survey of 1657 gives the following:—That the right of presentation to the church is in the Provost and Fellows of Queen's College, Oxford. That Mr. William Richardson is present incumbent there and hath for his maintenance the glebe land which is worth £10 by the year and the tithes of calves with all other small tithes and dues within the parish of Brough which are worth £16 by the year. That all the rest of the tithes within the said parish do appertain to the said College and are worth £60 by the year.
ST. MARY'S CHAPEL, NORTH STAINMORE.
Indenture made 4 April, 1861, between the Rev. Lancelot Jefferson, vicar of Brough, and Samuel, Bishop of Carlisle, That the parish being of wide extent and the parish church situate far from many parts thereof so that many parishioners are hindered from attending divine service, for remedy thereof the said Lancelot Jefferson has at his own expense erected a chapel on a parcel of land and now grants the same, part of his estate called Dummah Hill in the township of Stainmore, bounded by the turnpike road from Brough to Bowes on the south, the land of the said Jefferson on the north and east and the common on the west, with the chapel thereupon erected, to the said Bishop and his successors for the celebration of divine service; together with £100 invested in the Consolidated Three-per-cent. Bank Annuities for the minister performing divine service there. Close Roll, 6575, pt. 38, n. 14.
ST. STEPHEN'S CHAPEL, SOUTH STAINMORE AND SCHOOL.
Sir Cuthbert Buckle, knt., once Lord Mayor of London, by his will dated 28 June, 1594, gave a rentcharge of £8 a year on the Spittle estate near Bowes, towards the maintenance of a schoolmaster at Stainmore to be employed in teaching children " to read, write, cypher and cast account." His heir-at-law contested the will but in 1600 a decree was obtained in favour of the school. The provision was designed to meet the wants of an outlying portion of the parish of Brough, too remote to allow the children to attend school or the inhabitants the church in that town. Whereupon after the erection of a school it also became used for divine service. So much so indeed that by 1608 Bishop Robinson consecrated the building as a chapel in which the schoolmaster could hold his school.
The Commonwealth Survey of 1657 says, "That there is one Chapel called Stainmore Chapel situate south-west from the parish church about three miles and that there is no maintenance for a minister belonging to the said chapel." The endowment belonging to the school.
On 2 February, 1699, Thomas, 6th earl of Thanet, enclosed about 143 acres of waste land in Stainmore and settled it in trust for a schoolmaster-clergyman, who should act as curate performing divine service on Sundays and keep school. The earl repaired this chapel and built a new school-house separate from but near adjoining. The chapel was rebuilt entirely in 1842 and restored in 1913.
Brough Grammar School. What was known as St. Mary's Chapel was founded by John Brunskill in 1506 at Gibgarth on land granted by Thomas Blenkinsop of Helbeck, on condition that he should build also a hospital with two beds in it for travellers and other poor people and maintain the same. It was dedicated to St. Mary and St. Gabriel the Archangel. Two priests were established, one to teach grammar and the other song to children willing to learn. Richard, abbot of Shap, having the governance and oversight of the same, and requested to by John Brunskill, ordained that 2d. was to be paid to the Bishop of Carlisle yearly, and 20s. to the vicar of Brough. The singing priest to have £5 wages of the oblations in the said chapel to be paid by the said abbot and the schoolmaster. The abbot also ordained that a man and his wife should be appointed keepers of the ornaments in the chapel and of the beds in the hospital, and that he should receive his wages of the oblations of the chapel and by the hands of the abbot and schoolmaster. The surplusage of the oblations of the chapel, if any, was to be kept in a chest in the monastery of Shap, for the care of which the abbot was to receive 23s. 4d.; and the schoolmaster for his care and labours 8s. 4d. of the said oblations.
On the dissolution in 1536 one of the priests was retained as the master of a free school. In 4th and 5th Philip and Mary there was an order of the Barons of the Court of Exchequer for the payment of £7. 11. 4. yearly out of the rents and revenues which formerly belonged to it as a chapel, by the Receiver General to the master for his maintenance; and it would appear that the reduced sum of £6. 18s. 11 has been paid by the Receiver-General down to the year 1874 when the School Board was established.
Among the Rentals and Surveys of lands belonging to the various chantries, made in 1546, under the heading of "Lands given to find a school in Brough subtus Staynmore, co. Westmorland." there is the following list of tenants with their rent paid yearly and the amount of the fine on change of tenant.
"All the tenants in Brough subtus Staynmore claim to hold their tenements or farmholds for term of life by the title called tenant-right according to the custom of the country and pay fine at change of tenant and are not 'herytable' at death; and they refuse leases for a term of years and desire to continue still by tenant-right for which they are contented to pay the fine aforesaid." Rentals and Surveys, Augmentation Office, Miscellaneous Books, vol. 409, folio 58 d.
The Charity Commissioner's Survey of 1822 says:—"There was a school house with a small garden for the master's residence, but it has not been inhabited for 30 or 40 years, The house has now fallen down and part of the material taken to rebuild the school house."
The manor of Helbeck belonged to the family of that name until Isabella, the only child of Sir Thomas de Helbeck, married Richard de Blenkinsop in or before 1314. About the year 1657 Francis Blenkinsop sold the hall and demesne to Major Scaife, one of Cromwell's sequestrators, who was in residence and paid Hearth Tax upon four fireplaces in 1669. In 1726 Thomas Carleton of Appleby purchased the hall and demesne, rebuilding the hall and erecting the Fox Tower soon afterwards.
Augill, over the Augill Beck on the road between Brough and Bowes.
Belay, over the Belah on the road between Brough Sowerby and Winton.
Richard de Aslacby, vicar of St. Michael's, Appleby, bequeathed by his will, dated Friday before the Feast of All Saints, 1 November, 1369, to the bridge at Sowerby 6s. 8d. together with a similar amount to the bridge at Brough. The bridge appears upon the list of public bridges made on 28 April, 1679.
Church Brough, over the Augill Beck on the road from Market Brough to Kirkby Stephen.
On 1 October, 1688, upon the petition of the inhabitants setting forth that the bridge between Market Brough and Church Brough had fallen into decay and was much ruined by the inundation of several great floods to the danger of those passing to Kirkby Stephen market and that the same hath been repaired formerly by the county, Quarter Sessions ordered that the Grand Jury should make enquiry whether or no it be a County Bridge. In October, 1690, it was ordered that 40s. should be given as a gratuity for and towards the repair of Church Brough Bridge.
On 2 February, 1822, came the great flood when this bridge "was washed down." What happened for the next two years is not known, but on 12 July, 1824, it was again resolved that the Clerk of the Peace do make enquiry as to who ought to be liable for the repair. On 14 July, 1828, the building of an addition to the bridge was let for £112. 15s. 6d. And then finally on 4 January, 1864, Quarter Sessions ordered that Church Brough Bridge should be adopted by the County.
Market Brough, over the Swindale Beck on the road from Appleby to Bowes.
Richard de Aslacby, vicar of St. Michael's, Appleby, bequeathed by his will, dated on Friday before the Feast of All Saints, 1 November, 1369, to the bridge of Brough 6s. 8d. And about the year, 1533, Thomas Blenkinsop gave 26s. 8d. toward "the building of the bridge at Brough." His coat of arms, as well as that of the Cilffords was graved upon it. The bridge appears upon the list of public county bridges made on 28 April, 1679.
On 13 January, 1717–8, a presentment was made to Quarter Sessions that this public bridge was very ruinous and in decay and that the parapets being so very low and insufficient the bridge was dangerous to passengers who have occasion to travel over it. On 12 January, 1747–8, leave was given by Quarter Sessions to John Thompson, esquire, to pull down five yards in length of the battlement next his own house in Brough, he undertaking to erect a palisade instead thereof and to keep the same in good and sufficient repair. On 13 January, 175–2, Brough Bridge and 300 feet at either end of it was presented as being in great decay. On 8 January, 1776, the High Constables were ordered to forthwith contract for the rebuilding of Market Brough Bridge with one arch and 21 feet of width over the battlements.
Brough New, over the Swindale Beck between Church Brough and Market Brough.
On 19 October, 1840, the Bridge Master was ordered to make a plan with estimate of the expense of building a new bridge, now commonly called the New Bridge and also an estimate for repairing the old structure.
Low Gill, Brough.
Old Park in South Stainmore on the Tackan Tan road.
Palliot over the Argill Beck on the road between Brough and Bowes.
On 15 September, 1890, it was reported that the bridge consisted of two culverts which were not sufficient to carry off the water when the beck was in flood. The County Council ordered it to be rebuilt with three larger culverts and more directly across the stream. It was estimated that the three culverts, each 33 feet long with a width of 3 feet 9 inches and a height of 6 feet 3 inches, would cost £75.
Wyegill in South Stainmore on Tan Hill.
Agnes who was the wife of Adam son of Benedict was found killed between Helebeck and Burgh. And the jurors say that Adam, husband of the aforesaid, killed her as they came from the tavern of Burgh. He has fled and is suspected, therefore let him be put in exigent and outlawed. His chattels are worth 18s. for which the sheriff answers. And because the vills of Helebeck, Burgh and Mussegrave buried her without any inquiry being made, therefore they are in mercy. Assize Roll, 1256, m. 12d.
Inquisition taken after the death of Roger de Leyburn before Sir Thomas de Normanvill, the king's escheator beyond Trent, on Monday in the morrow of St. Gregory the Pope, 12 Edward 1, by Robert de Morvil and others as jurors, as to how much land Roger de Leyburn held of the king in chief in co. Westmorland the day he died, etc. and what of his own heritage and what of the heritage of Idonea his wife who was the daughter and one of the heirs of Robert de Veteripont, decd. They say on oath that Roger the day he died held no land of his own proper heritage of the king nor any other in co. Westmorland, but held in chief of the king as of the heritage of the said Idonea, the Castle of Brough under Stainmore with a moiety of that manor, worth yearly in all issues £70. 13.; the moiety of the manor of Marton, worth yearly £13. 3. 5¼ the moiety of the manor of Appleby, worth yearly £27. 5. 3¼ the fourth part of the manor of King's Meaburn, worth yearly £12. 11. 6½ the manor of Winton, worth yearly £24. 2. 3¼ the manor of Kirkebystephen, worth yearly £39. 16. 9; the castle of Mallerstang with the moiety of the forest, worth yearly £22. 3. 9½ the moiety of the forest of Quinnefell, worth yearly £23. 3. 3½ the moiety of the services of Knights and free tenants in Westmorland called cornage, worth yearly £13. 11. 4; fee farms of free tenants, worth yearly £2. 15. 7¾ the moiety of the profits of the county court, worth yearly £3. 6. 8. All of which is held of the king in chief by the service of two knights' fees. John de Leyburn is his son and next heir, aged three years in the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Chanc. Inq. p. mortem, 12 Edward 1, file 39, n. 1.
After the defeat at Bannockburn—Bruce being at the height of his power and causing a reign of terror along the Border—the King's advisers felt that such an important fortress as Brough Castle should be fortified by more powerful hands than Idonea de Clifford could manage to garrison it with. That it ought to dominate the Westmorland side of the great Stainmore Pass. Accordingly the king entrusted the castle to Robert de Welle, knt., who was instructed to maintain 15 men-at-arms fully mailed and mounted on "covered war horses," and 20 hobelars or light lancers mounted on "hobby" or fell ponies. And to show the importance the government placed upon this, it was willing to grant the exceptional subsidy of placing 10 men-at-arms and 10 hobelars on the king's pay.
The Market of Brough was granted to Robert de Clifford on 2 August, 1330, 4 Edward 111. It was to be held on Thursday weekly. He also received the right to hold a fair yearly, two days before the Feast of St. Matthew, that feast day and the day following. The original charter is preserved at Appleby Castle, it is a small piece of parchment written in ecclesiastical Latin but only a portion of the Great Seal remains. The livery cords, the pink and green colours of Edward 111, are quite perfect.
John de Langton died. For some time he held the living of Brough-under-Stainmore, was Chancellor of England from 1292 to 1302 and again from 1307 to 1310. He was raised to the bishopric of Chichester in May, 1305. Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1292–1301.
William del Bernes, by John Oxenthwayt his attorney, against Geoffrey Watchet and Robert his son in a plea wherefore with force and arms they insulted the said William at Burgh under Staynesmore and beat and wounded and ill-treated him. De Banco Roll, 472, m. 526.
John Reynald, vicar of the church of St. Michael of Appleby, appeared against John Wilkynson of Sowerby by Brough in a plea that he killed two mares of his, price £6, at Brough. De Banco Roll, 479, m. 378.
1669–1672. Hearth Tax Roll
Quarter Sessions ordered that a fine of £10 should be imposed upon the parish of Brough if the inhabitants do not repair the way from Argill Bridge to the Standing stone in the causey leading to the market of Appleby.
Upon the petition of the tenants and neighbours on the south side of Stainmoordale, it is ordered that all those that make benefit by carrying coals do pay 2d. toll for every horse, for and toward the repair of the way to the coalpits. Coal was carted a long way from these mines, quite a quantity going into Orton parish by way of Soulby and over Little Asby Scar.
For an assault and robbery on Stainmore the High Constable of the East Ward was ordered to levy 2s. 10d. in the pound for satisfaction of a judgment obtained against the inhabitants amounting to £123. 1. O., which George Gossling recovered against the said inhabitants for the damage which he sustained upon a certain assault and robbery against him by certain malefactors. It was further ordered that the said sums be paid to Thomas Birkbeck, High Constable on or before the last day of this instant month of October.
There is preserved at Appleby Castle a petition from the inhabitants of Brough to Thomas, earl of Thanet, 1683–1729, praying him to apply for a renewal of the charter for a market and fair, the earl's note was, "There being now two fairs at Brough yearly where they pay toll to me, and also a great fair at Brough Hill, where they also pay a good toll to me, time out of mind, by altering these fairs might destroy the prescription and also lessen the tolls of Kirkby Stephen, for which reason I thought it not convenient to renew the charter as this petition desires, nor make any alteration in this concern, which I here mention to be a rule to those who succeed me." Since 1800 Brough Hill Fair has become remarkable for the sale of large numbers of cattle and horses.
Presentment that 200 yards in the king's highway lying in a place called Thornyscale at Brough, leading from the market town of Appleby to the market town of Reeth, co. York., has been for some time dirty, founderous and in decay, so that passengers could not pass over without great danger and that the inhabitants of the village of Brough Sowerby ought to repair the same as occasion shall require.
Presentment that a great part of the king's highway from Market Brough Bridge to the stone bridge over the river Belay called Buckles Bridge, leading to the market town of Barnard Castle is dirty, founderous and in decay so that the subjects of the king cannot pass that way without danger and that the inhabitants of Brough ought to repair the same.
John Strickland of Brough, yeo. was indicted that with force and arms he did steal one silver spoon of the value of 10d.; therefore it is ordered that he remain in the custody of the keeper of the gaol until the keeper has convenient time to severely whip him in private and then he is to be discharged on payment of his fees. This is the first occasion noted on which the whipping was ordered to be done in private, but at the same time it was left to the keeper and his pocket to determine when the punishment was to be carried out.
Indenture between George Atkinson of Oxenthwaite, parish of Brough, yeo.; Thomas Hall of Potts, parish of Crosby Garrett, Robert Longstaff of Brough Sowerby and John Middleton of Lowgill, yeo. of the 1st part; John Rumney of Market Brough, surgeon of the 2nd part; William Hunter of the same, minister of the Gospel of the 3rd part; and Mark Raine of Longridge, parish of Musgrave, yeo. and John Gill of Spuddich, in the township of Stainmore, yeo. of the 4th part. Whereas by feoffment on 13 May, 1803, made between the said John Rumney of the one part and William Fenwick of Barnard Castle, preacher of the Gospel, Thomas Sayer of Long Marton, yeo., and the said George Atkinson, Thomas Hall, Robert Longstaff and John Middleton, of the second part, for the consideration of £10 the said John Rumney granted to them a piece of ground on the south side of the town of Market Brough and east of a lane leading from the east end of Brough Bridge, 30 by 25 feet, upon which was then erecting a Chapel or preaching house for divine worship for the use of the Wesleyan Methodists, leaving a slip of ground on the east side bounded by Mrs. Norman's garth on the north and east, the garden of John Rumney on the south and the said lane on the west. And whereas the building of the said Chapel was soon after completed and has been ever since and is now used by the said Society accordingly, and whereas doubts have arisen whether the said Indenture be of full effect, it not having been enrolled, in order to obviate such doubts the said John Rumney now grants the premises aforesaid to the said Trustees (William Fenwick and Thomas Sayer both being dead) for the further payment of 5s. Close Roll 9309, 53 George III, pt. 18.
There was a presentment made to Quarter Sessions that Edward Spencer, yeo. on 4 May last in a certain public footpath, being the king's highway, did erect three stone walls of 246 yards in length and six feet in height, in, upon and across the said highway and hath continued to keep the said stone walls erected whereby the highway was and continues to be obstructed, so as the public cannot to their great prejudice pass along the said way. By 26 April, 1824, the nuisance had been removed.
Indenture made between William Jackson of Church Brough, yeo., and Isabella his wife of the one part, and William Raine, grocer, and many others of the second part. Whereas in 1810 was begun in England under the ministry of Hugh and James Bourne of Bemersley in the parish of Norton in the Moors, co. Stafford, a Society of Protestant Christians, now called Primitive Methodists, by some called "Ranters," and they having determined to build a Chapel or Meeting House at Church Brough, now for £6 the said Jackson and his wife sell to those of the second part a piece of ground at the north end of the garth behind his dwelling house at Church Brough, being 120 square yards, bounded by land of Thomas Robson on the east, by land of the said Jackson on the west and south, and the common on the north, together with a right of ladder-room on the said Jackson's ground. Close Roll 15786, pt. 57.
Indenture made between Thomas Grisdale of Old Park, Stainmore, yeo. of the first part; and John Hilton of Mouthlock, carrier, and many others of the second part; Witnesses that for the sum of £2 the said Thomas Grisdale has sold to those of the second part, a plot of land in the north-west corner of Cold Keld Close, containing 120 square yards, now marked out, bounded by land of the said Grisdale on the east and south, by the road leading to New Hall on the west, and the Common on the north, situate in the township of Stainmore, for a Chapel or Meeting House to be erected thereon for the use of the Primitive Methodists resident in Stainmore, in such manner as declared by deed poll of Hugh and James Bourne and William Clowes, dated 5 February, 1830, and enrolled in the High Court of Chancery. Close Roll 10865, pt. 64.
Some of the inhabitants of Brough being anxious to form a connexion with the Baptists of Middleton in Teesdale invited the ministers over to preach in Westmorland, and this led to the formation of a Baptist Congregation in 1834.
Indenture made between Joseph Jameson of Crackenthorpe, gent., of the first part; John Fenwick of Newcastle upon Tyne of the second part; and Joseph Jameson, Joseph Yare of Brough, joiner, William Cannon of Burtergill, farmer, and several others of the third part. Whereas by Indenture of 27 June, 1850, made between Mary and Isabella Cannon, spinster, and Thomas Meger, innkeeper, and Joseph Jameson aforesaid, for £15 paid by Jameson to Meger, all that plot of land upon which a Baptist Chapel had been built recently, containing half a rood, bounded on the north by the Back Lane, on the east by the high road from Brough to Kirkby Stephen, on the south and west by Chapel Garth belonging to Thomas Meger aforesaid, all which had lately formed part of the said Chapel Garth in Brough, held of George William Frederick, earl of Clarendon, lord of the said manor of Brough, by payment of a yearly rent of one half-penny, was conveyed to the said Jameson; and whereas the said Chapel was built, now for the consideration of 10s. the said Jameson conveys the same to the said Trustees of the 3rd part, to be used as a place of public worhsip for the service of God by the Society of Protestant Dissenters called the Particular Baptist Denomination, already meeting there; and part to be used as a cemetery for the interment of deceased members. Close Roll 14365, pt. 43.
The first annual meeting of the Brough Agricultural Society took place and eleven years later the committee extended the area so as to include the whole of the East and West Wards. The Stainmore Society was started in 1895 the Shows being held at Mouthlock.