A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.
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Cloister Court, Blackfriars
West out of Curriers' Row, Ireland Yard, Blackriars, in Farringdon Ward Within.
First mention : "Cloyster Court" (O. and M. 1677).
Other names : "Gloucester Court" (Strype, ed. 1755-Elmes, 1831).
This is merely a corruption of the original name, and is not given in the maps.
The court is described under this name by Malcolm in his "Londinium Redivivum," as a small square surrounded by wretched passages, formed by sheds, wooden houses and walls, containing a fragment or two of the old monastery of the Blackfriars. Near it is a small burial ground, with a pointed arch in one of the walls. Eight steps on the north side led to Joye's free school (II. p. 367).
So named from the cloisters of the Blackfriars.
Cloister Court, Temple
See Cloisters (The).
See Bartholomew's (St.) Cloisters.
On the south side of the Temple Church (L.C.C. Lists, 1901-12). In Tanfield Court (q.v.). Cloisters now form one side of the Court.
"Cloister Court" in O. and M. 1677-Boyle, 1799.
Out of Glass house Yard, Water Lane Whitefriars, in Farringdon Ward Without (Strype, ed. 1755).
Not named in the maps.
Perhaps named after the Cloisters of the Whitefriars monastery.
East out of West Smithfield at No. 59 to Kiughorn Street (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Without.
First mention : A tradesman's token, dated 1657 (Burn, 52).
Pye Powder Court held there during the first three days of Bartholomew Fair (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 285).
Arms of Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick, on one of the houses, said to have been in residence, 1795 (Gent. Mag. Lib.).
Recent proposal to pull it down and widen the thoroughfares opposed on account of the interest attaching to the street, being one of the oldest left in the City and retaining an appearance of antiquity.
Derives its name from the clothiers and drapers who inhabited it in former times, and attended the famous Bartholomew Fair.
South out of
First mention : O.S. 188-51.
Cloth Workers' Court
North out of White Friers, in Farringdon Ward Without (O. and M. 1677).
See Paved Alley and Ashentree Court, Temple Street.
Out of Dunning's Alley, in Bishopsgate Ward Without (Strype, ed. 1755-Boyle, 1799).
Not named in the maps.
On the east side of Houndsditch, north and south of Cutler Street. In Portsoken Ward (L.C.C. List of Streets, 1912).
Earliest mention : O.S. 1848-51 ed.
In 1831 the Exchange seems to have been in Rosemary Lane (Elmes' Topog. Dict.)
On the east side of Houndsditch, north of the Clothes' Exchange. It seems to be entered through Phill's Buildings. In Portsoken Ward (Bacon's map, 1912).
Earliest mention : O.S. 5 ft. ed. 1875.
The adjacent streets are largely occupied by clothiers and dealers in old clothes, etc.
South out of Cutler Street at No. 8, the second turning east from Houndsditch. In Portsoken Ward (P.O. Directory).
Former names : "Crab Court" (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 27, and in 1755 ed.). "Carter Street," first in Rocque, 1746, and again in O.S. 1848 ed. to July, 1906. "Carters Court" (Horwood, 1799 to Elmes, 1831). "Carters Rents" (Boyle, 1799).
Shown in O. and M. map, 1677, but not named.
Carter Street seems to have been erected 1734. Several of the houses in the street bore the arms of the Cutlers' Company.
Called Clothier Street first July, 1906, the street being occupied for the most part by clothiers and dealers in old clothes, etc.
See Drapers' Company.
Formed by the incorporation of the Shearmen and Fullers into one art or mystery to be called the Clothworkers, 19 H. VIII. (Herbert, II. p. 651).
Possess ordinances of their own Company and of the Shearmen and Fullers (ib.).
Samuel Pepys was Master, 1677 (ib. 662).
The ordinances of the Shearmen, 1452, are preserved in the Court of the Commissory of London (Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. IV. pp. 2 and 8), and set out, ib. p. 35.
On the east side of Mincing Lane (P.O. Directory). In Tower Ward.
Earliest mention : Purchased 34 H. VI. 1455, by the Fullers (Clothworker's Records, lib. 9, fol. 13, quoted by Herbert, II. p. 661).
A small building of red brick, partly destroyed in the Fire, being the boundary of the conflagration (ib. and Povah, p. 301).
Described by Hatton, 1708, after its rebuilding (Herbert, II. 661).
Again rebuilt 1856-60 (Povah, p. 301). S. Angell, Arch.
The remains of a Roman hypocaust were found here at a depth of 18 feet in 1824.
See Cloister Court.
See Bartholomew's (St.) Cloisters.
Clun's Alley, Yard
East out of Grub Street, in Cripplegate Ward Without (O. and M. 1677-Boyle, 1799).
Leading into Harp Alley, Moor Lane. "Lunds Alley" in Strype.
Now Harp Court (q.v.).
Little or nothing is known about the Cnihtegild, though Mr. Coote (Trans. Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc. V. pp. 477-93), Dr. Sharpe (Cal. Letter Book C. Introduction, pp. xvi.-xxvi.) and others have indulged in a good deal of speculation upon its constitution and objects, Mr. Loftie even assuming without any apparent authority that it was at one time the governing body of the City (London, p. 30).
It must be pointed out, however, that although the first members of the Gild are styled" Milites regi et regno multum amabiles," and although their successors of the 12th century presently to be mentioned are called "burgenses Londonie ex illa antiqua nobilium Militum Anglorum progenie," the term "cniht" was not used in the Anglo-Saxon period as the equivalent of the knight of the age of chivalry. It meant, first, "a lad," secondly, "an attendant or servant." The first instance given in the N.E.D. of its use as a military servant or follower is in A.D. 1100.
It is possible therefore that the Gild as originally constituted may have been either an association of young noblemen not yet of full estate, or of the personal attendants of various lords, who, although in those days regarded as of an inferior rank even to the thegns, nevertheless occupied positions of trust in their lords' households, and were not incapable of holding grants of lands from them (Kemble Cod. Dip. III. 49, 50 ; and Thorpe, Dip. Angi. 559, 560, 545). That such associations were in existence in other towns of importance in early days appears from various sources ; for instance, in a Canterbury charter granted by King Ealhere (860-66) the following signatures are appended amongst others as witnesses : "Ego Aethelstan et ingan (sic) burgware." "Ego Aethelhelm et cniahta gealdan" (Thorpe, Dip. Ang. p. 128) ; and in the Winchester Domesday mention is made of "chenictehalla ubi chenictes potabunt gildam suam et eam libere tenebunt de rege Edwardo" (Gross, Gild Merchant, I. p. 188).
The story as told in the Liber Trinitatis with its romantic conditions suggests a period long subsequent to the times of King Edgar, or even of King Cnut, and suggests that the grant of the land and soke may well have been made at a later date when the members of the Gild had attained to higher rank and influence.
For whatever the status of the original members of the Gild may have been, sufficient evidence is forthcoming to show that at the date of the grant by the Cnihtengild to the Priory of Holy Trinity the members of the Gild were men of influence and importance in the City, who had attained to the full rights of citizenship.
Three of them, viz.: Radulphus, filius Algody ; Osbertus Drinchepyn ; Hugo, filius Wulgari are mentioned in the MS. of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's (Liber L. ff. 47-50), printed in Price's Guildhall, p. 16 et seq., as in charge of three of the wards of the City in the early part of the 12th century. These wards have been identified as Bread Street, Vintry, and Queenhithe respectively (Beaven, I. p. 363).
Another member of the guild, Robertus filius Leostani accounts for the Weaver's Guild in 1130 (Pipe Roll, 31 H. I.).
Wyzo filius Leostanus is described as a goldsmith in a MS. D. and C. of St. Paul's, Liber L. ff. 27-31, in which he is a party to an agreement relating to the grant of part of the church of St. Anthony to his son John (12th century).
Edwardus Upcornhill was father-in-law of Gervase of Corahill, Justiciar and Sheriff of London.
What became of the Gild after the date of this grant does not appear, but as no records of its subsequent existence have been brought to light, it is reasonable to assume that the surrender of the property was coincident with the dissolution of the Gild, and that the necessity for its existence being regarded as at an end, it was formally dissolved, and thenceforth ceased to have any corporate existence.
For further details as to the grant and the property comprised in it, etc., See under Portsoken, Portsoken Ward, Trinity (Holy) Priory.
Coach and Horses Court, Wood Street
See Coach and Horses Yard.