A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.
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See New Alley.
Newe Brydgehouse (Le)
" Le Townediche" between "le Newe Brydgehouse" leading to Bethelem and a tenement called " le More " or" le Moore mede," 31 H. VIII. 1539 (L. and P. H. VIII. XIV. Pt. I, p.591).
No later reference.
Possibly formed a portion of the property appropriated for the repair and upkeep of London Bridge.
In East Smithfield, 30 Eliz. 1588 (L.C.C. Deeds, Harben Bequest, 1500-1600, No.17).
Not further identified.
In parish of St. Benet Sherehog, near Sopers Lane, temp. Ed. II. and Ed. III (Cal. L. Bk. F. p. 16o, and H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p.6).
Not further identified.
House of Simon de Canterbury so called near his brewery, 1341 (Ct. H.W. I. 450).
No later reference.
One of the City gates, in the City wall on its western side, north of Ludgate, in Farringdon Ward (S. 35).
Stow says it was erected about the time of Henry I. or Stephen, but recent excavations made at the time of the demolition of the old prison and the erection of the new Sessions house prove that the original gate, of which a plinth and other remains were found, was of Roman construction and that it was in all probability the main gate in the western wall, Ludgate being a postern merely, and of later construction (Arch. ix. 130, ib. seq.).
The Roman gate seems to have measured 31 feet in width from east to west. Traces of the Roman ditch have also been found, 70 feet wide.
It seems to have been called in early times "Chamberlain's Gate," for in a MS. of the D. and C. St. Paul's, 1285, mention is made of " Sancti Sepulchri extra Chamb'leingate" (Lib. L. fo. 93). We know from Domesday Book that William the Chamberlain had a vineyard at Holeburn, and this may help to explain the origin of this name.
A charter by Burghred of Mercia, A.D. 857, set out in Kemble, CCLXXX., but marked as spurious, granted to Alhunus bishop "aliquam parvam portionem libertatis cum consensu consiliatorum meorum gugiferi agelluli in vico Lundonie hoc est ubi nominatur Ceolmundingehaga qui est non longe de ' Uuestgetum' positus sibi episcopo in propriam libertatem ad habendum vel ad Uuergerna civitate pertinentem," etc. If this charter can be held to relate to London, it would suggest "Westgate" as the original name of Newgate, but it seems probable that, if genuine, it does not necessarily relate to London at all, but to "Lundenwic," i.e. Sandwich, in Kent.
The Roman origin of Newgate being ascertained, it is quite possible that it may have undergone considerable repair in the time of Henry I. or Stephen, or perhaps after the great fire of 1137, when it may have been entirely rebuilt and so acquired the designation of " Newgate," by which name the prison is referred to in the Pipe Roll, 34 H. II.
It was again rebuilt, temp. H. V. (Cal. L. Bk. K. p.140).
Again repaired 1555-6 and 1630. Destroyed by the Fire 1666 and rebuilt 1672 stronger and more convenient than before (Strype, Ed. 1720, I. I. 19).
Gate removed 1777 (Encycl. Lond. 106). Wheatley says 1767.
On the south side of Newgate Street in parish of St. Sepulchre in ward of Farringdon Within, lately belonging to the Duke of Somerset, 12 H. VIII. 1520 (L. and P. H. VIII. III (1), p.397) and 35 H. VIII. (ib. XVIII. (1), p.449).
No later reference.
At the south-west corner of Newgate Street, at its junction with Old Bailey; in Farringdon Wards Within and Without (O.S. 1880).
At first merely a prison over the Gate of Newgate, as at Ludgate.
In 1241 Jews to be kept prisoners in Newgate.
Mentioned 1278, Thomes the Clerk imprisoned in Newgate (Cal. L. Bk. B. p.274).
Gaol to be pulled down and rebuilt, 1 H. VI. (Cal. L. Bk. K. p.19).
Water brought to the prison 1432 (5.17).
City Gaol for malefactors and also for the County of Middlesex, a large prison and very strong (Strype, Ed. 1720, I. iii. 194). Rebuilt 1770-83. Archt., George Dance. Improvements introduced 1838.
Pulled down 1902 and Central Criminal Court (q.v.) erected on the site; opened 1905.
Between Rose Street, Newgate Street, and Paved Alley, Paternoster Row, in Castle Baynard Ward and Farringdon Ward Within (O.S. 1848-51).
First mention by this name: 1601 (H. MSS. Com. Salisbury, XI. pp. 156, 176 and 194), but see below.
Described by Strype as a square piece of ground, incompassed with fair houses, 148 feet broad and 194 feet long. In the middle a Market House in form of a cross, standing on pillars or columns. Vaults and cellars underneath, and Cupola or Bell Tower over it. Stalls round about for butchers, etc. (Strype, Ed. 1720, I. iii. 195).
Before the Fire the Market was in the centre of Newgate Street, west of Middle Row, as shown in Leake, 1666, and in a survey of the Greyfriars, 1546 and 1617, in Trans.
L. and M. Arch. Soc. V. 421, and see S. 345. But this position was found to be extremely inconvenient, and it was ordained by Parliament after the Fire that the market should not be re-established in the middle of the street, but that a separate piece of ground should be set apart for the purpose.
In this survey of 1546 it is called the" mele market and St. Nicholas flesh shambles."
There was a street called Newgate Market in the parish of St. Nicholas within Newgate, 1566 (Lond. I. p.m.II. 43), shown in the survey above mentioned.
Market abolished 1869, when Smithfield Central Market was established, and the site of the later Newgate Market is now occupied by Paternoster Square (q.v.), so named 1872.
The market was an ancient institution and it seems probable from a charter of King Stephen to St. Martin le Grand that it was in existence at that time, for he confirms to the College a piece of land " with three stalls in the market" (Kempe, p.45).
This would seem to be Newgate Market, which was in close proximity to St. Martin's, but it is also possible that it might be an allusion to the great market of Chepe.
West from Cheapside and St. Martin's le Grand to Holborn Viaduct and Old Bailey (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Within and Without.
First mention : " Newgatestrete," 1311 (Riley's Mem. xiii. L. Bk. D. f. 110).
This name does not, however, appear in Sharp's Calendar of this letter-book, and it seems very doubtful whether it was in use at such an early date.
Further, the name does not appear in Stow, or Agas, but it is shown on a survey of the Greyfriars, 1546 and 1617, as forming the western end of the present street from Warwick Lane to Newgate (Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. V. 421).
The eastern end was called " Blowbladder Street" (q.v.) up to and at the time Stow wrote.
The western end to Warwick Lane was known as "The Shambles," "St. Nicholas Shambles lane" and" St. Nicholas Flesh shambles "and "Newgate Market" (q.v.) from the 13th century onwards.
See Mount Godard Street.
No.101 in this street is believed to stand on the site of the entrance to the old church of the Grey Friars Monastery (End. Ch. Rep. Christ Church, Newgate Street, 1902, p. 10).
See Farringdon Ward Within.
North out of Cornhill at No.71 (P.O. Directory). In Cornhill Ward.
First mention : W. Stow, "Remarks on London," 1722.
Former name: "Newman's Yard" (O. and M. 1677-Strype, 1720).
Named after the owner or builder.
West out of Garlick Hill, in Vintry Ward, north of Sugar Loaf Court (O. and M. 1677).
The site is now occupied by offices, etc.
See Newman's Court.
West out of Bishopsgate, in Bishopsgate Ward Without (Horwood, 1799-O.S. 1880).
On or near the site of" Cock Yard "in O. and M. 1677, and Rocque, 1746.
Site now occupied by the railway lines of the Great Eastern and Metropolitan Railways.
Behind Fetter Lane next the sign of the Angel, 1674 (L. and P. Chas. II 1673-5, p.96).
Qy. = New Street, " x" being transcribed in error for " w."
Nicholas (St.) Acon
On the west side of Nicholas Lane and north side of Nicholas Passage. In Langbourne Ward. The parish extends into Candlewick Ward.
Earliest mention found in records: " St. Nicholas." In 1084 Godwynus and his wife Turnud gave to St. Mary and St. Aldhelm in the Church of Malmesbury his church dedicated to St Nicholas.
Described as "apud Londonias" (Dugdale, Mon. Ang. I. s.v. Malmesbury Abbey).
Other names: " St. Nicholas Achim, Achun," 1190 (Reg. Malmesburiense, I. 5, II. 12). St. Nicholas Hacun," 1246 (Cal. Charter Rolls, H. III. 1. p.309). " St. Nicholas Hakun," 43 H. III. (Ct. H.W. I. 2). " St. Nicholas de Candelwryhtestrate," 1272-3 (ib 14). " St. Nicholas Hakoun," 1275 (ib. 20). St. Nicholas Acun," 1280 (ib. 43). St. Nicholas Hakon," 1283-5 (Anc. Deeds, A. 1674). "St. Nicholas near Lombardstret," 43 Ed. III.1369 (Cal. L. Bk. G. 231). " S. Nicholas Acon," 1380-1 (Ct. H.W. II. 219).
Chapel of St. John the Baptist in the Church, 1361 (Ct. H.W. II. 23).
The church was repaired and embattled in 1520 by Sir John Bridges (S. 205). Repaired and beautified 1615 (Strype, Ed. 1720, I. ii. 159).
Burnt in the Fire and not rebuilt, the Parish being united to St. Edmund, Lombard Street (ib. 163).
A Rectory. Patrons: The Monks of Malmesbury until the dissolution of the monasteries, when it passed to the Crown.
Dedication to St. Nicholas, Archbishop of Myra in Asia Minor in the fourth century. His remains were translated in 1087 to Europe.
Possibly the name" Hacun" (corrupted later to Acons) was added in the 12th century to commemorate some benefactor to the church. It occurs frequently as a surname in the deeds set out in the Calendars of Ancient Deeds so frequently referred to in this work.
Nicholas (St.) Acon Churchyard
On the west side of Nicholas Lane at No.4 (O.S.). Site still open and unbuilt on.
Nicholas (St.) Acuns Lane or Street
See Nicholas Lane.
Nicholas (St.) ad Macellas
See Nicholas (St.) Shambles.