A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.
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Earliest mention : Stow tells us that the Castle was originally built by Baynard, a Nobleman who came over with William the Conqueror and died in the reign of William Rufus (S. 61 and 366). Possibly the Bainiard mentioned in Domesday Book as holding 3 hides of land in the Vill of St. Peter, of the Abbot of Westminster.
Forfeited by Wm. Baynard 1111 and then given to Robert Fitz Richard, son of Gilbert de Clare, who was succeeded by Walter. Walter was succeeded by Robert Fitz Walter, and, according to Stow, the Castle remained in the same family for more than a century.
In 1275 licence was granted to Robert Fitz Walter to sell Castle Baynard with the appurtenances in dykes, etc. (Cal. P.R. Ed. I. 1272-81, p. 98), and in 6 Ed. I. it was in the hands of the Archbishop of Canterbury (Ch. I. p.m.) and was granted by him to the King, 1278 (Cal. Fine Rolls, p. 95). In the same year the Friars Preachers obtained a grant of the site for the erection of their church, cloisters, etc. (Cal. Chart. Rolls. II. 211).
After this time a second tower of Castle Baynard seems to have been erected further east, but by whom it is not easy to ascertain. In 1338 a grant was made to Wm. de Ros, of Hamelak, of a tower on the Thames by the place called "Chastel Baynard", which Edward II. caused to be built (Cal. P.R. 1338-40, p. 6). But no name is given to this tower. The site of this second Baynard's Castle is ascertained from a grant 31 H. VI. made to Edmund, Earl of Richemond of a house in London called " Baynardescastell" by Pollesquarfe, with all appurtenances, gardens and houses (Cal. P.R. H. VI. I452-61, p. 79).
In 1536 the Castle was assured to the Duke of Richmond, 28 H. VIII. (L. and P. H. VIII. X. 460), and in 1540 the mansion or castle of Baynard, called Baynardes Castell, was granted to Anne of Cleeves in consideration of marriage (ib. XV. p. 52).
In 1670 one moiety of the site of the "mannar" of Baynard's Castle was demised to Henry and Edmund Pollexfen. The site was described as in the parishes of St. Andrew Wardrobe and St. Bennetts Paule's wharfe, and contained in length 205 ft. and in breadth on the north side 42 ft. and on the south side 40 ft., bounded on the west by a new street leading from Thames Street to Baynard's Castle Bridge, one half of the new street being included in the demise (L.C.C. deeds, Harben bequest, 1600-1700, No.195).
During excavations made in 1890, oaken piles were found, said to be Roman, and to have formed part of the Arx Palatina, which terminated the southern wall at this point (Journal Brit. Arch. Assoc. xlvi. 173-81).
Baynard's Castle Lane
Baynard's Castle Stairs
Baynard's Castle Wharf
South out of Thames Street at Baynard's Castle, in Castle Baynard Ward (W. Stow, 1722). In the parish of St. Andrew Wardrobe and St. Bennetts, Paul's Wharf, part of and belonging to a place called Baynard's Castle, containing on the north side 40 ft., on the west side fronting a new street leading from Thames Street to the river, and on the south side extending to the river, in length from north to south 106 ft. and in breadth along the south side from near Mr. Barwell's Tower to Baynard Castle Staires, 45 ft. 32 Chas. II. 1680 (L.C.C. Deeds, Harben Bequest, 1600-1700, No. 11).
The site is easily identified, as being on the boundary of the two parishes, and lies west of the present Castle Baynard Wharf, at the southern end of Addle Hill. The site is occupied by a Timber Wharf and Yard in Rocque. The Staires seem to have lain to the west of the wharf. The new street may have been Anchor Lane, afterwards Anchor Wharf (q.v.).
A house in the parish of St. Martin Orgar in St. Martin Orgar lane, in Candlewick Ward, so called as pertaining unto them of that familie. Thos. Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, lodged there (S. 224).
Rent of house called the "Beades" in Birchen Lane for poor of parish of St. Edmond the King and Martyr (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 157). Perhaps originally a "beades" house, or almshouse, the inmates of which were to offer prayers for the soul of the founder.
Beam (The King's or Great)
Foreign merchants were, by the customs of the City, bound to weigh their heavy goods at the King's beam or balance, and in 1269, it being discovered that they were evading this regulation and making use of their own balances, the enactment was enforced against them by fine and imprisonment (Lib. de Ant. Leg. p. 118).
Beam (The Small)
Used for weighing small goods, those dealt in by the pound weight. It belonged to the Chamber of the City, and was let out by the citizens to ferm. at an annual rent, 1291 (Cal. L. Bk. B. p. 55, 1299-1300) (ib. C. p. 56).
In 1310 it was let out to Richard de Redynge at the King's request, but in 1313 he made complaint that the receipts had fallen off and that people would not bring woven and dyed silks to be weighed (Cal. L. Bk. D. p. 227).
Capital messuage so called in parish of St. Michall in Woodestrete in the ward of Crepulgate and two other messuages adjoining, one between the capital messuage west, and a tenement late of Gilbert Egleston, east, the other between the capital messuage east and a tenement called "le Haberdashers Rentis," west, and abutting on the highway south and on the capital messuage north. This property lately belonged. to Wm., late Viscount Beamonte, and Lord Bardolfe, 1531 (L. and P. H. VIII. Vol. V. p. 255).
If the Haberdashers' Rents here mentioned can be identified with Haberdashers' Hall, then Beamondis Inne must have occupied part of the site of what is now 31 to 45 Gresham Street, a carpet manufacturer's premises.
This tenement was devised by James Mounford in 1544 to the parson and churchwardens of St. George Botolph Lane and the churchwardens receive annually £10 10s. from the Treasurer of St. Thomas's Hospital for the poor of the parish, it being discovered after the Fire of 1666 that this sum had been paid to them for many years out of three messuages called the White Bear in Botolph Lane, at that time in the hands of the Corporation of London (End. Ch. 1903, p. 1), as Governors of the Hospital. The house was burnt in the Fire and rebuilt, 1671.