A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.
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Patrick's Court, Houndsditch
Paul's (St.) Alley, Court, Fenchurch Street
Paul's (St.) Bakehouse
Paul's (St.) Bell Tower
Paul's (St.) Brewery
Paul's (St.) Cathedral
Stow says it was first founded by Ethelbert king of Kent, about 610 (See Charter, DCCCCLXXXII. Kemp, Cod. Dip., marked doubtful) (S. 326), and in the A.S. Chr. it is recorded under date 604, that Ethelbert gave to Mellitus a bishop's see at London (Thorpe, I. 37, 38).
The rebuilding was commenced by Bishop Mauritius, and carried on by his successor Richard de Belmeis, and from a charter of H. I. set out in Dugdale it appears that the King gave "so much of the ditch of my castle on the south towards the Thames as was necessary for making the wall of the church, so much of the same ditch as sufficed for making the way outside the wall, and on the other side of the church towards the north, as much of the same ditch as had been destroyed by the Bishop" (Dugdale, St. Paul's, App. 21).
In 1314 a new cross was put up on the bell tower of St. Paul's. The dimensions of the cathedral at this time were 690 ft. in length, 130 ft. in breadth, and 102 ft. in height. The steeple was 88 ft. The area comprised 3 1/2 acres, 1 1/2 roods, 6 virgates. The bell tower was 260 ft. high (Ann. Paulini, p.277).
These dimensions do not altogether agree with those set out in L. and P. Chas. I. 1634-5, p.427, which are as follows: Area the same. Length 280 ft, breadth 130, height of western roof from altar 102 ft., height of roof of new building from altar 88 ft. Height of bell tower 520 ft. Belfry cross 15 ft. high with a cross beam of 6 ft.
It would appear from these various records that the church took nearly two centuries in rebuilding after the fire of 1087, and in consequence it exhibited specimens of Norman and early English architecture, and also of the commencement of the Decorated period. There was a Lady Chapel at the east end, a chapel north of the Lady Chapel dedicated to St. George, and one south dedicated to St. Dunstan.
This old cathedral was a stately and magnificent building. Perhaps the most beautiful portions of the church were the nave, consisting of twelve bays, the central tower open as a lantern, the choir windows of unusual length, and the east window circular in form and rich in colour and design. Two bell towers stood at the western end of the church.
Plans for rebuilding it and for the general repair of the church were discussed temp. Chas. I. and Chas. II. , but not much progress had been made with the work when the old church was completely destroyed in the Fire, 1666. The new foundations of the present cathedral were laid 1673-5. It was designed by Sir Christopher Wren in the form of a long cross and is built of Portland stone. The East end or quire was commenced first (L. and P. Chas. II. XVII. p.119).
Interesting papers on the situation of the old cathedral, etc., are to be found in Arch. XLVII. (2), 381, and of the details of the new work in Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. III. p.39 et seq., and St. Paul's Eccl. Soc. I. 177 et seq.
The constitution of the capitular body and the duties devolving upon the various officials of the church are set out at length in Newcourt's Repertorium and in Dugdale's History of St. Paul's, which contain valuable information relating to the early history of the church.
Paul's (St.) Chapter
Paul's (St.) Chapter House
First mention of the original Chapter House: A place on the south side of the church, from the door called " ostium capituli" to the schools in which the Chancellor lectures and crosswise as far as the stone wall opposite, that is to say the place called the garden of the Dean and Chapter for the building thereon of a chapter-house and cloister, 1332 (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p.27).
Stow describes this old building as a beautiful piece of work but defaced by the erection of low sheds and high houses (S. 372-3). The new building designed by Sir Christopher Wren was of red brick, erected 1712 (N. and Q. 5th S. X. 462-3).
Paul's (St.) Charnel House
Paul's (St.) Churchyard
Subsequently during the rebuilding of the church after the fire of 1087, considerable acquisitions of land round the Church were made from time to time by the Dean and Chapter, and in 1285 licence was granted to enclose the churchyard and precinct with a stone wall having gates and posterns to be open from dawn until night (Cal. P.R. Ed. I. 1281-92, 174).
Stow goes so far as to assert that by these means the central thoroughfare from Aldgate in the east to Ludgate in the west was blocked up and the traffic of the City impeded, with the result that some new means of ingress and egress had to be devised. If this statement could be verified it would denote the existence in early times of a main road extending from Cornhill to Ludgate Hill through the centre of the City, but there is no direct evidence of the existence of this thoroughfare.
The encroachments, however, so seriously interfered with the liberties of the City that complaint is made against the Dean and Chapter in 14 Ed. II. that they had appropriated for the use of the church a piece of land on which the Mayor and citizens had been accustomed to hold the Court, called "Folkmot," and had enclosed it with a wall and built houses on it, and had appropriated other pieces of land, and further that they had obstructed the gate of St. Augustine, so that people had not free ingress and egress through it. The Dean and Chapter replied by producing the charters, granting the lands and privileges to them (Lib. Cust. I. 339, et seq.), and no further action was taken in the matter.
Paul's (St.) Close
Paul's (St.) College
Paul's (St.) College Court
Paul's (St.) Cross
"About the middest of the Churchyard is a pulpit Crosse of timber mounted on steps and covered with lead." Sermons preached there, General Assembly held there in 1259. Papal bull read there 1262 (S.333).
In 1906 a sum of £5000 was left by Mr. H. C. Richards to the Dean and Chapter for the rebuilding and sustentation of Paul's Cross (H. Co. Mag. No.30, 130) and the Cross was finally re-erected in the Churchyard in 1913.
Paul's (St.) Deanery
Paul's (St.) Gate
Paul's (St.) Houses, Residentiaries
Paul's (St.) Prebends
The Prebendaries were thirty in number and their prebends as follows: Brondesbury, Brownswood, Cadington Major, Cadington Minor, Chamberlainwood, Chirwick, Consumpta per Mare, Ealdiand, Ealdstreet, Harlesden, Holborn, Holywell alias Finsbury, Hoxton, Islington, Kentish Town, Mapesbury, Mora, Neasden, Newington, Oxgate, St Pancras, Portpool, Reculverland or Tillingham, Rugmere, Sneating, Tottenhall, Twyford, Wenlakesbarn, Wildiand, Willesden.
The extent and condition of the prebends in 1649 are set out in the Parliamentary Surveys taken at that date, when it was proposed to confiscate the property of the Canons (MS D. and C. St. Paul's), but as the corpus of the prebends lay outside the City boundary they cannot be dealt with in this work.