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Accounts: December 1555 - December 1557

Pages 159-166

St Martin-in-The-Fields: the Accounts of the Churchwardens, 1525-1603. Originally published by [s.n.], [s.l.], 1901.

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Citation:

December 1555 - December 1557

Thys ys the Accompte off vs Frauncis Dymblebye And wyll'm Delaheye, Churche wardens of the parrishe of Saynct Martyns in the ffeldes, besides charinge Crosse in the Countye off midd' Elect, and Chosyn to contynue as wardens, ffrom the ffeaste of the Natyvitie of or lorde god, in the year of the same, one thowsande, ffyve hondrethe, ffyftye & ffyve, in the Seconde and thyrde yearis of the Raigns of or Soveraigne lorde and ladye, Phyllip and Marye by the grace of god Kynge and Quene of Englond, Spayne, ffraunce, bothe Sycell's, Jerusalem, and yrelonde, Deffendors of the ffaythe, Archdukes of Awstrige, Dukes of Burgoyne, Myllan and brabant Countis of harspurge, fflaunders and Tyroll. Vnto the ffeaste of the Natyvytie of or lorde god, in the yeare of the same, one thowsande ffyve hondrethe ffyftye and Seaven, and in the fforthe and ffyvethe yearis of or saide Soveraigne and ladye, That is to saye for the space off two whole yearis, to be fullye complete and endid, Off all and Synguler or Receptes, and paymentes, and other ordenarye Chargis specfyed, and conteyned in this or Accompte, As by the Declarac'on hearof more playnely Dothe Appere, as hearafter ensewethe.

The Receptes ffor Buryalles and knylles wch we have Receaved in the ffyrste and Seconde yearis off or Charge.

In primis ffor the breakenge of the grounde in the Churche for mystres lyzarde (fn. 1) at hyr buryall vjs viijd
Item for the great bell knyll xijd
Item for the beere Clothe ijd
It' for the buryall of larrance tyler n'l
It' for the buryall of Robert Nusam ijs ijd
It' at the monethes mynde of Nych'as Starkeye iiijd
It' at the buryall of Jone ffyfe, Thom's snowe, wm kyrbye & Thom's lee n'l
It' at the buryall of Edye barnes vjs viijd
It' at the buryall of mystres Anne Sturton xiiijd
It' at the buryall of Robert Jones xxijd
It' at the buryall of wyll'm Dutton iijs iiijd
It' at the buryall of lawrencums, (fn. 2) Elizabethe Hewyck, Alys macknell Davye ffesye, and wyll'm Depon n'l
It' at the buryall of Anthonye vrsewe xijd
It' at the buryall of x'p'ofer lalande iijs vjd
It' at the buryall of Jullyan at mr ffosters (fn. 3) xviijd
It' at the buryall of Alys parrot, Jane Johnson, & barbara mussage n'l
It' at the buryall of Sr Humfrey fforster knight (fn. 4) ijs iijd
It' at the buryall of wyll'm Sturtwen xd
It' at the buryall of Bryan byrt, margaret beamonde, mary Jones and Jone Atkynson n'l

Recepts

Item Receaved more at the buryall of John blackburne xviijd
Item At the buryall of Mr Wm Smytweke xs viijd
Item at the buryall of Mr Thomson ijd
Item at the buryall of Alys wood ijd
It' at the buryall of Margaret Rycardes, Alis Johnson, Edwr Humfreye Henry Atkynson, and Thomas Phyllipps n'l
Item at the buryall of Robert Smythe ijd
Item at the buryall of Thomas Cole vijs xd
Item at the buryall of John ffranklyn, for the waste of ffower torchis and for the hearse clothe ijs xd
Item at the buryall of Mr Hall vijs xd
It' at the buryall of Rychard Dutton, Rich' Cockson, and grace wall n'l
Item at the buryall of Nycholas Charlett ijs ijd
Item at the buryall of Adryan welton xd
Item at the buryall of Mystris ventrye ixs ixd
Item at the buryall of Dorothy weston xs
Item at the buryall of Agnes mayre vijs xd
Item at the buryall of John Dyx iiijs ijd
It' at the buryall of R' webster, Robert penythorne, John Coomys (fn. 5), peerse sheddwater, Elyzabethe mowlton (fn. 6) & Elynor Ruston n'l
It' at the buryall of Barthelmewe Allsace (fn. 7) vsijd
It' at the buryall of Wyll'm Stevenson ixs ijd
It' at the buryall of Martha golightlye ijs xd
It' at the buryall of Master John Dodge (fn. 8) xixd
It' at the buryall of Jone partrige Rauffe shelley, Elyzabeth bymynge, (fn. 9) olyver (fn. 10)Houghton, John Awsten, Nych'as gryffyn n'l
It' at the buryall of Rychard Button xxijd
Item at the buryall of Jamys button ijd
Item at the buryall of Rober yngleson iijs ijd
Item at the buryall of katheren Hall viijs xd
Item at the buryall of Mr Pyster iiijd
It' at the buryall of Elyzabethe Smythe, Agnes goldhurste, & margaret kyrby (fn. 11) n'l
Item at the buryall of Thomas Whashe xiiijd
Item at the buryall of Henry Charlton ijd
Item at the buryall of Jone Hamden iiijd
Item at the buryall of Andrewe Horseley ijd
It' at the buryall of Annes Cassent (fn. 12), and Jamys Jennyngs n'l
It' at the buryall of Jone Clayse (fn. 13) iiijs ijd
It' at the buryall of John wyll'ms, John Cooper, Cosmon mondye, (fn. 14) Chrystyan woodnett, and Jone graye n'l
Sum' pagine—vli vs
Item Receaved at the buryall of Randall Dyxon iiijs xjd
It' at the buryall of Elyzabethe Jenkyns, Elyzabetha mylton, John Cumber, (fn. 15) Jamys boyes, (fn. 16) and Elyzabethe holte n'l
Item at the buryall of Mr Rede ijs ijd
Item at the buryall of John perte ijs ijd
It' at the buryall of Annes Cassenet & Jamys Jennyngs (fn. 17) n'l
Item at the buryall of Gryffyn ffloode (fn. 18) xviijd
Item at the buryall of Nycholas Rego (fn. 19) xijd
(fn. 20)Item at the buryall of Mystres Pyrrye vijs xd
Item at the buryall of John bynlye (fn. 21) iijs ijd
Item at the buryall of Elyzabethe kytchyn iiijs vjd
Item at the buryall of Wyll'm Thomas xviijd
It' at the buryall of Davy Jones, Robert wyll'ms & hys wyffe n'l
Item at the buryall of Alys Delaheye xiiijd
Item at the buryall of Mr tylar xiiijd
Item at the buryall of Joan graye vjd
It' at the buryall of wyll'm Smythe, Jone gurnard, (fn. 22) and John power n'l
Item at the buryall of Margaret kyrbye (fn. 23) iiijd
Item for the herse clothe at the buryall of John Sponge ijd
It' ffor the buryall of Ellyn Awstyne ijd
Item at the buryall of mr Shyrlock (fn. 24) xxiijd
It' at the buryall of Thomas Hyll, and John Stanto n'l
Item at the buryall of Jone woodcock ijd
Item at the buryall of Elyzabethe wharton vijs xd
Item at the buryall of Elyzabethe porter vijs xd
Item at the buryall of henry veysye (fn. 25) iijs iiijd
Item at the buryall of Emme Runkhorne xijs
Item at the buryall of Thom's bateson vjs ijd
(fn. 26)Item at the buryall of Dorothy Whelar xijd
Item at the yearis mynde of mystres mary ffynche for ij tapers iiijd
Item at the buryall of my lady tyrrall (fn. 27) ijs xjd
Item for the black Clothe that laye vppon mystres portor xijd
Item at the buryall of mr Sturton (fn. 28) xviijd
Item at the buryall of Jone poore ijd
Item at the buryall of Humfrey ffoster xxd
Item at the buryall of John Staunton xviijd
S'm' pagine—iiijli xixd
Sum'a totalis of the Receptes ffor buryalles theas two yearis Amowntethe the Sum off xli xixs iiijd
Gathered at the ffower quarter Dayes ffor the Clerke and Sextens wagis and ffor the pewis in theas two yearis of this our Accompte xvjli ixs vjd
Item gathered more in theas two yearis of this or Accompte at Easter in token [money iijli viijs vjd ob'
Item Receaved of Mr Doctor Huyck ffor two yearis Rent for the Chamber over the gate in the Churche lane xiijs iiijd
Item Receaved more for the Roode lofte (fn. 29), as yt Apperethe by the books of wch was gathered of the paryshyoners of the same parrishe [partyclers xiijli iijs jd
Sum' pagine—xxxiijli xiiijs vd ob'
The Sum totall of the Receptes of theas two yearis, As before Apperethe by the partycu lers, Amowntethe to the sum of xliiijli xiijs ixd ob'
Expencis Chargis Dysbursed and paide, ffor the Church vse in the ffyrst and Seconde yearis of this Accompte, whearof the Aforesaide Accomptantes Do Demawnde to be Alowed, As partyculerlye hearafter ffollowethe. videlicet

Ordenarye chargis

Inprimis to the Clerke for his two yearis wagis in the tyme of this our Accompte and Chardge viijli
Item paide to the Sexten for his two yearis wagis in the same tyme iiijli
Item paide to the Clerkes wyffe for wasshenge, and skowrenge of the churche geare theas two yearis xvjs
Item paide to wyll'm waters for kepenge and skowrenge of the harneis theas two yearis xs

Laide owte in or ladys quarter in the ffyrst year of or Chardge

In primis paide to will'm parke for helpenge John Dallys to mende the pewis in the Churche xxd
Item paide to the Sexton for iiij daies worke at vjd the Daye ijs
Item paide to shedwater for iiij Daies worke at xd the daye iiijs iiijd
Item paide to his laborar for ij Daies at vijd the Daye xiiijd
Item paide for thre lode of lyme ijs viijd
Sum' pagine of the layengs owte xiijli xvjs xd

Expencis

Item paide more in the same quarter to shedwater for A Day and an Half xvd
Item paide to hys laborar for A Day and an Halffe xd
Item to Andrewe Weston, and John Dallys for inlargenge the pewis in ye Churche xxs vd
Item to Henry Smythe bryckleyer, and to his laborar for A daye & an half xxijd ob'
Item for the holy water stock (fn. 30) that stondethe at the Churche Doore wth yespryncle ijs iiijd
Item paide for A lode of lyme xijd
Item paide to John barnes Coller maker ffor bell ropes vs ixd
Item for mendinge of the Challyce, and Sensors xijd
Item paide to the Organe maker ffor his ffee this quarter xijd
Item for wyer (fn. 31) to mende the organes wth, and for hys labor xijd

Mydsomer quarter in the same yeare

In primis paide to Robert pennythorne the yonger for the fframe of the Roode lofte vli xvijs
Item paide for the Carvinge off the Roode wth the Marye and John (fn. 32) iijli
Item for an hondrethe and ffyve and twenty ffoote of boorde vs
Item for viij Syngle quarters, and thre Doble iijs vjd
It' for two hondrethe of Syx penny nayles xd
It' C of ffowre penny naylles iiijd
It' ffor half an hondr' of Dooble tennpenny naylles vjd
It' ffor CC of thre penny naylles vd
It' ffor the Carpenters wagis vjs
It' paide to wyll'm Hopwood smythe for two hookes wth theyr haspes to staye Marye and John vjd
Item for two Dayes makynge of the skaffolde xxd
Item for an hondr' of Syx penny naylls vd
Item ffor tenn penny naylls ijd
It' paide to Sr Humfrey fforster for Elme boorde for the Roode lofte iijs
It' for an hondr' and thre quarters of ynche boorde for the same ixs
It' to thre laborars for ffyve Dayes for makynge the skaffolde at vjd the daye vijs vjd
Item paide more for hallf an hondrethe of boordes xxd
Item ffor A Dooble quarter of beche iiijd
Item ffor iiijxx (fn. 33) Doble tenn penny naylles for the Roode viijd
It' to Robert penythorne thelder for boords, quarters, and lathes for ye Roode lofte xxijs xd
Item to the Clerke for two bonchis of lathe for the same xxd
Item to John Dallys for ffowre Days worke iiijs
Item ffor naylls at Sondry tymes ijs jd
Item to wyll'm hopwood for a hooke of yron ijd
Item for naylles and spryggs (fn. 34) at Sondry tymes vjs jd
It' to wyll'm hopwood for the staye barr for the Roodeloft, & ij garnets, (fn. 35) for ye [queredore ijs vd
It' payde for a busshell of hear (fn. 36) vd
Item paide for palme on palmesondaye vjd
Sum' pagine—xiiijli xvs jd ob'
Item paide more in the same quarter for A sack of Coles on Ester even (fn. 37) vijd
Item ffor wax and makynge of wax at Easter ixs viijd
Item paide to the Clerke for two nights watchinge the Sepulchre xijd
Item to hym for the Ringars when the quenis grace cam to St Jamys (fn. 38) iiijd
Item to the Clerke for Settenge bylls vppon the pewis (fn. 39) xijd
It' in the p'cessyon Dayes for breade wyne, Aele & strewenge herbes iijs xjd
It' p'd on Corpus Christi Daye for iiij staves for the Canapye, for strawenge herbs, and ffor poynts xjd
It' to Gyllam watyer for mendenge the greate bell ijs vjd
It' paide to the Chaundeler for two torche staves and thre tapers for the Roode loffte vijs xjd
Item paide for mendenge of the Organes xxjd
Item paide to hym that plaide on the organs thre Days vjd
Item paide to hym that kepethe the organs for his ffee xijd
Item paide for fowre banner staves xxijs
It' paide to the Sexten for bromes ijd
Item for an hondrethe of Syxpenny naylls to mende the pewys wth vd
Item to the Carvar of the ymage of St martynne (fn. 40) xxs
Item to Andrewe Weston for mendynge, and settenge vp of the powlpet and the lather wth A longe foote stole for the vycar vjs

Mighelmas quarter in the same year.

Item paide to the Sexten ffor bromys jd
Item to the plom'er for iiijlli of Sowlder to mende A gutter at vijd the ll'i ijs vjd, ffor wood for hys ffyer iiijd, to the plom' & his laborar viijd iijs vjd
Item for iiij staffe torchis at the buryall of Mr smytheweke iijs iiijd
Item for two Candlestycks, for two branchis for mr haells buryall iijs iiijd
Item for the staye to go vpp in to the powlpet xvjd, ffor two Clamps of yron to ffasten the powlpett to the pyller vjd, and for Diggenge the whole and setteng the poste in the grounde, and pavinge thearof ijs ijd
It' paide to the Carpenter for mendenge of the bells ixs
Item to the whelewright for makynge of two lathers (fn. 41) ijs iiijd
Item ffor hollye and yvye at x'pemas iiijd
Item paide for Candles iiijd
Item paide to the organ maker for his ffee this quarter xijd
Item ffor A pownde of Syses for the braunche in the Roode lofte xijd

Chrystmas quarter in the same year.

Item paide to Randell kyrbye for a lode of sande vjd, for D'd' C of lyme iijs ijd to pave the Churche in sondry places to shedwater, for iij Dayes worke at xd the Daye mendenge the same ijs vjd, and to hys labor' for iij dais d'd' ijs vijs viijd
Item ffor an hondr' and an half of tyle at iiijs the C vjs
Item to Barnes the Coller maker for xxviijlli of bell Rope and for a bell bawdryk viijs
It' to shedwater & his laborar for layenge the stone vppon Mres thrustons (fn. 42) grave ixd
Sum' pagine—vli xjs iiijd
Item paide more the same Daye ffor A holy water sprynckle ijd
Item for mendenge the Cope and vestyment, to the broderar ijs
Item paide to the Ryngers when the quene cam (fn. 43) iiijd
Item paide to the Sexten ffor browmys ijd

Paide owte in or layde quarter in the Seconde year of this or Accompte.

In primis ffor thre ells of Clothe for the Roode (fn. 44) at vijd the ell xxjd
Item paide for the payntenge thearof xxd
It' paide for A pece of Corde to pull vp the clothe iiijd
Item for nayles for mendenge the pewis and loffte iijd
Item to Andrewe weston for mendenge thearof and other things ijs vjd
Item paide for palme and bromys iiijd
Item paide to the Organe maker for his ffee this quarter xijd
Item paide for the ffoote of the Crosse to stonde vppon the Aulter xijd
Item paide to the players (fn. 45) vppon Ester Daye in the morenenge xvjd
Item paide for Aqua vite, and Rosyn, and for naylls for the skaffolde vd
Item for Carryenge the boordes to the Pallaice iiijd
Item to the Clerke for watchinge of the Sepulchre, & for naylls to dresse yt xxd
Item ffor ffyve ells of lockeram (fn. 46) to make an Awbe iijs vjd
Item paide for the makynge thearof viijd
Item for breade on monday in the p'cessyon weke (fn. 47) xxiijd, A gallon of wyne xijd two gallons & d'd' of Ale and beere xd, ffor herbs iiijd, to the Ringers iiijd, on wens Daye for breade xviijd, A gallon of wyne xijd, iij gallons of beere & Ale xijd, for Erbes ijd, and to the Ringers iiijd, Sum' viijs
Item paide to the glasyer for mendenge certeyne wyndowes iijs iiijd
Item paide vppon Corpus Christi Daye (fn. 48) ffor fflowers, and herbs xd
Item to the Clerke for hallowenge of the same Awbe vjd

Mydsomer quarter in the same yeare.

Item paide to the Sexten for bromes ijd
Item paide to the organe maker ffor his ffee xijd
Item paide for A Rope for the bellowes belongynge to the Organes jd
Item paide for garlandes on Saynct Martyns Daye (fn. 49) viijd

Myghelmas quarter in the same year.

Item paide to Gawdy and his laborar for pavinge in the Churche xxijd
Item paide to the organe maker for his ffee xijd
Item paide for mendenge of A Surplesse vjd
It' for greas for the bells—ijd, and for naylls for the bells—ijd, S'm' iiijd
It' to Andrewe weston for mendenge of certeyne pewis, the Roodeloft and makynge of A beere wth the Coffyn xxijs vjd
It' to the Coller maker for xxvijlli of bell rope vijs
Sum' pagine—iijli vijs ijd
Item payde more the same quarter for A bawdryck for one of the bells viijd
Item to Andrewe weston for makynge of Socketts for ye bellropes, and for naylls xijd
Item to penythorne senior, for the Clerks Dynners, on Saynct martyns Daye (fn. 50) iijs iiijd
Item to Gawdye for pavinge of Mystres Pyrris grave viijd
Item to two Carpenters for mendenge of the greate bell xijd, for ij plaets viijd and for a quarter jd, and for naylls iijd, Sum' ijs

Chrystmas quarter in the same year.

Item paide to the Clerke for holy and yvye Agaynst Chrystmas and Candles xijd
Item paide to the Sexten for browmes ijd
Item to the Organe maker for mendinge of the organes and for hys ffee xxd
Item to a bryckleyer for pavinge in ye Church xiiijd & to his laborar vjd xxd
Item to a Carpenter for makyng of A newe whele for the forebell xs
Item for the ffetherenge of thre sheaf of Arrowes (fn. 51) iijs ixd
Item to Robert penythorne the Elder for makynge A Coffyn for the beere (fn. 52) ijs iijd
Item to wyll'm gawdye, for pavinge of Runkehorns wyves grave & to his laborar ixd
It' for A lode of lyme, and another of Sande xviijd
It' for mendenge of A cope, and a vestyment xijd
It' to mr keyme for mendenge of A kaye, for the steple doore, and for A pynn for one of the bells xvjd
Item to the Chaundeler for wax as Apperethe by his byll of p'tyculers vijs xjd ob'
Item to the wax Chaundeler for wax that went to the paskall ye last Easter iijs
Item to the skryvener for the ingrossenge and makynge of this or Accompte and for the partchement for the same vjs viijd
Sum' pagine—ls ixd ob'
Summa totalis of the Receptes Anowntethe to xliiijli xiijs ixd ob'
And the totall Sum of the Expencys of theas two yearis whearof they Desyer to be Alowed Amownteth to xlli xvd
So Remayne the saide Accomp tants charged wth the sum off iiijli xijs vjd wch they be Redy to Delyver iiijli xijs vjd

And Delyvered to John Colebrande and will'm wateres the saide sum of—iiijli xijs vjd together wth the Inventorye of the Churche stuffe

[Signed] p'me Thoma' Wellys vicariu'. John golightlye [mark] John Best Thomas Binney
wm thomson [mark] p'me Joh'em gowghe Thomas ffowl'r
p'me Johne'
wylcockes

clerkes wages vngathered xxxvjs vijd spero

Footnotes

  • 1. Feb. 5th, 155/54, Joanna Lezarde (R.)
  • 2. Lawrencius, March 21st, 155/56 (R.), vide Middlesex County Records, vol. I, 21st March 2 and 3 P. & M. Coroner's Inquest on Lawrence Awnsell, Cobler. Verdict that:—on March 20th, L. A. and his wife Elena had a quarrel, in which she, by mischance, stabbed him.
  • 3. Sept. 11th, 1556, "Juliana uxor Mr. Foster" (R.)
  • 4. Sept. 25th, 1556 (R.), cf. Machyn's Diary (Camden Society). "...... [was buried at Saint] Martens be-syd Charyngcrosse ser [Humphrey Forster] Knyght of [Berk]shyre, with ij goodly whytt branchys, xxiiij stayffe torchys, and iiij tapurs ...... a pesse, and with a harold of armes with hy[s coat armour] and ys pennon of armes and ys cott armur, targatt, and sword and elmett, and crest, and vj dosen of scocheons; and the chyrche hangyd withe blake and armes, and many morners."
  • 5. Smythyke (R.)
  • 6. Jana Comesse (R.), i.e. Jane Combes?
  • 7. Milton, July 10th, 1557 (R.)
  • 8. Alsaphe (R.)
  • 9. vide Machyn's Diary, 22nd May, 1557 "was bered master Doge......gren cloth at sant Martens in the feld be-syd Charyng-crose, with ij whyte branchys and......and ij dosen of skochyons, and dyvars mornars."
  • 10. Aug. 6th, 157, Eliz: Benynge (R.)
  • 11. Oct. 1557, peste (R.), two others are similarly annotated in July.
  • 12. Agnis Cassam (R.), vide p. 161, n. 3.
  • 13. Joanna Close (R.)
  • 14. Cosma Osmud nig.more (R.)
  • 15. Not in the Register.
  • 16. Kember (R.)
  • 17. Beese (R.)
  • 18. Already given, vide p. 160, n. 8.
  • 19. Lloyde (R.)
  • 20. Nicholaus rego. nig'more (R.)
  • 21. qy. Nov. 1557, Joh: Bickeley (R.)
  • 22. Joanna Gonnart, Feb. 1557/8 (R.)
  • 23. Oct. 27, marked "peste" (R.)
  • 24. Rowland Storlocke (R.)
  • 25. Phesye (R.)
  • 26. M'r'a yele Tarrell (R.)
  • 27. Machyn's Diary, p. 165—"the keper of the White halle, and brodur to the Lord Sturtun, and he was reyseyver of all copes of clothe of gold that was taken out of all chyrches, and he dyd delevered them unto serten parryches agayne to them that cowld know them, the wych wher taken away by kyng Edward the vjth......and now when that good qwyne Mare cam to the crown, she lett evere parryche for to have them agayne......yf they were note gyffyn to odur places in the reyme of England."
  • 28. Not in the Register.
  • 29. vide p. 156.
  • 30. vide note 3, p. 62.
  • 31. Wire.
  • 32. vide note 1, p. 12.
  • 33. i.e. 80.
  • 34. A kind of nail.
  • 35. Hinges.
  • 36. qy. Horse-hair for mixing in plaster.
  • 37. vide p. 12, note II.
  • 38. Machyn's Diary, 19 Sep. 1556, the Queen came from Croydon.
  • 39. The owners' names perhaps, or some kind of notice.
  • 40. A natural ornament in days of Roman usage; there is no record that St. Martin ever had an altar in the church.
  • 41. i.e. ladders.
  • 42. Mrs. Thruston Mayre probably, vide p. 160, and cf. pp. 78, 158.
  • 43. On the 22nd Dec. 1556, Mary went from St. James to Lambeth, and so to Greenwich "to kepe her Cryustynmus ther." (Machyn's Diary).
  • 44. cf. note 5, p. 154. The hire of a cloth is there next to an item about an archdeacon's visitation at St. Clements. The churchwardens may have been indicted for not providing the cloth.
  • 45. cf. pp. 28, 60.
  • 46. viae note 6, p. 158.
  • 47. Rogation week when the bounds of the parish were "beaten" or "perambulated."
  • 48. June 17th, 1557; cf. Machyn for a procession made by the King and Queen.
  • 49. This item must refer to the Festival of the Translation of St. Martin, July 4.
  • 50. Nov. 11th.
  • 51. Part of the parish stock of arms.
  • 52. The coffin and bier were usual pieces of church furniture; vide n. 3, p. 106.