A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.
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Water Works, London Bridge
On the west side of Old London Bridge, opposite St. Magnus Church, in Bridge Ward Within (O. and M. 1677-Horwood, 1799). Called the Water House in Rocque, 1746, and by Strype, 1720 and 1755.
The forcier for pumping Thames water up into pipes for distribution to the citizens' houses was erected here in 1582 by Peter Morice (S. 18).
Seems to occupy the site of " Oystergate " (q.v.).
The site is now occupied by London Bridge Wharf.
In Bishopsgate Street Without, Nos. 143 and 144, given by Robert Donkyn to the parish of St. Michael Cornhill, 1568 (Overall, p.237).
Between Lamb Alley and Angel Alley.
Site now occupied by Liverpool Street Station and the Great Eastern Railway lines.
Company existed 1276. Ordinances of the Company made 1497 (Overall, p.219).
Watergate, Castle Baynard
Wharf called " Powyls Wharffe," alias "Sondayes wharffe," in the west part of the common water called the common Watringplace in parish of St. Andrew at Baynards Castle, 3 Eliz. (Lond. I. p.m. I. 220).
First mention: " la Watergate" of Chastelbaynard to be cleansed, 35 Ed. III. (Cal. L. Bk. G. p.125).
Described as the " Watergate in the Black Freers," 1565 (Lond. I. p.m. II. 73) in parish of St. Andrew in the Wardrobe, and as in the parish of St. Benedict Woodwharf, 1568 (ib. 121), so that perhaps it may have been on or near the boundary of the two parishes.
Watergate, Tower Ward
A quay facing the Thames by the Custom House in Thames streete (S. 135) at the south end of Water lane (S. 44).
Earliest mention: 4 Ed. I. 1276 (Cal. L. Bk. B. p.262). " Estwatergate," 17 Ed. III. (Lib. Cust. p. 453). "le Watergate," opposite Petit Wales, mentioned 1334 (Ct, H.W. I. 418).
So called in contradistinction to the Watergate in Castle Baynard Ward (q.v.).
In later times the lane leading to it, i.e. " Water Lane," is called Watergate (S. 137), and 1541 (L. and P. H. VIII. Dom. S. XVI. p.239).
There seems to have been another Watergate further east by the bulwark of the Tower (S.44).
Position shown in Haiward and Gascoigne's map of the Tower, 1597, and in O.S. 5 ft, 1875.
Site now occupied by the Custom House Wharf, etc.
Wateringplace, Castle Baynard
South out of Temple Street to Victoria Embankment, within the precinct of Whitefriars, in Farringdon Ward Without (Strype, ed. 1720-O.S. 1880)
"Waterman's Lane" (Tradesman's Token issued 1649-72, Burn, 204-Boyle, 1799) Site rebuilt for business purposes soon after 1880.
See Waterman's Alley.
See Fruyterers' and Watermen Hall.
Watermen's and Lightermen's Hall
On the west side of St. Mary at Hill (Street) at No. 18. In Billingsgate Ward (P.O. Directory).
Erected in 1786 (Elmes).
Formerly in Cold Harbour, Upper Thames Street, facing the river (O. and M. 1677-Strype, ed. 1755).
On part of the site now occupied by the City of London Brewery (q.v.).
Charges regulated by Act of Parliament, 1514.
The Company was incorporated 1555.
About 40,000 temp. Q. Elizabeth, now about 12,000.
See Duke's Wardrobe.
East from St. Paul's Churchyard to Queen Street, at its junction with Queen Victoria Street (P.O. Directory). In Cordwainer and Bread Street Wards and in Farringdon Ward Within.
First mention: Street leading from Cordwainer Strete to Bredstrete," 14 H. III. (Anc. Deeds, B. 1971).
In subsequent deeds, which seem to relate to the same property, it is described as "Watlyngstrete."
Called "Watlingstrate," 1307 (Ct. H.W. I. 186).
Other forms, etc. : " Wattlingestrete," 13 Ed. II. (Anc. Deeds, C. 3541). " Watelyngestrete," 1349 (Ct. H.W. I. 548).
The form" Athelyngestrate " occurs 1272-3, and it seems probable from the description of the property that this is identical with Watling Street.
Earliest form: " Aphelingestrate," 1213 (Anc. Deeds, A. 1499). See Atheling Street.
In 1402 the church of St. Antonin is described as St. Anthonin de Watlyngstrete," which suggests that Budge Row at some earlier date may have been included in Watling Street.
Leland calls it " Atheling or Noble Streete," but since he showeth no reason why, I rather take it to be named of the great highway of the same calling (S. 348).
The original name seems to have been " Athelyngstrate," and it may be derived from the A.S. "aethel "=noble, or, as seems more probable, from the common personal name "Athel " or " Æthel." In this case the " W " is intrusive and may have been inserted by a copyist in error in some early deed and in this way have gradually gained currency.
On the other hand it may have been adopted as the name of the street, as being a branch from the famous highway of that name outside the City. For it is important to bear in mind in this connection that this street is not on the direct line of the Roman highway of Watling Street as Stow seems to suggest, although it was probably connected with it as a branch road traversing the City.
The Roman Watling Street from Dover to Chester seems to have crossed the Thames at Westminster, without entering the City, and its subsequent course has been traced along the present Edgware Road to Watford and beyond.
This would be the direct route, and it is not likely that London was, at the time of the formation of the Roman Watling Street, of sufficient importance to cause the diversion of the military road from its straight and direct course. But it is quite possible that an alternative route through the City was constructed before long and that the Ermine Street may have entered the City near the site of London Bridge. A branch from this road westwards through the centre of the later Roman City would connect it with the Watling Street, and the remains of such a Roman road, narrower than the military high way, but with a substratum of chalk and a pavement of flint, have been found at the eastenn end of the present Watling Street and in Budge Row at a depth of 20 ft.
On the east side of St. Katherine's Dock by Little Thames Street, in Lower East Smithfield (Lockie, 1816).
Not named in the maps.
Watter Cook Alley
See Farthing Alley.
See Water Street.
In St, Catherine's Lane (Dodsley, 1761, to Boyle, 1799).
Not named in the maps.
See Wancelines lane.
Wax Chandlers' Hall
At the north-east corner of Gutter Lane, on the south side of Gresham Street (P.O. Directory). In Cripplegate Ward Within.
First mention: S. 300.
New built 1657 and again 1852. Archt., C. Fowler.
Company recognised as a Fraternity 1372, incorporated 1684.
Twenty-ninth among the City Companies.
Maitland describes the Hall in 1775 as a handsome though not a spacious old building and lately well repaired and beautified.
A certain house within Algate called "la Weyhous" for weighing corn on its way to the mills, fallen down and repaired, 32 Ed. III. (1358) (Cal. L. Bk. G. p.104).
No later mention.
See Weigh House.
See Wood Street.
Weatmoreland Court, Passage, Aldersgate Street
See Westmoreland Buildings.