A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Lawrence (St.) Pountney College
In 1334 John de Pulteney, Mayor 1333-4 and Alderman of Candlewick Ward, erected a chapel in honour of Corpus Christi and St. John the Baptist, adjoining the church of St. Lawrence in Candelwikestrete (Cal. P.R. Ed. III. 1334-8, pp. 60, 319) and founded a College there for a master and seven chaplains (S. 224).
Advowson of St. Lawrence church given to the Master, 1334 (Cal. P.R. Ed. III. 1334-8, p. 60). Also of church of All Hallows on the Cellar in Thames Street, by the Bishop of Winchester, 1336 (Hist. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. 2).
Lays Court, St. Katherine's
Le Neve Inn
Leaden Porch (The)
The demolition of some of the buildings surrounding the church of St. Michael, Crooked Lane, in 1831 for the formation of the approaches to the new London Bridge, brought to light the remains of an old crypt of the 12th century, too far east to occupy the site of the original church. It possibly formed the crypt of this mansion (Gent. Mag Lib. XVI. pp. 55 and 56).
In 1416 it was decreed that the tithes of the inn called the "Ledynporch" should go to St. Peter's Cornhill parish in exchange for certain benefits in the church to be given to the inhabitants (H. MSS. Com. 6th Rep. 408).
Before this property came into the hands of the Mayor and Commonalty and was converted into a market it had formed a considerable estate in private ownership, and was for some years in the possession of the Nevill family, although it seems probable that the hall may have been leased to the City authorities from an early period.
In 1315, 8 Ed. II., it was in possession of Dame Margaret de Neuill, licence being then given to her, to grant to her son Hugh de Nevill her hostell and "maysonns que le Gardyn rentes" and all other things belonging to the said hostel in the city of Loundr' "q'est appelle la sale de plum suz Cornhulle" saving to the said Margaret "les auouesons de les eglises en ladyte ville de Loundr' a tote sa uie qe sunt porcin3 al dyst hostel."
In 1320 the rent of a small garden adjoining the Leadenhall (aule plumbi) opposite the choir of St. Peter's Cornhill was taken by the Mayor for completion of the pavement appertaining to the court (curia) of the Leadenhall (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 119).
By 1411 it had passed into other hands and licence was given to Richard Whityngtone and others to assign to the Mayor and Commonalty the manor and place called "le ledenhalle" together with the advowsons of the churches of St. Peter de Cornhull and St. Margaret Patyns (Cal. L. Bk. I. p. 92, and Cal. P.R. 12 H. IV. 1408-13, p. 292).
In 1444, Katherine, late wife of John Carpenter, granted a right of way through a hostel and garden in the parish of St. Peter Cornhill to a Garner about to be erected by Simon Eyre, in exchange for a garden situate east of the ancient chapel adjoining. Sharpe says she held a lease of the property from the Mayor and Commonalty (Cal. L. Bk. K. p. 294 and note).
With reference to the suggestion that the hall may have been in the hands of the City authorities and may have been made use of for public purposes before the estate came into their possession, it is to be noted that in 1300-1 the Justices adjourned from the Guildhall to the "Sale de plom" to hear a suit of "oyer and terminer" there (Lib. de Antiquis Legibus, p. 249), and that the Commons assembled there armed ("atte Ledenhalle sure Cornhille"), 20 Ed. II. after the flight of the king, to make terms with the constable of the Tower (French Chr. of London, p. 54).
It is not clear from the references to the sale of Poultry at the Leadenhall in Liber Albus, I. p. 465, in Lib. Cust. I. 305, or in the Letter Books whether the market was held outside or inside the Leadenhall, indeed the references in the Liber Albus suggest that it was held outside, viz. at the "Carfukes" and at the "corner" of Leadenhall, but the Ordinance of the Cheesemongers in 1377 providing that foreigners bringing cheese and butter into the City should take them into the market of the Ledenhalle suggests that the market at that date may have been held inside the Hall as well as outside (L. Bk. H. f. lxii.), set out in Riley's Mem., p. 405.
It is possible that in earlier times the Hall itself may have been leased to the City for long periods and used for public purposes, although the fee simple of the whole estate remained in private hands.
Mentioned in 1444 (Cal. L. Bk. K. p.294). A fraternity of 60 priests besides other brethren and sisters founded in the Chapel by William Rouse and others in 1466, for celebration of divine service there for the benefit of the Market people (S. 157).
After the acquisition of the Leadenhall estate by the City in 1411, and the erection of the Granary in 1446, the Hall seems to have increased rapidly in importance. Besides being used for the weighing and sale of cloth and wool, it was ordained in 1488 that the assay of leather should be held there only (Cal. L. Bk. L. p. 251), and the petition of the citizens set out in Stow (p. 160) against the leasing of the Hall by the City shows the value they attached to its use for public purposes in the 16th century.
From this petition it appears that the Leadenhall was used at that time for storing munitions of war and timber for repairing the buildings of the Corporation, for the preparation of Pageants and triumphs and for market people bringing victuals to the City to have a standing place under cover (S. 160 and 161).
In addition to the above-mentioned uses we find : In 1622 it was enacted that all cutlery was to be sold at Leadenhall and nowhere else in the City (Remembrancia, p. 260), while it appears that shops and warehouses of freestone had been built there for the purpose (ib. 262).
The whole place was destroyed in the Great Fire in 1666, and after its rebuilding it is described by Strype in 1720 as a very large building of Freestone, wholly converted into a Market, with three Courts, the Beef Market at the north-east corner of Gracechurch Street properly Leadenhall, the Green Yard, with shops in the middle and on the south and west sides, and the Herb Market also with stalls (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 89).
Under the Act for the Improvement of Leadenhall Market, 1879-80, the old buildings, etc. were demolished and the first stone of the New Market was laid in 1881, with an area of about 26,900 ft., the principal entrance being out of Gracechurch Street.
The remains of a Roman building were discovered on the site in 1880, the walls extending east and west having been unearthed near Half Moon Passage in 1848, now covered by the avenue of the market along to Gracechurch Street. The principal wall was 12 ft. 7 in. in thickness, running 150 ft. in length, due east and west. It has been suggested that the building was a Roman forum or a basilica.
The church of St. Andrew Undershaft (See s.v.) is often styled in early records. "St. Andrew upon Cornhill," which would seem to suggest that that part of Leadenhall Street was then included in Cornhill.
Under No.71 was the crypt of the chapel of St. Michael, filled in and destroyed 1870. The discovery suggests that the level of the street has been considerably raised since the original foundation of the chapel.
In 1766, after the fire in Leadenhall Street, the remains were discovered of an old Gothic church, or of the crypt of the church, on the north side of Leadenhall Street at its junction with Bishopsgate Street, about 40 ft. long and 26 ft. wide (Gent. Mag. Lib. XV. 82).
It seems unlikely that this can be the crypt of the original church of St. Peter, Cornhill, as the remains suggest a church of later date than the original foundation, and there is no evidence as to the rebuilding of this church on a different site in the 12th or 13th centuries. On the other hand there are no records of any other church existing on or near this site in early times.
A very fine tessellated Roman pavement was found in this street opposite the eastern end of the portico of the East India House, 9 ft. 6 in. below the street level, and another 19 ft. below (R. Smith, 57).
Earlier and later forms, etc.: "Louerone lane," 1306 (Ct. H.W. I. 181). "Lyuerounelane," 1331 (ib. 367). "Liveronelane," 4 Ed. III. (Hust. Roll, 58, No. 36). "Lenur Lane," 1353 (Ct. H.W. I. 671). "Leveroune Lane," 27 Ed. III. (Hust. Roll 81, No. 100). "Lyver lane," 10 H. IV. (Hust. Roll 136, No. 80). "Lyyer lane," 23 H. VIII. (Cal. L. and M. Ft. of Fines, II. 38). "lither lane alias 'liver lane,' " 1604 (L.C.C. Deeds, Harben Bequest, 1600-1700, No. 196).
Derivation of name : In 15 H. VIII. 1523, before the Leathersellers' Company purchased the site of their new Hall within the precincts of the dissolved Priory of St. Helen's from the King, their Hall was situated on the site of these buildings (L. and P. H. VIII. III. Pt. 2, p. 1515), and their gardens are mentioned as abutting on the northern boundary of Drapers' Hall and Gardens in 35 H. VIII. 1543 (ib. XVIII. Pt. 1, p. 528).
They purchased the Hall and other buildings belonging to the dissolved Priory of St. Helen's (ib.) and erected almshouses in Little St. Helen's for the poor of the Company (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 107).
They afterwards rebuilt the Hall on the same site and it remained there until 1799, when it was taken down for the formation of St. Helen's Place and another hall erected further east on the present site 1820-2, Architect, W. F. Pocock (Cox, St. Helen's). (There is a description of the old Hall in Gent. Mag. Lib. XV. 296-8.)
Their gardens there are mentioned in 35 H. VIII. 1543 as abutting on the northern boundary of the Drapers' Hall and Gardens (ib. XVIII. Pt. 1, p. 528), and the Hall probably occupied the site of Leathersellers' Buildings, the present Copthall Avenue.
It is interesting to note that in 25 Eliz. 1584 the tenement of the Art of the Leathersellers in the parish of All Hallows in the Wall had been then lately divided into several tenements (Lond. I. p.m. III. p. 70).