Two Early London Subsidy Rolls. Originally published by [s.n.], [s.l.], 1951.
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The Subsidies and the London Population.
I. Immigration into London.
Taxpayers were normally London citizens, and the persons mentioned below must be considered to have been generally freemen of London. People resident in London who were not freemen did not contribute to the subsidies, except sometimes voluntarily. But in the earlier subsidy several taxpayers seem not to have been freemen, and even some aliens may have been contributors.
A. Immigration from abroad.
In order to determine whether a taxpayer was of alien origin, we have some direct information, but mostly there are only the names to go on. Evidence of the latter kind must be used with caution, since some people with a foreign surname may have belonged to families that had been resident in England for generations, or else have adopted a surname of foreign origin, because it was that of a master.
In the lists below an attempt is made to distinguish between people who may be supposed to have immigrated in the period of the subsidies and such as were descendants of London citizens. The persons are generally arranged alphabetically in the various sections.
1. The Subsidy of 1292.
(a) People of French or possibly French origin.
John Darmenters, (fn. 1) draper (Dowg). A "foreigner" (that is, not a freeman) in 1275.
Alice de Arraz (Cordw) was the widow of Robert de Arras, merchant, alderman, who occurs in the records from 1268 on. There were people with this surname in London about 1200. Hankin de Arras (Cordw) may have been connected with Robert.
(c) Flemings or Dutchmen.
Bartholomew le Estreys (fn. 2) (Bill). Probably a merchant of Hamburg.
Gerard Merbode, merchant (Dowg). He is called merchant of Almain in 1272 and was alderman of the German Hanse. (fn. 3)
2. The Subsidy of 1319.
(a) People of French or possibly French origin.
Hugh and Roger Bret (Aldersg), Laurence le Bret, probably a goldsmith (FarrE), Robert le Bret, goldsmith (CripI). Laurence was a son of Philip le Bret (1316 Will), and Robert a son of Richard le Bret. Bret is a surname of old standing in London.
Surnames of an unusual or a peculiar kind may indicate French origin. A probable case is Henry Nasard, draper (Dowg). He became a freeman after 1306. Michael Myniot, vintner (CripI) does not seem to have been London born, since he was reminded in 1320 of the oath he had taken on his admission to the freedom (LBE 122). Other possible cases are James Maucouenant, cook (BreadSt), Robert Sayleben, cook (BroadSt), John Traynel (Cheap).
Bankyn de Brounlexk (fn. 4) (Cand). A merchant of Florence. Not a freeman in 1319.
(d) Flemings and Dutch.
B. Immigration from the English provinces (inclusive of Wales, Scotland and Ireland).
As already mentioned, a great many taxpayers in 1292 and 1319 have surnames derived from places or districts outside London. Such names point to immigration into London of people from these places or districts. But it must not be concluded that all taxpayers with such names had actually moved to London from the provinces. Many were descendants of people who had immigrated in an earlier period. Others had taken over a master's surname; some of them may have been London born. There are also some taxpayers with a surname not of the local type who can be proved to have come from the provinces.
Every local surname of the type under discussion gives evidence of immigration into London and is thus of interest. But what is of most importance is to try and find out to what extent such immigration had taken place in the period covered by the rolls. For the people in the earlier roll it is difficult to find sufficient material, because the London records for the early and middle thirteenth century are meagre. If a surname is first recorded towards the end of the century, we cannot be sure that it was introduced into London by the taxpayer of 1292, but we may suppose that many who had a local surname not with certainty evidenced earlier in London, at least in the same ward, were actually immigrants. For the early fourteenth century the material is abundant and allows of safer conclusions.
In the lists below are included also people exempted from taxation and the aldermen mentioned in the Subsidy of 1292. The word "taxpayer" is thus here used somewhat loosely. The persons with surnames of the kind under discussion who were exempted are few, only a dozen or so.
1. The Subsidy of 1292.
The Home Counties.
16 taxpayers, inclusive of Richard le Heymongere [CripI 32]. Gilbert and Robert de Fulham were very likely connected with earlier fishmongers called de Fulham. John de Stebeheye was a nephew of John de Stebenhethe senior (1281-2 Will). These were probably London born.
Only 9 taxpayers, inclusive of Robert Podyfat. Alice de Eure (£1) was the widow of John de Evere, ironmonger, the first bearer of this surname in London noted. High taxpayers: Adam Bekenisfeld, fishmonger, and William de Heure, ironmonger (£2), Robert de Colebroc and William de Graue (£1).
22 taxpayers. Peter de Brauhinge, bureller (£2), and Gilbert and William de Pelham (the latter's tax 2 m.) probably had early London connections. Relatively high taxpayers: John de Chelse, chandler (1 m.), John de Hertford (50s.), William de Red, skinner (1 m.), Vincent de Sterteford, woolmonger (£1), Margaret de Sterteford, widow of a glover (2 m.), William de Storteford, pepperer (£5), Richard Toterich, hosier (2 m. with his partner), William de Ware of Qu (£5).
35 taxpayers, inclusive of John le Joignur (Vi). Wolmar de Essex, alderman of Bill, may have been connected with Eadwin (early 13th) and Edmund de Essex (1260 ff.), Gilbert de Assindone, mercer (1 m.), with Robert (1276 ff.). Thomas de Frowyc, goldsmith, and Robert Frowick, cordwainer, belonged to an old London family. Lucas and Richard de Hauering (Lucas's tax £5) and Reginald de Thonderle, draper, sheriff (£2), may have inherited their surnames. Most taxpayers had small assessments (2s. to 6s. 8d.), but we may note Richard de Chigewelle, fishmonger (£6), Roger de Essex, pepperer (£2), Henry de Fingrie, fishmonger (£4), Adam de Alingbery, skinner (30s.), William de Leyre, pepperer (£4), Walter de ripa de la Leye and Henry de St. Osy, vintner (£1), John de Wrytele, cheesemonger (30s.).
27 taxpayers, inclusive of Boydin Massecre. The Rokesles belonged to a family that had long been settled in London, or had derived the surname from members of it. They had taxes of from £3 to £1. Otherwise taxes were small, except for John de Boctone, coffrer, Thomas de Kent and Roger de Schorne, fishmongers (2 m.), Hary de Kent, hosier (£1), John de Romeneye, cornmonger (£2), John de Sandwic, cordwainer (1 m.).
12 taxpayers. Richard de Bernes, fishmonger, seems to have had early London connections. Relatively high taxpayers: John de Gildeford, pepperer (£2), William de Kersauntone, cordwainer (16s.), Richard de Wendlesworthe, corder, sheriff (£3), and William de Wendesworthe, corder (£2).
Home Counties (unspecified).
Five taxpayers: Rand' de Boreham, Walter de Borham and his brother, Hugh de Clopham, Thomas de Waledene (the last son of a London citizen). Adam de Fulmere (10s.) and John de Fulmere, woolmonger (£1), may have come from Bucks or Cambridgeshire, John le Mareshal (Walbr) from Surrey or Cambridgeshire, and William de Renham (1 m.) from Kent, Essex or Norfolk.
The East Midlands.
13 taxpayers. Nicholas de Lintone, Robert de Queie (1 m.), and John de Ryplawe, ironmonger (1 m.), had early London connections. Relatively high taxpayers: John de Brinkele, cornmonger (£1), Richard de Caumpes, ironmonger (£2), Reginald de Meldeburne, armourer (1 m.).
14 taxpayers, inclusive of Alan le Potere (Ports). John de Meleford, fruiterer, is called "junior" in 1292-3. Alan de Suffolk, cordwainer (£1) and A. de Suffolk, taverner (both of Vi), may have been connected with Alexander de Suffolk (will enrolled in 1277). The highest taxpayers were Fulk de St. Edmund, bureller, sheriff (£5), Thomas de Suffolk, skinner, sheriff (£4), Edmund de Suffolk of BishI (10s.).
Four taxpayers, three with the surname Lincoln. Katherine de Lincolne was the widow of John de L., draper, apparently a son of Adam de L., mentioned 1266 Pat. John de Lincolne of Vintry had a tax of 10s.
13 taxpayers, 6 with the surname Northampton. High taxpayers: Peter de Bosenham, skinner, sheriff (£4), Philip de Norhamptone, fripperer (£1), Robert de Tiphelde, skinner (1 m.), Walter de Waldegraue, chandler (£1).
The East Midlands (unspecified).
Southern and South-western Counties.
10 taxpayers, 5 with the surname Winchester. Thomas de Basinge, woolmonger, alderman (£5), William de Wyncestre, woolmonger (1 m.), and probably Ralph de Wincestre and William de Wyntonia of CripI, draper (£1), belonged to old London families. The others generally had small taxes.
Southern Counties (unspecified).
The West Midlands.
Northern England and Scotland.
Some 60 taxpayers have surnames whose provenance cannot be determined, because derived from place-names found in various parts of England. For some connection with earlier Londoners can be established or made probable, as for Peter de Kumbe, woolmonger (30s.), William de Graueley, painter, John de Affeld, bureller (£1), William de Hanintone, skinner, Robert de Staundone, probably a plumber, Roger de Wautham (1 m.).
Comparatively high assessments have been noted for Adam de Burtone, skinner (£1), John de Dene, woolmonger (£2), Ralph de Langeford (1 m.), Thomas de Neunham, goldsmith (£1), Robert and Stephen de Prestone, corders (2 m. jointly), Andrew de Staunford, skinner (2 m.), Stephen le Chaucer, alias de Upton (2 m.), Richard de Weleford, hosier (2 m. with his partner), John atte Wode, fishmonger (2 m.).
A number of taxpayers with other than local surnames in the roll of 1292 seem not to have been freemen, but became such later. Several cases have been noted. They will be discussed in Chap. VI, I, a. The probability is that these people were not of London birth.
2. The Subsidy of 1319.
The taxpayers with local surnames taken from places in England outside London, or otherwise associated with such places, number no less than about 870. Many of these were doubtless London born and had inherited the surname or adopted it from a master. But a considerable number of taxpayers must have come to London in the period just before the time of the subsidy. Many are known to have been admitted freemen in the first or second decade of the fourteenth century.
The Home Counties.
53 taxpayers. Some of these were doubtless London born. The three woolmongers with the name de Hakeneye, Richard, alderman, Simon (both of Bill) and Robert (of Tower), were doubtless connected with Osbert de Hakeneye, woolmonger (of Bill) and William de Hakeneye, woolmonger (1277-1302). These were high taxpayers (10 m., £10 and £1 respectively). Gregory de Fulham was a son of Adam de Fulham, alderman, whose real name seems to have been Blund. Others belonging to this group were Nicholas de Haleforde, goldsmith (10s.), Walter de Stebenhuthe, chaloner, Simon de Thornham, fishmonger.
9 taxpayers are known to have been admitted shortly before 1319, Thomas ate Brom, kisser, William de Hakeneye, currier, Nicholas de Hestone, currier, James le Kissere (of Heston), Roger de Mimmes, chandler, John de Totenham, chandler, Nicholas de Totenham, brewer (tax 10s.), Thomas de Westminster, goldsmith, and John Gubbe, alias de Woxbregge (Uxbridge), stockfishmonger.
There were few high taxpayers, apart from those mentioned: Thomas de Braynforde, fishmonger (£1), Roger de Edelmetone, tanner, and Gilbert de Istelworthe, dyer (both 11s. 8d.), William de Stanes, cordwainer, and John de Stebenhuthe, cornmonger (both 1 m.). Most had small taxes, 23 only 2s. or less, and the majority were craftsmen such as curriers, tanners, chandlers, fusters, or small dealers.
Only 12 taxpayers. William de Merlawe, cutler, may have been an apprentice of Henry de Merlawe 1292 S. Three are known to have been admitted in 1310-11 or later, Henry de Amondesham, capper, John de Amondesham, an apprentice of Henry, and John de Bledelowe, baker. There was one very high taxpayer, John de Wengraue, clerk, alderman and Mayor (£20), and two medium ones, Reginald de Aylesbur' (1 m.) and Thomas de Chetyngtone (11s. 8d.), both probably merchants.
67 taxpayers. Not a few of these were very likely sons or apprentices of London citizens, as Geoffrey Anesty, perhaps a draper (16s.), William de Braughyng, bureller (16s. 8d.), John de Gatesdene, brewer, Benedict de Rikemersworthe, capper, Peter and Thomas de Ware, stockfishmongers, John and Thomas de Ware, butchers.
Many are known to have been admitted about 1309 or later, but a few of them may have taken a master's surname, as Thomas de Crokesle, cornmonger, Laurence de Haddham, tanner, and Henry de Ware, ironmonger. Others were: Geoffrey le Goldbeter (or de Aldenham), John de Benyngho, woolmonger, William Payn, fuster (of Bovingdon), Robert atte Hulle and John Neuman, tanners (both of Hadham), Richard de Hodesdone, fishmonger (22s. 3d.), Thomas de Hoddesdone, fripperer, William de Hodesdone, apothecary, Adam de Sancto Albano, ironmonger (£1), John Blaket, cornmonger (of St. Albans).
There were a few high or relatively high taxpayers, apart from those mentioned: Ralph de Berkwey, cornmonger (1 m.), Agnes de Braughyng (33s. 4d.), Ralph de Braghyngg, girdler (10s.), John de Chelse, chandler (22s. odd), Geoffrey de Gedelstone, cutler (10s.), Ivo Persiual, woolmonger, of St. Albans (2 m.), John de Redeburne, poulterer (£1), Richard Lusscher, alias de Tateregge, tanner (8s. 4d.).
Several taxpayers had early London connections. Roger de Frowyk, goldsmith and alderman (tax £4), came of an old London family, and so doubtless did Thomas de Conyngham. Some people with surnames such as Berkynge, Canefelde, Hallingbury, Manhale, Peryngdon, Writele were sons of London citizens or connected with such. William de Leyre is also in 1292 S.
16 are known to have been admitted in 1309 or later, but some doubtless had a master's surname and need not have come from Essex: Adam de Kanefelde, butcher, Alan de Chikewelle, fishmonger (tax £2), Thomas de Chikewelle, cordwainer (10s.), Richard de Herlawe, butcher. Others were: John de Asshyndone, tailor, Ernald le Chaundeler (of Berden), John de Claktone, tailor, John de Herwardstok, mercer, William de Matthyng, William le Lacer, alias de Aungre (10s.), John Belamy, merchant, of Great Sampford (£2), John de Shenefelde, cordwainer, William de Schenefelde, tanner, Sewal de Godesname, alias de Springefeld, paternostrer (8s. 4d.), Ralph de Wandlesworthe, corder (of Broomfield), John de Warle, merchant (1 m.). Hamo de Chikewelle, fishmonger, alderman and Mayor (tax £2) was really Hamo de Dene, but this surname may have been taken from a place in Essex.
There were relatively few high taxpayers, apart from those mentioned, the highest being William de Leyre, pepperer (40 m.), Thomas de Roqeswelle (10 m.), William de Hokkele, stockfishmonger (43s., 4d.), Richard de Berkyng, fishmonger (30s.) and William de Leytone, woolmonger (£1). A few had taxes of from 11s. 8d. to 10s.
48 taxpayers, 12 with the surname de Kent. The three de Rokesles belonged to an old London family; their taxes were remarkably small (5s. to 20d.). Benedict de Shorne, fishmonger (10s.) was a son of Roger de Schorne [1292 S], and Gilbert de Lesnes, goldsmith (10s.), may have been connected with his namesake in 1292 S. Most had no obvious connection with earlier London citizens.
Some were admitted about 1310, as John de Bekenham, mercer, Adam de Cantuaria, A. de Cobhampburi, cheesemonger, William de Craye, butcher, Alexander le Cordewaner (of Greenwich), John de Lesnes, tailor, Edmund de Leuesham, baker, and John de Leuesham, fishmonger (?).
Most were small taxpayers. The highest were Simon le Carpenter or de Cantuaria (1 m.), Stephen de Craye, stockfishmonger (31s. 8d.), Henry de Kent, hosier, and John de Kancia, dyer (£1 each), Thomas de Kent, bureller (16s. 8d.), John de Sellyngg, apothecary (£2), Henry de Shorne, fishmonger (1 m.).
47 taxpayers. Connection with earlier Londoners is probable for some, as for Roger de Bernes, fishmonger (tax 30s.), Thomas do Dunlee, pepperer, Nicholas de Reigate, girdler, Richard de Wandlesworthe. John de Stokwelle, painter, is in 1292 S.
15 are known to have been admitted in or after 1309: John de Benstede, wax-chandler, William Schep, potter (of Burwood), William le Faunt, alias de Camerwelle, skinner (16s. 8d.), Walter de Mordone of Croydon, stockfishmonger (16s. 8d.), John de Ewelle, glover, Thomas de Kauendishe of Ewell, mercer (1 m.), John de Godestone, hosier, Adam de Kyngestone, fishmonger, John Lok of Ockley, cornmonger (11s. 8d.), Walter de Pappeworthe, dyer, alderman (16s. 8d.), John and Richard de Porkesle, painters, Richard de Talleworthe, shipwright, John le Fayner, alias de Wandlesworth, haymonger, Richard de Yietyngg, fripperer (8s.).
Home Counties (unspecified).
23 taxpayers. The four Borehams may have been connected with earlier London citizens. Sampson de Waledene, bureller (1 m.), was doubtless connected with Thomas 1292 S. William de Nottele, carpenter (8s.), probably took the surname of Hugh de Notteleye.
Home Counties or the East Midlands.
9 taxpayers. Edmund de Grauele, painter, may have been connected with William 1292 S. Four were admitted in 1311: John de Denham, fishmonger (8s.), Richard Bokskyn, alias de Gravele, fuster, Peter de Henham, hoder, David de Reynham, brewer. Roger le Palmer senior, cornmonger and alderman, was originally called de Coulinges. John le Mareschal of Walbr is also in 1292 S. A high taxpayer was Richard de Renham, cornmonger (£2).
The East Midlands.
15 taxpayers. Three, William de Alegate (of Ampthill), potter, Peter de Stoppesle, fuster, and Simon de Stoppesle, tanner, were admitted in 1311 or later; the last took his master's surname. Highest taxpayers: Nicholas de Donstaple (16s. 8d.) and John de Stoppesle, tanner (10s.).
26 taxpayers, several of whom had early London connections: Yter de Compes, a son of Richard de Caumpes, ironmonger 1292 S, Geoffrey de Caumpes, perhaps an apprentice of the same, Maud de Cakestone, widow of William 1292 S (£2), David de Dullyngham, butcher, Roger de Eli, fishmonger (£2), Geoffrey de Meldeburne, merchant (£6 13s. 4d.), John de Pampesworthe (BreadSt), son of a London cordwainer. Denis de Cantebrigg' is Denys le Orfeure 1292 S.
6 were admitted in 1309 or later: John de Badburgham, hatter, Gilbert de Balsham, saddler (perhaps a master's surname), Thomas de Balsham, cheesemonger, Richard de Dokesworthe, ironmonger, Robert de Knapwelle, skinner (10s.), John le Quilter. (16s. 8d.).
29 taxpayers. John de Bradelee was probably connected with Geoffrey de Bradelee, girdler (1310-11 Will), and Thomas de Bury was a son-in-law and probably an apprentice of Roger de Bery 1292 S. The Cavendishes probably belonged to or were connected with a London family.
8 were admitted in 1309 or later: Hugh Herre, cornmonger, of Battisford (£1), John de Dallingg junior, mercer, Geoffrey Cocus (of Dennington), Roger de Donwyco, skinner, John de Ypeswiche, mercer, John Knapwedd of Ipswich, mercer (10s.), Alan Gille of Somerleyton or Somerton, cornmonger (2 m.), Geoffrey de Sudbury, pepperer.
15 are known to have been admitted in or after 1309. Apart from those mentioned below they are: Thomas le Parchemyner (of Bawdeswell), Simon and Walter le Foundour (of Ellingham), Geoffrey le Foundour, William de Foundenhale, hatter, Hugh de Hecham, lime-burner, Thomas de Lodene, woodmonger, Henry le Fisshemonger, alias de Redenhale, John le Tableter.
John de Aylesham, mercer and alderman (5s. 4d.), was admitted in 1312. John de Berlingham, woolmonger (10s.), was admitted in 1311. Thomas de Blakeneye, draper (£2), may have been an apprentice of Adam (1295 Will) or of Peter (1311 Will). John de Castelacre, goldsmith, had a tax of 10s. The Caustons, an important family of mercers, are first represented by William (1297-8 Will). A nephew of his was William, mercer and alderman (10 m.), and a relative probably John, mercer and alderman (£1). John de Colkirk, tailor, had a tax of 8s. 4d. John de Dallingg, mercer and sheriff, had a tax of 2 m. John de Depham, mercer, was admitted in 1309- 10. It is doubtful if Andrew de Depham (10s.) was connected with him. William de Elsyngg, mercer (1 m.), founder of Elsing Spittle, shows no early connections with London; his brother was Richard de Elsyngg, mercer. Benedict de Fulham (for Fulsham), pepperer, alderman (16s. 8d.) may have been connected with Thomas de Fullesham 1292 S. Elias le Callere of Garboldisham, mercer (44s. odd), was admitted in 1310-11. William de Hakeforde, mercer (11s. 1d.), had no known early London connections. William de Hedersete, mercer and alderman (£1), may have been connected with Nicholas, mercer (1290 Will). Richard de Horsham, mercer, was elected a sheriff in 1312. Simon de Parys (of Necton), mercer, alderman (10 m.). John de Pykenham, paternostrer (2 m.), had no known early London connections. The same is true of Richer de Refham, mercer, alderman, Mayor (8s. 4d.). Elias de Salle, mercer, had a master's surname; he was admitted in 1310-11. Andrew de Secheforde, mercer (6s.), was a son and Henry de Secheforde, merchant and alderman (1 m.), a kinsman of Albin de Seccheford, mercer, the first known bearer of the surname in London. Richard Starcolf, mercer (6s. 8d.) was admitted in 1311. Robert de Worstede, mercer (£4) may be identical with Robert 1292 S, the first known bearer of the surname in London. Nicholas de Yernemuthe, perhaps a skinner (£2), is first recorded in 1292 S.
27 taxpayers, 7 with the surname Lincoln. Peter de Bolyngtone (1 m.), Richard de Bolyngtone (10s.), both fishmongers, and Hugh de Bolyngtone may have been connected with William (1281 ff.), John de Lyncolne, cordwainer (33s. 4d.), with John [1292 S.].
5 or 6 were admitted in or after 1309: John de Grantham, pepperer (70s.), Richard de Holebeche, hosier (1 m.), Robert de Casteuene, tailor, Hugh de Lyncolne, skinner, Notekyn de Lincolne, if identical with Richard, skinner (£2), William de Messyngham, mercer (1 m.). Again we note several members of the merchant class.
7 taxpayers. The most prominent one was John de Pulteneye, (fn. 5) draper, alderman and Mayor (£1). Next as regards tax come John de Wymondeswolde (16s. 8d.) and Nicholas de Segraue (5s.), possibly a knight.
10 taxpayers. Ralph de Blythe, saddler (20s.), may have been connected with earlier London citizens. John de Nothyngham, fripperer, was admitted in 1310, Thomas le Mirurer, clerk, of Selston in 1312. Geoffrey de Notyngham, skinner, had a tax of 11s. odd.
The East Midlands (unspecified).
12 taxpayers. Thomas and William de Walepol, goldsmiths, may have had early London connections. The following were admitted after 1309: Richard Madour of Fakenham, capper (8s. 4d.), Adam Haudeby, brewer, John de Someresham, draper, Henry de Stowe, draper (2 m.). John le Mareschal of Barningham (of Cordw) had a tax of £1.
The East Midlands or the North.
Southern and South-western Counties.
Only four taxpayers. William de Canefelde, alias de Rygewyk, butcher, was admitted in 1312 and Henry de Denecoumbe, painter, in 1310, but both had master's surnames. The others were William de Arundel, horsemonger (11s. 8d.), and William de Wynchelse (15s.).
Richolda de Basyng was the widow of William, woolmonger and sheriff, who belonged to an old London family. William de Wyncestre, woolmonger (of Bill), was doubtless connected with William 1292 S (of Bill). Relatively high taxpayers were only John de Wyntonia, barber (1 m.), John de Wyntonia, cordwainer, and William de Wyncestre, brewer (both 10s.).
18 taxpayers. Stephen de Abyndone, draper and alderman (£5) was a son of Richard (1272-84), and so was perhaps Simon de Abyndone, draper and alderman (5 m.). John de Neubury, corder, was a son of Alan, merchant (1277, etc.), while Robert de Hakebourne, mercer, will have been connected with Richard 1292 S.
High taxpayers: William de Braye (£10), John de Braye (23s. 4d.), both woolmongers, Cristiana de Neubery (10s.). Thomas Cok, draper (40 m.), is also called Th. Cok of Abyndon, but the latter may be a master's surname.
Four taxpayers, or five, if John de Mountagu, tailor, took his surname from Montacute, which is very doubtful. The highest taxpayers were Henry de Somersete, baker (9s.), and Gilbert de Tauntone, saddler (5s.).
9 taxpayers, five with the surname Exeter. Henry de Coumbemartyn, woolmonger and alderman (£2), was a kinsman of William, alderman (1298-1318). Roesia Deueneys was perhaps the widow of Richard, tailor (1294-1310). Richard de Deuonia and Robert de Excestre were probably tailors, and Elyas le Armurer (or de Wodebere), admitted in 1310, a tailor or linen-armourer. The highest tax, apart from Henry de Coumbemartyn, was 40d.
8 taxpayers, or 9, if Henry Dymmok took his surname from Dymock. Two had the surname Bristoll. six the surname Gloucester. Henry de Gloucestre, goldsmith and alderman (tax only 6s. 8d.), may have been a son of William de Gloucestre (1252-68). Two or three other taxpayers with this surname seem to have been goldsmiths. The only high taxpayer was Richard de Gloucestre, draper and alderman (£10).
Southern Counties (unspecified).
The West Midlands.
Four taxpayers, all with the surname Hereford. John de Hereforde, saddler, may have had earlier London connections. Stephen de Hereforde, hatter (11s. 8d.) was admitted in 1311, Richard de Hereforde, draper, in 1309-10.
Five taxpayers. Henry de Ardena, merchant, was a son of William de Arderne, tailor. Simon Pottarius, alias de Flechamstede, was admitted after 1310-11. The highest tax was 20d. John de Kileworthe, draper, had a tax of 13½d.
The West Midlands (unspecified).
Northern England and Scotland.
18 taxpayers. Salerna de Beuerle was the widow of William, vintner. Hugh de Gartone, mercer and alderman (£10), and William de Gartone, mercer, were evidently connected with William de Garton (1298-1312). Henry Darcy, draper, alderman and Mayor (50s.), was admitted in 1310, Simon le Callere in 1309, Walter de Scardburghe, cook, in 1311. Simon de Swanlonde, draper, alderman and Mayor, had a tax of £20.
About 150 taxpayers had surnames derived from, or were associated with, places whose names are found in various parts of England, and it is generally impossible to determine which place was the name-giver. Most of the persons with such names were small taxpayers. Some can be connected with earlier London citizens with the same surname, as Nicholas de Bentele, John de Colewelle, mercer (1 m.), Thomas de Farndone, goldsmith, Laurence de Hanyntone, skinner (£1), connected with William 1292 S, Peter de Hatfelde, bureller, Geoffrey de Littlingtone, dyer, Roger de Netelstede, skinner, William de Neweport, fishmonger, Emma de Staunforde (1 m.), widow of Andrew 1292 S. Nicholas de Farndone, goldsmith, alderman and Mayor (11s. odd), was of London descent, the surname having probably been taken from a master.
About 25 are known to have been admitted in or after 1309. Some evidently had taken over masters' surnames. Examples are: Elyas de Bamptone, skinner (8s. 4d.), Walter Bois, batour, Henry de Bramptone, cook, William de Cestre, bowyer, Philip de Farnham, pepperer, Walter Gorst, pepperer (30s.), Hervy de Hales, woodmonger (a master's surname), John de Heslewelle, bureller, William Robert, alias de Hatfeld, butcher, Richard le Coffrer, alias de Hortone, John Edward, alias de Mortone, butcher, Adam le Nayler, alias atte Newecastel, William de Ottele, dubber, Walter Stok, William le Peautrer, alias de Suttone, Robert de Suttone, lorimer, Walter Larblaster, alias de Thorp, Roger de Waltham, butcher, William de Waltham, cordwainer, Ivo le Joignour, alias de Wattone, Thomas de Welleforde, hosier (doubtless a master's surname).
The highest taxpayers were John de Assheforde, woolmonger (30s.), John de Codyngtone, woolman (50s.), John de Coton, skinner and alderman (£2), John de Prestone, corder (5 m.). Relatively high taxpayers: Richard de Farnberghe, coffrer (10s.), Richard de Farnham, pepperer (10s.), Thomas de Hales, woodmonger (15s.), William de Hanyntone (11s. odd), Gilbert de Mordone, stockfishmonger (£1), William de Mortone, bureller (16s. 8d.), Henry de Prestone, corder (1 m.), Stephen de Prestone, corder (£1), Alan de Suttone, saddler (£1), William de Waltham, goldsmith (10s.), Nigel de Whatele, oatmonger (8s. 8d.).
The following persons with non-local surnames, admitted in or after 1309, may be identified with taxpayers of 1319. The surnames are given in the form of the Subsidy: Ralph Abraham, girdler, Aubin Larblaster, Adam Ballard, cornmonger, John Barette, cornmonger, John Barun, batour, Simon Blak, tableter, William Bon emfaunt, saddler, Robert Burel, cordwainer, Nigel le Carpenter, John le Chaundeler of FarrE, Simon le Chaundeler, Walter le Coo, John Cosyn, cook, Richard Coterel, cordwainer, N. Crane, butcher, John Eliot, carter, Ralph Elys, stockfishmonger, Hamo le Fishmonger, Richard le Forester, baker, Richard Hayn, baker, John Heryng, fripperer, Denis le Haymonger, Gilbert le Hurer (?), John le Litel, hatter, Peter Mory, butcher (8s. 4d.), John Mounde, cornmonger, William Muriele, poulterer, Robert Newecome, sealengraver, Robert Pany, mason, William Paskes, saddler, Simon Robes, pepperer (?), Richard Rolf, lorimer, Robert Sayleben, cook, Richard Soyl, butcher, Richard Sorel, cordwainer, Roger Swetyng, Richard Swyft, fripperer, Richard Trugg, girdler.
3. Summary and Conclusions.
The material collected in the preceding pages shows that the number of London people with surnames derived from places in England outside London or otherwise known to have come to London from the provinces, is very considerable in both subsidies, but that such people are relatively more numerous in the later than in the earlier one (in 1319 about 900 out of about 1,850 persons mentioned). It must again be emphasized that a good many of these people were doubtless London born, being either sons or descendants of earlier immigrants or else apprentices of people with a local surname. But we may suppose that a considerable number of these taxpayers were actually immigrants or at any rate sons of immigrants. Indeed it can be proved that many taxpayers with local surnames in the Subsidy of 1319 were immigrants. Moreover, there is no reason to suppose that the taxpayers with other than local surnames were all Londoners by birth. We have been able to show that many people with non-local surnames in the roll of 1319 appear with local surnames in other sources or can be proved by other evidence to have come from the provinces, and that not a few of them are known to have been admitted freemen shortly before 1319. In all probability many taxpayers with surnames of occupation or relationship or the like, on whose early history nothing is known, were likewise immigrants. All things considered, it is probable that the percentage of actual immigrants from the provinces in London about 1300 was high, but an approximate figure had better not be suggested.
In the Subsidy of 1292 taxpayers associated with the Home Counties form the largest group among what we may for shortness' sake call "immigrants". They are about 125 or almost half the number. But the probability is that many among the 60 persons placed under Various Counties came from the Home Counties, for instance those with surnames such as Graveley, Hadle, Hatfeld, Langele, Mordon, Nettlestede, Preston, Saunford, Stanford, Waltham, since places with those names are found in these counties. Next come taxpayers associated with the East Midlands, just under 60. The remaining groups are quite small, the taxpayers associated with the South and South-West being 32, those with the North of England 12, and those with the West Midlands 9 only. The majority of the taxpayers belonging to the last three groups had names taken from towns, such as Winchester, Oxford, Gloucester, Hereford, Coventry, York, Durham.
In the Subsidy of 1319 (fn. 6) the relative figures show certain important differences from those for the earlier subsidy. In comparing the figures for the two subsidies it must, of course, be remembered that the known taxpayers of 1292 are less than half the number of those of 1319. The taxpayers associated with the Home Counties still form the largest group, numbering about 350, yet considerably less than half the number of immigrants. But those associated with the East Midlands are a good second, numbering over 200. Southern and South-Western England comes third with 88 taxpayers, followed by the North with 34 or 35 taxpayers, and the West Midlands inclusive of Wales with 28. Oxfordshire has exactly 8 taxpayers in both subsidies, which means a relative decrease in 1319.
The small contribution given to the London population by the Southern and South-Western counties is striking. It is surprising that only two taxpayers can with certainty be assigned to such a county as Sussex in 1292, four in 1319. The numbers for Worcestershire and Warwickshire are two each in 1292, three and five respectively in 1319, for Staffordshire none in 1292, one in 1319.
But the point of most interest is the considerable rise in the numbers of taxpayers from the East Midlands in 1319, and especially the rise in the number of those associated with Norfolk from 7 in 1292 to 61 in 1319. Lincolnshire has risen from four in 1292 to 27, Leicestershire from one to seven. It is clear that a considerable immigration took place about 1300 from the East Midlands, especially Norfolk.
However, it is not only the numerical rise that is of interest here. As was pointed out in the discussion of immigrants from Norfolk in the Subsidy of 1319, it is a remarkable fact that very many among the people from that county belonged to the merchant class and appear as large or relatively large taxpayers in 1319, and the same is true to a certain extent of immigrants from other East Midland counties. Not a few aldermen, sheriffs, and even Mayors are among their number. We may note in the Subsidy of 1319 such prominent citizens as John de Grantham, John de Pulteneye, Richer de Refham, aldermen and Mayors, John de Aylesham, John and William de Caustone, Benedict de Fulsham, William de Hedersete, Simon de Parys, Henry de Secheforde (all Nf), Elias de Suffolk, Robert de Ely, Robert de Kelleseye, perhaps Roger le Palmer senior, all aldermen, John de Dallingg, sheriff, Richard de Horsham, elected sheriff. Of South Yorkshire were Henry Darcy and Simon de Swanlonde, aldermen and Mayors, Hugh de Gartone, alderman. No similar list could be drawn up for taxpayers associated with the Home Counties in spite of their large numbers; there are only Richard de Hakeneye (Mx), John de Wengraue (Bk), Richard de Berkyngg, Roger de Frowyk, William de Leyre, perhaps Hamo de Chikewelle (Ess), Walter de Mordone and Walter de Pappeworthe (Sr). If Berks is included in the Home Counties, Simon and Stephen de Abyndone are to be added.
This means that the merchant class, which formed the upper stratum of London society, (fn. 7) in the first two decades of the fourteenth century was very strongly recruited from the East Midlands. Now it is a known fact that the language of London in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries was of an East Saxon type, but that in the fourteenth century it changed its character and became in the main an East Midland dialect. It has been suggested that this change was due to an influx into London of people from the East Midlands. In this form the theory is hardly tenable, for the chief immigration into London was from the Home Counties, especially Essex and Herts. But the people who came from these districts were chiefly handicraftsmen and small dealers, only to a small extent of the merchant class. However, the theory may be modified in the following way. The immigration of numerous people belonging to the merchant class from the East Midlands may have influenced the language of the upper stratum of London society and given it a mainly Midland character, and the later Standard English may have grown out of this upper-class London dialect.
The material in the Subsidies of 1292 and 1319 is not sufficient for a definite solution of this problem. The influx of people from the East Midlands continued in the decades succeeding 1320 at least down to the middle of the century. The editor has collected voluminous material for London citizens with local surnames down to 1350 or slightly later, but it has grown so in bulk that it can hardly be published in full. It may be possible to work up the part of the material from the East Midlands and the North and publish it separately.