A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.
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Patrick's Court, Houndsditch
See Partridge Court.
Near the Tower of London.
Part of the possessions of the Abbey of Graces, on which Lord Burghley had erected a tenement in 1596 (H. MSS. Com. Salisbury, VI. p. 505).
No later reference.
Incorporated 1670 (Dodsley, 1761).
Paul's (St.) Alley, Court, Fenchurch Street
See Paulshead Court.
Paul's (St.) Bakehouse
On the west side of Paul's Chain, north of Doctors' Commons, opposite the Brewhouse (S. 370).
First mention : "The capitular bakehouse mentioned in description of houses to be erected in the neighbourhood," 43 Ed. III. (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. 50).
Shown in Strype's maps, called "Paul's Backhouse."
Afterwards converted into a good square Court with four handsome large houses (Strype, Ed. 1720, I. iii. 230).
See Paul's Bakehouse Court.
Paul's (St.) Bell Tower
In the Lib. Cust. I. 343, it is stated that the Campanile used by the citizens to summon the Folkmoot was situated on the east side of the Church, where the new burial ground was.
Stow says there was a great and high Clochier or bell house on the north side with four bells called Jesus' Belles and belonged to Jesus' Chappell (S. 332).
He also speaks of Bell Towers at the west end (372).
Paul's (St.) Brewery
Opposite the Bakehouse, north of Doctors' Commons (S. 370).
First mention : 1349 (Ct. H.W. I. 578).
In 44 Ed. III. , 18 new shops were to be erected at "Powlesbrewerne," 11 ft. in length by 25 in breadth (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p.12).
"le Sarazyneshead" in parish of St. George (sic) by the church of St. Paul opposite a tenement called "Poulesbruerne," 19 H. VI. 1441 (Cal. P.R. H. VI. 1436-41, p.541)
Afterwards called the " Powle head Taverne" (S. 370). See Paul's head.
Paul's (St.) Cathedral
In St. Paul's Churchyard, in Castle Baynard Ward.
Stow says it was first founded by Ethelbert king of Kent, about 610 (See Charter, DCCCCLXXXII. Kemp, Cod. Dip., marked doubtful) (S. 326), and in the A.S. Chr. it is recorded under date 604, that Ethelbert gave to Mellitus a bishop's see at London (Thorpe, I. 37, 38).
In Athelstan's Charter to St. Paul's, 915-22, he describes King Sebbi as the first benefactor with Bishop Erkenwold (Thorpe, Dip. A.S. 176-7).
Burnt down 962 and rebuilt (Ang.-Sax. Chr., Thorpe, I. 220).
The Church with a considerable portion of the city was again destroyed by fire in 1086-7 (Ang.-Sax. Chr., Earle and Plummer, I. 218).
The rebuilding was commenced by Bishop Mauritius, and carried on by his successor Richard de Belmeis, and from a charter of H. I. set out in Dugdale it appears that the King gave "so much of the ditch of my castle on the south towards the Thames as was necessary for making the wall of the church, so much of the same ditch as sufficed for making the way outside the wall, and on the other side of the church towards the north, as much of the same ditch as had been destroyed by the Bishop" (Dugdale, St. Paul's, App. 21).
It is explained in Lib. Cust. that the castle in question was Castle Baynard, so that the moat of this castle must originally have extended as far as the north side of St. Paul's (I. p.339).
The process of rebuilding, if much progress had been made, must have been seriously interfered with in when the church was again burnt (Lib. de Ant. Leg. p.197).
In 1230 it was struck by lightning (Ann. Lond. p.29).
Dedicated 1240 (ib. 37). In 1259 the new fabric was commenced (Chr. M. and S. p.40).
In 1314 a new cross was put up on the bell tower of St. Paul's. The dimensions of the cathedral at this time were 690 ft. in length, 130 ft. in breadth, and 102 ft. in height. The steeple was 88 ft. The area comprised 3 1/2 acres, 1 1/2 roods, 6 virgates. The bell tower was 260 ft. high (Ann. Paulini, p.277).
These dimensions do not altogether agree with those set out in L. and P. Chas. I. 1634-5, p.427, which are as follows: Area the same. Length 280 ft, breadth 130, height of western roof from altar 102 ft., height of roof of new building from altar 88 ft. Height of bell tower 520 ft. Belfry cross 15 ft. high with a cross beam of 6 ft.
It would appear from these various records that the church took nearly two centuries in rebuilding after the fire of 1087, and in consequence it exhibited specimens of Norman and early English architecture, and also of the commencement of the Decorated period. There was a Lady Chapel at the east end, a chapel north of the Lady Chapel dedicated to St. George, and one south dedicated to St. Dunstan.
In the crypt was the parish church of St. Faith, and in the churchyard at the south west angle the parish church of St. Gregory.
This old cathedral was a stately and magnificent building. Perhaps the most beautiful portions of the church were the nave, consisting of twelve bays, the central tower open as a lantern, the choir windows of unusual length, and the east window circular in form and rich in colour and design. Two bell towers stood at the western end of the church.
The Steeple was burnt 1443-4, having been struck by lightning and the fire put out with difficulty (Chr. of Lond. ed. Kingsford, p. 156).
It was again struck by lightning and completely destroyed in 1561, and not rebuilt
Plans for rebuilding it and for the general repair of the church were discussed temp. Chas. I. and Chas. II. , but not much progress had been made with the work when the old church was completely destroyed in the Fire, 1666. The new foundations of the present cathedral were laid 1673-5. It was designed by Sir Christopher Wren in the form of a long cross and is built of Portland stone. The East end or quire was commenced first (L. and P. Chas. II. XVII. p.119).
Consecrated 1697, but not finally completed until 1710, at a cost of over £747,000.
Interesting papers on the situation of the old cathedral, etc., are to be found in Arch. XLVII. (2), 381, and of the details of the new work in Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. III. p.39 et seq., and St. Paul's Eccl. Soc. I. 177 et seq.
The constitution of the capitular body and the duties devolving upon the various officials of the church are set out at length in Newcourt's Repertorium and in Dugdale's History of St. Paul's, which contain valuable information relating to the early history of the church.
The library contains a most valuable collection of early deeds and documents, throwing considerable light upon the history of the church and its possessions.
The contents of many of them are admirably set out in H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep.
The cathedral is said to have been erected on the site of an old Roman temple to Diana.
Paul's (St.) Chapter
" Servientes Capituli" mentioned in 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I. 230).
Detailed information will be found in Newcourt and in Dugdale.
Paul's (St.) Chapter House
On the north side of St. Paul's Churchyard at No.68 (P.O. Directory). In Castle Baynard Ward.
First mention of the original Chapter House: A place on the south side of the church, from the door called " ostium capituli" to the schools in which the Chancellor lectures and crosswise as far as the stone wall opposite, that is to say the place called the garden of the Dean and Chapter for the building thereon of a chapter-house and cloister, 1332 (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p.27).
Stow describes this old building as a beautiful piece of work but defaced by the erection of low sheds and high houses (S. 372-3). The new building designed by Sir Christopher Wren was of red brick, erected 1712 (N. and Q. 5th S. X. 462-3).
Paul's (St.) Charnel House
On the north side of St. Paul's Churchyard, a large charnel house for the bones of the dead and over it a chapel (S. 331).
Founded about 1282 out of rents of shops built without the wall of the churchyard. Pulled down 1549 and bones removed (ib.).
See Chapel upon the Charnell in St. Paul's Churchyard.
Paul's (St.) Churchyard
A street extending west from Cheapside and Cannon Street to Ludgate Hill on the north south, west and east sides of the Cathedral (P.O. Directory).
First mention : "Cimiteno sive vico regio vocato Pawles-chirchehawe juxta portam Sancti Pauli," 19 H. VI. (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p.12).
In early times it was merely a churchyard surrounding the church, and enclosed by a wall, within which were erected from time to time various buildings connected with the church.
Subsequently during the rebuilding of the church after the fire of 1087, considerable acquisitions of land round the Church were made from time to time by the Dean and Chapter, and in 1285 licence was granted to enclose the churchyard and precinct with a stone wall having gates and posterns to be open from dawn until night (Cal. P.R. Ed. I. 1281-92, 174).
Stow goes so far as to assert that by these means the central thoroughfare from Aldgate in the east to Ludgate in the west was blocked up and the traffic of the City impeded, with the result that some new means of ingress and egress had to be devised. If this statement could be verified it would denote the existence in early times of a main road extending from Cornhill to Ludgate Hill through the centre of the City, but there is no direct evidence of the existence of this thoroughfare.
The encroachments, however, so seriously interfered with the liberties of the City that complaint is made against the Dean and Chapter in 14 Ed. II. that they had appropriated for the use of the church a piece of land on which the Mayor and citizens had been accustomed to hold the Court, called "Folkmot," and had enclosed it with a wall and built houses on it, and had appropriated other pieces of land, and further that they had obstructed the gate of St. Augustine, so that people had not free ingress and egress through it. The Dean and Chapter replied by producing the charters, granting the lands and privileges to them (Lib. Cust. I. 339, et seq.), and no further action was taken in the matter.
Within the precincts of the churchyard were the cloisters, the Pardon Churchyard, the Chapter House, a charnel house and chapel over it.
The bishop's palace stood at the north-west corner.
At the north-east end stood the Cross, for centuries a celebrated meeting-place for public purposes and in later days for the delivery of sermons.
See Paul's (St.) Cross.
The first shops were erected in the churchyard about 1587 and before the Fire, these were mainly inhabited by Stationers.
Paul's (St.) Close
The close of St. Paul's situate near the Dean's mansion, 1361 (Ct. H.W. II. 25).
Paul's (St.) College
South out of St. Paul's Churchyard, at the western end. In Castle Baynard Ward (Strype, Ed. 1720 and 1755, and Rocque, 1746).
Strype describes it as a new court, made use of for the singing men belonging to the Cathedral (Ed. 1720, I. iii. 230).
The College of the Minor Canons was founded temp. Richard II. , and the statutes of the College are set out in Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. IV. 231.
Site now occupied by warehouses.
Paul's (St.) College Court
In St. Paul's Churchyard (Dodsley, 1761).
Not named in the maps.
Paul's (St.) Cross
At the north-east end of the Cathedral (O.S. 1880).
"About the middest of the Churchyard is a pulpit Crosse of timber mounted on steps and covered with lead." Sermons preached there, General Assembly held there in 1259. Papal bull read there 1262 (S.333).
Its original form seems to have been a High Cross, built of stone on a platform, and not a pulpit as re-erected in the 15th century.
The earliest mention in records appears to be in 1241, when the citizens met there and gave the King leave to cross over into Gascony (Lib. de Ant. Leg. p.9).
Probably existed prior to this date, as the citizens are said to have held their Folk moots there, as in 1256 (ib. 37).
Damaged by storm and earthquake 1382, and rebuilt (Stow Ann. p.295).
Again rebuilt c. 1450 with a pulpit (Dugdale).
Pulled down 1643 (Strype, Ed. 1720, I. iii. 152).
Site recorded in the pavement 1906.
In 1906 a sum of £5000 was left by Mr. H. C. Richards to the Dean and Chapter for the rebuilding and sustentation of Paul's Cross (H. Co. Mag. No.30, 130) and the Cross was finally re-erected in the Churchyard in 1913.
Paul's (St.) Deanery
See Deanery (The).
Paul's (St.) Gate
Identical with St. Augustine's Gate (q.v.).
First mention : " S. Paul's Gate," 1369 (Ct. H.W. II. 131).
A gate on the east side of the Churchyard giving access through the Churchyard.
Paul's (St.) Houses, Residentiaries
See Amen Court.
Paul's (St.) Prebends
The property belonging to the Chapter set apart for the maintenance of the Prebendaries. A considerable portion of it lay in and round London.
Henry I. gave a charter to the canons granting them relief in respect of their twenty four hides of " sceolanda" from geld, etc. (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. 45).
There are some interesting notes as to the property in these prebends and how it was acquired in Lansdowne MS. 364, date 1684.
A list of the prebends is given in MSS. D. and C. St. Paul's, Lib. L. f. 63, 13th cent., and in W.D. 9, fo. 5.
The Prebendaries were thirty in number and their prebends as follows: Brondesbury, Brownswood, Cadington Major, Cadington Minor, Chamberlainwood, Chirwick, Consumpta per Mare, Ealdiand, Ealdstreet, Harlesden, Holborn, Holywell alias Finsbury, Hoxton, Islington, Kentish Town, Mapesbury, Mora, Neasden, Newington, Oxgate, St Pancras, Portpool, Reculverland or Tillingham, Rugmere, Sneating, Tottenhall, Twyford, Wenlakesbarn, Wildiand, Willesden.
The extent and condition of the prebends in 1649 are set out in the Parliamentary Surveys taken at that date, when it was proposed to confiscate the property of the Canons (MS D. and C. St. Paul's), but as the corpus of the prebends lay outside the City boundary they cannot be dealt with in this work.
It may be possible to deal with the property comprised in these prebends in a separate work.