A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.
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Nicholas (St.) New Fish Street, West Fish Street
Earliest mention: "St. Nicholas at Westfishstreet." " Westpiscariam," Rich. I. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1695). " St. Nicholas at Fish Street," 5 John (ib. A. 2493). " Fish Street " (Piscaria) in parish of" St. Nicholas Fish Street " (ib. A. 2496). " St. Nicholas at West Fish Street," H. III. (ib. A. 2725).
St. Nicholas in the Old Fish Market," 1309 (Ct. H.W. I. 206). " St. Nicholas of the Fish-market," 1210-6 (H. MSS. Corn. 9th Rep. 22). "St. Nicholas at New Fish Street" (ad novam piscariam) (Anc. Deeds. A. 2332). " St. Nicholas in noua pise," 13th century (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's, W.D. 12).
It seems most probable that these entries relate to St. Nicholas Cole Abbey, which stood in Old Fish Street, but as the parish of St. Nicholas Olave was also partly in the same street, it is impossible in some cases to state definitely to which of the two parishes the entries refer.
Nicholas (St.) Olave
Earliest mention: " Sci Nicholal Bernard," 1242-59 (MSS. D. and C. St. Paul's, W.D. 9, fo. 50). "St. Nichi Olaul," 1285 (ib. Lib. L. fo. 93). "Par' St. Nich quondam s'olaui. " 13th century (ib. W.D. 12). " St. Nicholas Olof," 1286 (Ct. H.W. I. 79). " St. Nicholas Bernard Olof," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. 230). " St. Nicholas Olaph" (Anc. Deeds, A. 2564). "SS. Nicholas and Olave," 1361 (Ct. H.W. II. 22 and 49).
It is possible that some of the entries under these designations may refer to St. Nicholas Olave. The entry relating to " St. Nicholas in Eldefihstrete," 1305 (Ct. H.W. I. 169), seems to refer to this church.
It seems probable from the extracts set out above that the original dedication was to St. Olave, which suggests that the church may have been built in the 11th century and dedicated under Danish influence, and that on the occasion of a subsequent rebuilding it was dedicated to St. Nicholas as well as to St. Olave. The designation "Bernard" may commemorate a builder or founder, but the name only occurs once or twice and does not seem ever to have been in general use.
Nicholas (St.) Olave, Churchyard
Nicholas (St.) Old Fish Street
Nicholas (St.) Shambles
On the north side of Newgate Street, between Butcher Hall Lane, now King Edward Street, and Roman Bath Street, called Bull Head Court in the 17th and 18th centuries (Strype, Ed. 1720, I. iii. 195). In Farringdon Ward Within.
Other forms: "St. Nicholas apud Macellum," 12th century (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. 22). Retromacellum in par.sci.Nicholai," 44 H. III. (Add. Ch. 10661). "St. Nicholas Aldred," 1240-59 (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's, W.D. 9, f. 48b). " St. Nicholas Shambles," 1260 (Ct. H.W. I. 7). "St. Nicholas the Shambles," 1280 (Cal. L. Bk. A. p. 151). "St. Nicholas de Stallo," 13th century (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's, W.D. 12). "St. Nicholas de macellis," 14 Ed. I. (Anc. Deeds, B. 2215). " St. Nicholas without Newgate," 1294-5 (Ct. H.W. I. 119). " St. Nicholas masecreu," 28 Ed. I. (Cal. L. Bk. C. p.55). ," St. Nicholas Aldrethegate ad Macellas," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I. 230-5). " St. Nicholas de Bucher', towards Newgate," 1304 (Ct. H.W. I. 164). " St. Nicholas atte flesshameles," 1305 (ib. 171). " St. Nicholas atte Flehsshameles," 1305~ (ib. 174). " St. Nicholas at the Shambles," 1348-9 (ib. 527). "St. Nicholas within Neugate," '349 (ib. 622). St. Nicholas en la Bocherie," 1352 (Cal. P.R. Ed. III.1350-4, p.195). " St. Nicholas atte Shameles," 4 Ed. III. (Ch. I. p.m. 91 (2)).
Church granted to the Mayor and citizens after the dissolution of the monasteries, temp. H. VIII. , the parish being incorporated into the newly formed parish of Christ Church, Newgate Street, 38 H. VIII. 1547 (L. and P. H. VIII. XXI. (2), p.416).
Nicholas (St.) Shambles Lane
An early name for the eastern end of the present Newgate Street shown in the "Plat of the Greyfriars," 1546-1617 in Trans., L. and M. Arch. Soc. V.421, in which it is called "Saint Nicholas flesh shambels."
Nicholas (St.) Welleys, Wyllyms
Nicholas (St.) West Fish Street
Nicholas (St.) Westpiscar
Nicholas (St.) within, without, Newgate
Nicholas (St.) without Algate
It is difficult to account for the name of this church, as there is no record of any church of this name near Aldgate, and Hennessy includes the presentation in his list of the curates of St. Botolph Aldgate, but without comment or explanation.
Is it a case of a double dedication, and is it possible that the church of St. Botolph was also dedicated to St. Nicholas, or may there have been a chapel so dedicated in or adjoining to the church, to which R. Lytham was presented?
Former names: "S. Nicholas Lane," 1258-9 (Ct. H.W. I. 3), and to Strype, 1720 and 1755. " Lane of St. Nicholas de Candelwryhtestrate," 1272-3 (ib. 14). " Street of S. Nicholas Acun," I279-80 (ib. 43). " S. Nicholas Lane near Candlewystrate," 1282 (ib. 57). " St. Nicholas Acuns Lane," 1284 (ib. 68). " Lane of St. Nicholas Hakun," 1291 (ib. 102). "St. Nicholas Hakoun Lane," " St. Nicholas Hakon Lane," 1297-8 (ib. '33, '35).
A considerable portion of the centre of the lane was demolished about 1831 for the formation of King William Street, which intersects the lane, dividing it into two parts; the southern end has also been curtailed for the widening of Cannon Street.
Nightingale Lane, East Smithfield
In a paper on the Anglo-Saxon settlement round London it is suggested that the name is a survival in a corrupted form of the " Knightengild" (L. and M. Arch. Soc. Trans N.S. I. p.313), but it does not seem to be possible to bring forward any proof in support of this suggestion.
Grant of tenements, gardens, etc., called the " Nine Gardens" in liberty of the Tower and in the parish of St. Peter ad Vincula by King James in 1610 to Henry Timberlake, 1673 (L. and P. Chas. II. 1673-5, p.54).