A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Nicholas (St.) New Fish Street, West Fish Street
Earliest mention: "St. Nicholas at Westfishstreet." " Westpiscariam," Rich. I. (Anc. Deeds, A. 1695). " St. Nicholas at Fish Street," 5 John (ib. A. 2493). " Fish Street " (Piscaria) in parish of" St. Nicholas Fish Street " (ib. A. 2496). " St. Nicholas at West Fish Street," H. III. (ib. A. 2725).
St. Nicholas in the Old Fish Market," 1309 (Ct. H.W. I. 206). " St. Nicholas of the Fish-market," 1210-6 (H. MSS. Corn. 9th Rep. 22). "St. Nicholas at New Fish Street" (ad novam piscariam) (Anc. Deeds. A. 2332). " St. Nicholas in noua pise," 13th century (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's, W.D. 12).
It seems most probable that these entries relate to St. Nicholas Cole Abbey, which stood in Old Fish Street, but as the parish of St. Nicholas Olave was also partly in the same street, it is impossible in some cases to state definitely to which of the two parishes the entries refer.
The task is rendered more difficult from the fact that it is not easy to locate accurately the position of the " nova piscaria" or of " West Fish Street."
Nicholas (St.) Olave
On the west side of Bread Street Hill in the ward of Queenhithe (S. 357, and Leake, 1666).
Earliest mention: " Sci Nicholal Bernard," 1242-59 (MSS. D. and C. St. Paul's, W.D. 9, fo. 50). "St. Nichi Olaul," 1285 (ib. Lib. L. fo. 93). "Par' St. Nich quondam s'olaui. " 13th century (ib. W.D. 12). " St. Nicholas Olof," 1286 (Ct. H.W. I. 79). " St. Nicholas Bernard Olof," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. 230). " St. Nicholas Olaph" (Anc. Deeds, A. 2564). "SS. Nicholas and Olave," 1361 (Ct. H.W. II. 22 and 49).
Tenement in parish of " St. Nicholas Olof next Oldefysshstret," 41 Ed. III. (Ch. I. p.m.)
Tenement in parish of "St. Nicholas Olave in Old Fish Street," 4 Ed. III. (Anc. Deeds, A. 2654).
Seems to be called " Sant Necolas Wyllyms in Bredstrett" in 1553 in Machyn's Diary, p.42.
Tenements in parish of St. Nicholas Olave in the old Fish-market (piscaria), 4 Ed. III. (Anc. Deeds, A. 7291).
See Nicholas (St.) New Fish Street, St. Nicholas West Fish Street, and Nicholas (St.) Cole Abbey.
It is possible that some of the entries under these designations may refer to St. Nicholas Olave. The entry relating to " St. Nicholas in Eldefihstrete," 1305 (Ct. H.W. I. 169), seems to refer to this church.
Repaired and beautified 1623.
Burnt in the Fire and not rebuilt. Parish united to St. Nicholas Cole Abbey (Strype, Ed. 1720, I. iii. 211).
A Rectory. Patrons: Canons of St. Paul's and afterwards the Dean and Chapter.
This is an interesting example of a double dedication to St. Nicholas and to St. Olave, the sea-king of Norway, who died in 1030.
It seems probable from the extracts set out above that the original dedication was to St. Olave, which suggests that the church may have been built in the 11th century and dedicated under Danish influence, and that on the occasion of a subsequent rebuilding it was dedicated to St. Nicholas as well as to St. Olave. The designation "Bernard" may commemorate a builder or founder, but the name only occurs once or twice and does not seem ever to have been in general use.
Nicholas (St.) Olave, Churchyard
On the west side of Bread Street Hill, with a passage to Five Foot Lane (Rocque, 1746 Strype; and Lockie, 1816).
Almhouses built in the churchyard 1537 by the Ironmongers (S. 357).
Nicholas (St.) Old Fish Street
See Nicholas (St.) Cole Abbey, Nicholas (St.) Distaff Lane, Nicholas (St.) Newfish Street, Nicholas (St.) West Fish Street, Nicholas (St.) Olave.
Nicholas (St.) Shambles
On the north side of Newgate Street, between Butcher Hall Lane, now King Edward Street, and Roman Bath Street, called Bull Head Court in the 17th and 18th centuries (Strype, Ed. 1720, I. iii. 195). In Farringdon Ward Within.
First mention : " St. Nicholas de Westrnacekaria," 1196 (Anc. Deeds, A. 2507).
Other forms: "St. Nicholas apud Macellum," 12th century (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. 22). Retromacellum in par.sci.Nicholai," 44 H. III. (Add. Ch. 10661). "St. Nicholas Aldred," 1240-59 (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's, W.D. 9, f. 48b). " St. Nicholas Shambles," 1260 (Ct. H.W. I. 7). "St. Nicholas the Shambles," 1280 (Cal. L. Bk. A. p. 151). "St. Nicholas de Stallo," 13th century (MS. D. and C. St. Paul's, W.D. 12). "St. Nicholas de macellis," 14 Ed. I. (Anc. Deeds, B. 2215). " St. Nicholas without Newgate," 1294-5 (Ct. H.W. I. 119). " St. Nicholas masecreu," 28 Ed. I. (Cal. L. Bk. C. p.55). ," St. Nicholas Aldrethegate ad Macellas," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I. 230-5). " St. Nicholas de Bucher', towards Newgate," 1304 (Ct. H.W. I. 164). " St. Nicholas atte flesshameles," 1305 (ib. 171). " St. Nicholas atte Flehsshameles," 1305~ (ib. 174). " St. Nicholas at the Shambles," 1348-9 (ib. 527). "St. Nicholas within Neugate," '349 (ib. 622). St. Nicholas en la Bocherie," 1352 (Cal. P.R. Ed. III.1350-4, p.195). " St. Nicholas atte Shameles," 4 Ed. III. (Ch. I. p.m. 91 (2)).
Church granted to the Mayor and citizens after the dissolution of the monasteries, temp. H. VIII. , the parish being incorporated into the newly formed parish of Christ Church, Newgate Street, 38 H. VIII. 1547 (L. and P. H. VIII. XXI. (2), p.416).
Church taken down and houses built on the site "in a Court with a wel" (S. 318).
This is called " Bull Head Court" (q.v.) in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The church was so named from its proximity to the butchers' quarter, known as "The Shambles "-" macellas," etc.
The name " Aldred" suggests a founder or rebuilder in the 13th century.
Nicholas (St.) Shambles Lane
Street leading from" St. Nicholas de Westmacekaria to the City wall, 1196 (Anc. Deeds, A. 2507).
"Via regia "from the gate of Newgate by the wall of the City to" vicum Sci Nicholai" by the friars minors, 3 Ed. I. (Rot. Hund. I. 404).
Lane of "S. Nicholas atte Flehsschameles," 1306 (Ct. H.W. I. 178).
An early name for the eastern end of the present Newgate Street shown in the "Plat of the Greyfriars," 1546-1617 in Trans., L. and M. Arch. Soc. V.421, in which it is called "Saint Nicholas flesh shambels."
Nicholas (St.) Welleys, Wyllyms
See Nicholas (St.) Cole Abbey.
Nicholas (St.) West Fish Street
See Nicholas (St.) New Fish Street.
Nicholas (St.) Westpiscar
See Nicholas (St.) Cole Abbey; Nicholas (St.) New Fish Street, Nicholas (St.). West Fish Street.
Nicholas (St.) within, without, Newgate
See Nicholas (St.) Shambles.
Nicholas (St.) without Algate
Presentation of Master Richard Lythum, Chaplain to the Church of St. Nicholas without Algate in the diocese of London, 8 H. IV. 1406 (Cal. P.R. H. IV. 1405-8, p.241).
It is difficult to account for the name of this church, as there is no record of any church of this name near Aldgate, and Hennessy includes the presentation in his list of the curates of St. Botolph Aldgate, but without comment or explanation.
Is it a case of a double dedication, and is it possible that the church of St. Botolph was also dedicated to St. Nicholas, or may there have been a chapel so dedicated in or adjoining to the church, to which R. Lytham was presented?
In Monkwell Street. Founded 1575 by Sir Ambrose Nicholas, salter, for 12 widows of his Company. Held in trust by the Salters' Company.
Burnt in the Fire and rebuilt (Dodsley, 1761).
South out of Lombard Street, at No. 23, to 151 Cannon Street (P.O. Directory). In Langbourn and Candlewick Wards.
First mention : Hatton, 1708.
Former names: "S. Nicholas Lane," 1258-9 (Ct. H.W. I. 3), and to Strype, 1720 and 1755. " Lane of St. Nicholas de Candelwryhtestrate," 1272-3 (ib. 14). " Street of S. Nicholas Acun," I279-80 (ib. 43). " S. Nicholas Lane near Candlewystrate," 1282 (ib. 57). " St. Nicholas Acuns Lane," 1284 (ib. 68). " Lane of St. Nicholas Hakun," 1291 (ib. 102). "St. Nicholas Hakoun Lane," " St. Nicholas Hakon Lane," 1297-8 (ib. '33, '35).
A considerable portion of the centre of the lane was demolished about 1831 for the formation of King William Street, which intersects the lane, dividing it into two parts; the southern end has also been curtailed for the widening of Cannon Street.
Named after the church of St. Nicholas Acon.
Coins found at a depth of 7 feet (Arch. VIII. 128).
West out of Nicholas Lane, at No.5, to 31 Abchurch Lane (P.O. Directory). In Langhourn and Candlewick Wards.
First mention : O.S.1875.
Other names: " St. Nicholas Alley" (O. and M. 1677-Elmes, 1831). " Boot Alley" (P.C. 1732-Elmes, 1831).
Named after the church of St. Nicholas Acon, which stood on the north side of the alley.
Between Well Street and Castle Street, Aldersgate Street (P.O. Directory). In Cripplegate and Aldersgate Wards Without.
First mention : "Nicols Square" (Horwood, 1799).
Former name: "Red Cross Square" (Rocque, 1746-Boyle, 1799).
Probably named after the owner or builder.
On the south side of Lower Thames Street at No. 12 (P.O. Directory). In Billingsgate Ward, east of Botolph's Wharf.
First mention : O.S.1875.
Former names: " Nicholson's Gateway" (O.S. 1848-51). " Great Somers Quay" and "Lyon Key" (q.v.) occupied the site previously.
Named after the owner.
West out of Swan Alley, East Smithfield (Horwood, 1799-Lockie, 1810).
Former name: "Swan Court" (Rocque. 1746-Lond. G. 1758).
Removed about 1827 for the formation of St. Katherine's Docks and the adjacent warehouses.
Nightingale Lane, East Smithfield
South out of Upper East Smithfield to the Docks (P.O. Directory).
Earliest mention : " Nightingale lane" (Stow, ed. 1598, 347).
It formed part of the eastern boundary of the original Portsoken Ward, as set out in Strype, Ed. 1720, I. ii. 26.
In a paper on the Anglo-Saxon settlement round London it is suggested that the name is a survival in a corrupted form of the " Knightengild" (L. and M. Arch. Soc. Trans N.S. I. p.313), but it does not seem to be possible to bring forward any proof in support of this suggestion.
West out of Middlesex Street to Petticoat Square (O.S. 1875-1880)
Formerly called: " Petticoat Square " (q.v.) (Rocque, 1746-O.S. 1848-51).
Removed about 1884 and the site occupied by the City of London Artizans' Dwellings (q.v.).
On the north-east side of Tower Hill, near the boundary of the Tower Liberty (Haiward and Gascoigne's plan of the Tower Liberties, 1597).
Adjoining the City Wall west (O. and M. 1677).
Grant of tenements, gardens, etc., called the " Nine Gardens" in liberty of the Tower and in the parish of St. Peter ad Vincula by King James in 1610 to Henry Timberlake, 1673 (L. and P. Chas. II. 1673-5, p.54).
Mentioned in the description of the boundaries of the Tower Liberties, 1679, and temp Jas. II. set out in Bayley, II. App. cxviii.
Site shown on O.S.1875.