Historical Gazetteer of London Before the Great Fire Cheapside; Parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary Le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane. Originally published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London, 1987.
This free content was born digital. All rights reserved.
This property, at the W. end of the Cheapside frontage of the parish of All Hallows Honey Lane was bounded to the W. and N. by tenements in St. Mary Magdalen Milk Street, and to the E. by 11/2. In the early 13th century 11/1 appears to have formed part of a larger fee also including 2, 6, and 7. In the 15th century and later 1 was often described as 'at the Standard' in Cheapside.
The Herlison fee (1-2 and 6-7), early 13th century
Several properties on the Cheapside frontage of All Hallows Honey Lane lay on the fee of the Herlison or Herlicun family in the early 13th century. These were probably 1, 2, 6, and 7. In the late 12th or early 13th century the land and seld which had belonged to John son of Robert son of Herlicon were said to lie to the W. of 8, and in 1223-4 John son of John Herlicon was said to be the (?former) neighbour to the W. of 8. John Herlicun had a seld in the parish of St. Alphege de Hunilane (sic) in the early 13th century, from which he paid 12s. yearly to Solomon de Basing. Solomon granted 4s. from this rent to Clerkenwell Priory c. 1216 x 1222. By the 1530s the priory had ceased to receive the 4s. rent, so it is not clear from which property (of 1, 2, 6, and 7) it had originally come. In a list of illegal encroachments in 1246 both the nuns of Clerkenwell and the heirs of William Herlichun were said to have erected pentices: their names occur in a part of the list which seems to concern the N. side of Cheapside close to the site of 1, 2, 6, and 7. (fn. 1)
Thirteenth to sixteenth century
Apart from the Herlison connection, Ralph de Arcubus was the first known owner, in seisin before 1290. He was followed by Roger de Essex, who left it in his will proved in 1298 to Odo of Essex, his valettus, and his heirs, with remainder to London Bridge. The property was described as 3 shops, charged with a quit-rent of £4 to William Herlysun; two of the shops had been charged by Ralph de Arcubus with a rent of £3 for a chaplain in St. Mary le Bow, which Roger increased to £3. 6s. 8d. on the whole tenement. Socage of 4d. was due to the king before Easter. An Inquisition Post Mortem concerning Roger de Essex held in 1372 stated that Odo had died without issue at some unknown date and that the Bridge Wardens had then taken possession. (fn. 2)
In the 14th century, the Bridge Wardens let the 3 shops or tenements as 2 units. That to the W., (1A) described as a shop with solars over, was held by Matthew de Essex, citizen and apothecary, before 1325, when it was leased to John de Paston, citizen and apothecary, and his assigns for life at a rent of £4. 13s. 4d., the tenant to repair and maintain weatherproof and to pay the 4d. socage to the king. In 1339 Walter de Lychefeld, cook (keu), died in John de Paston's house in this parish as the result of a arrow-wound received at Tyburn (Mdx.) The tenure of John de Paston, spicer, had ceased by 1350, and in 1352 John de Bovyndon, citizen and apothecary, was granted a lease for life and two years of de Paston's former shop and solar(s); the tenant was to repair, and the rent was still £4. 13s. d., but £4 of this was remitted to him as present possessor of the £4 quit-rent once paid to William Herlysun from the whole property. (fn. 3)
Thomas de Maryns, 'spicer', occupied the 2 shops to the E. (1B) bounded by 2, in 1336 and before 1350, but no early leases survive. A rental of 1358-9 described 1A as one tenement situated between the tenement of Hugh de Waltham (probably in St. Mary Magdalen parish) to the W. and that of the Bridge (1B)to the E., the tenement of William de Wircestre (probably in St. Mary Magdalen parish) to the N. and Cheapside to the S., let at £4. 13s. 4d., and 1B as two tenements adjacent to the preceding to the E. of it, bounded to the E. by 2 and let at £7. 6s. 8d. 1A and 1B together were charged with a £4 quit-rent to John de Bovyndon and 4d. socage to the king. (fn. 4)
De Bovyndon died in 1361, and in 1363 1A, the single shop with solars, was leased to his widow Katharine for 20 years at a rent of £4. 13s. 4d., of which £4 was allowed to her for the quit-rent as before, and with repairs to the tenant. John Furneux or Furneys, who married Katharine de Bovyndon before 1372, was recorded as tenant of this tenement in 1375; William Thenfu d was tenant in 1384. John de Maryns, apothecary, held 1B in 1360; he died between 1381 and 1385, leaving his remaining term to his wife Mary. Although the tenants were bound to repair, the Bridge paid for small repairs to a chimney and for paving in 1389-90 and 1391-2. In 1404 William Burton was tenant of 1A at £4. 13s. 4d. rent, followed by John Tapelegh; John Pope was tenant of 1B in 1404, followed by William Grene and then by Robert Kyngeston, grocer, paying at first £7. 6s. 8d., then £5. 6s. 8d., then £6 rent. (fn. 5)
In 1460 the whole property, now described as 2 tenements in Cheap, was occupied by John Payne at £9. 6s. 8d. Richard Rawson succeeded as tenant at the same rent from 1466 to 1484. The tenants presumably continued to be responsible for repairs and maintenance, since the only expenditure by the Bridge House in the property during this period appears to be 3s. 6d. paid for cleansing a latrine in the tenement at the Standard in Cheapside in 1472-3. From 1484 the two tenements were let separately. One, presumably the larger and probably corresponding to the two shops let together earlier (1B), was let to Margaret Devaunt at £6. 6s. 8d. She paid the rent until 1496; in 1501 the tenant was John Hylle, 'marchaunte haberdassher', who in that year was allowed £2 for repairs done by him to the tenement at the Standard in which he lived; his rent of £6. 6s. 8d. was listed under 'vacations' for 1501-2, possibly in error, as Thomas Newse paid the same rent that year. A decrease of 26s. 8d. rent was noted in 1503 and 1507, but the rentals continued to record £6. 6s. 8d. as the rent due. Thomas Newse was the tenant in 1504 and 'late tenant' in 1507. The tenement was vacant from Michaelmas 1508. The other tenement (1A) was let for £3 to Emot Payne in 1484-96; Henry Payne paid this rent from 1501 to Easter 1509, when this tenement became vacant, remaining empty like 1B until 1537. The Bridge House property was described as a tenement or void plot of land in 1512. (fn. 6)
The descent of the quit-rents, thirteenth to sixteenth century
A quit-rent of £4 to William Herlyson was noted in Roger de Essex's will of 1298. (fn. 7) Reginald de Herlisoun left it, with numerous other rents, to Joan widow of Hamo de Belacre for life in 1316, with remainder to his own heirs. William Herlysoun his son quitclaimed in it to Joan de Belacre and her husband Edmund Peverel in 1333. In 1350 Joan, once more a widow, granted the quit-rent to John de Bovyndon, citizen and apothecary, with other rents, totalling £7. 1s.; Edmund son and heir of Edmund Peverel of Bokelond quitclaimed in the same. John de Bovyndon was allowed £4 against his rent while a tenant of the Bridge, as was his widow Katharine, to whom he left the total £7. 1s. rent for life, with remainder to his children in tail and then for sale. The children died without heirs and Katharine as executrix, with John English, rector of All Hallows Honey Lane, sold the £7. 1s. rents in 1368 to Adam Fraunceys, citizen, who immediately granted them to Katharine for life. (fn. 8)
Adam Fraunceys (d. 1374-5) left the reversion of the quit-rents to his son Adam and his son's wife Margaret in tail; Katharine may have died shortly after as Adam Fraunceys (the son) gave a receipt for the £4 quit-rent at Christmas 1375. The quit-rent was collected by Frauncey's renter in 1377, 1383, 1384 and 1404-12. Sir Adam Fraunceys, kt., died in 1417, seised of numerous rents and lands; his heirs were his daughters, Agnes and Elizabeth. His widow Margaret (his second wife) married Conan Ask and in 1425 successfully brought a plea of dower against Elizabeth and her husband Sir Thomas Charleton, kt., for a third share of lands and rents including the £4 rent from 1. Margaret died in 1445, holding this rent among others of the inheritance of Agnes, widow of Sir William Porter, kt., and Elizabeth, widow of Sir Thomas Charleton, kt., by their assignment. At this time, or possibly earlier, Agnes and Elizabeth partitioned their inheritance and when Elizabeth died in 1451 she was seised in fee of the rent; her heir was her son Thomas Charleton, esquire. (fn. 9)
Sir Thomas Charleton, kt., died in 1465, having granted all his lands to feoffees to the uses of his will in 1464; they received the rent immediately after his death, but his son Richard Charleton (b. 1449) received it from 1470 to 1484. Charleton was attainted for his support for Richard III, and the quit-rent passed to the Crown. The Bridge Wardens paid it to the earl of Oxford and Mr. Vampage from 1485 to 1487, to Sir William Vampage, kt., by the King's commission, from 1487 to 1499, and to Sir John Shaa, kt., in 1501-2. By 1508 the Bridge Wardens appear to have ceased to pay this quit-rent. In 1512, however, the King granted the rent, now said to be due from a tenement or void place of land belonging to the Bridge in All Hallows Honey Lane, to Thomas Bell for life, and in 1514 granted it to John Pate, groom of the wardrobe, and George Dukeworth, groom of the king's mouth in the cellar, in survivorship, but it seems unlikely that these grantees obtained anything thereby. (fn. 10)
A quit-rent of £3 from 1 was left by Ralph de Arcubus c. 1290 to a chaplain celebrating in St. Mary le Bow. Roger de Essex increased this to £3. 6s. 8d. by his will proved in 1298, in which the £3 quit-rent was said to derive from only 2 of the 3 shops forming 1. (fn. 11) These 2 shops might have been 1B: in 1358 the rector and parishioners brought a plea of intrusion for disseisin of the rent against the Bridge Wardens and John Maryns, then tenant of 1B. The wardens agreed to pay the rent and arrears. Payment of the rent is noted in 1384, 1404-12, and from 1460. The last date at which it is known to have been paid is 1501-2 and payment seems to have ceased by 1509. (fn. 12)
Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
After 1514 the king took possession of the property, presumably by way of recovering the £4 quit-rent, and in 1530 granted it, described as a tenement in Honey Lane, late of Richard Charleton, now occupied by John Harte, to John Pate, page of the wardrobe, of Bedfordshire. Presumably 'occupied' in this case need not imply 'inhabited', since the property was said in 1512 and 1536 to be only a void plot. Subsequently the king and the rector of St. Mary le Bow granted it to William Penyson, esquire, and his heirs for ever, from whom the Mayor and Commonalty bought it for £100. In 1536 the king granted them the property quit of all charges to the Crown, since they intended to rebuild it for the profit of the Bridge; it was described as late a messuage, fallen down and now desolate and a void plot in the 'most chief place' of the city. (fn. 13)
Between 1536 and 1538 the Bridge Wardens rebuilt the property as one house; the total cost is not separately recorded, but work included digging and laying new foundations, and making vaults and chimneys. Rooms mentioned include a hall with chamber over and another on the highest storey, a parlour with chamber over, a countinghouse, buttery, kitchen, jakes, and garret. In August 1536, before the rebuilding began, Rowland Edwards, clothworker, was granted the first tenancy for 10 years to begin when the house was ready, at £13. 6s. 8d., for which he paid 1d. in earnest. He paid £4 for just over a quarter's occupation in 1537-8 and £13. 6s. 8d. (which may have been regarded as £9. 6s. 8d. 'old' rent and £4 for the improvements) yearly until 1541. (fn. 14)
Nicholas Fuller, mercer, paid the rent in 1542 and 1543, when he also paid £2 for leave to assign his term to Robert Essington, leatherseller. In 1544 Nicholas Fuller was assessed for subsidy in this parish on goods valued at £150, and Robert Essington on goods valued at £20. It is not clear which was then occupying 1. Essington paid the rent from 1544 to 1548, Richard Fuller paid in 1548-9, Robert Keer in 1549-50, and Robert Essington again from 1550 to 1554. In August 1554 Essington got a new lease for 21 years at the old rent and £20 fine, and in September paid a further £5 for licence to assign the new lease to Michael (recte Nicholas) Backhouse, grocer. Backhouse paid the rent until 1584. The lease was probably renewed in the 1570s, but there is no record of this. In October 1584 Humphrey Wilde or Weld, grocer, was granted a lease in reversion of 'his dwelling house' (suggesting he was already in occupation) in Cheapside at the Standard, for 21 years from 1595, at a rent of £13. 6s. 8d. and fine of £200, payable in 3 instalments of £66. 13s. 4d. on sealing, at Christmas 1585 and at Christmas 1586. He was bound to repair and not to let or sell without licence. An allowance of £1. 3s. 4d. rent was made to Backhouse's wife in 1585; Nicholas Backhouse paid in 1586 and Weld paid the rent in 1587. (fn. 15)
(Sir) Humphrey Weld paid the rent from 1587 to 1610. In 1606 he and John Weld, esquire, of the Middle Temple, probably his son, obtained a new lease for 33 years from Michaelmas 1605, at the old rent and for a payment of £100, made not to the Bridge Wardens but to Rowland Smart, swordbearer, for his service to the City. Sir Humphrey Weld died in 1610 and was followed by (Sir) John Weld until 1624. William Geare paid the rent under John Weld's lease from 1625 to 1629. Lady (Frances) Weld, widow, paid from 1630. In 1633 she surrendered the current lease with 5 1/2 years to come, and the mayor and commonalty agreed to grant her a new lease of 36 years at the old rent and a fine of £500, to be paid in half-yearly instalments of £100 from Michaelmas 1633, on condition that she came to a suitable agreement with William Geare her tenant. A lease of the property, including use of the wainscot round the hall over the shop was drawn up, giving the dimensions of the property as 40 ft. 4 in. by 26 ft. 6 in. (12.22 m. by 8.03 m.) and naming William Geere, citizen and draper, and John Herricke, citizen and leatherseller, as the tenants. Lady Weld paid the fine but apparently did not have the lease sealed for some time.
In April 1633, Lady Weld was ordered to make a lease to Geare for 21 years at £100 rent, but seems not to have done so: in 1639 she was asked why she had not accepted her lease, which was ready for sealing, or performed the committee's order concerning Captain Geare. She replied that she would promise nothing until the lease, for which she had paid, was sealed, and that she had 'dealt kindly' with Geare. Lady Weld paid the rent until 1639, but Captain Geare was recorded as paying tithe in 1638 , when the house was valued at £90 p.a. In April 1640, Lady Weld had licence to let the tenement to Geare for 14 years, but in September that year had licence to assign her interest in the whole term to John Weld, esquire. He paid the rent in 1640, and in 1641 had licence to assign his interest to Geare. William Geare paid the rent to the Bridge from 1641 to 1645; in September 1646 he was licenced to assign to Philip Leman, gentleman, who in November that year had licence to assign to Edward Stretchley, citizen and salter. Stretchley paid the rent from 1646 to 1653. He had licence to assign to Thomas Sturges, citizen and gold smith, in 1652, and in 1653 Sturges assigned to William Geare, citizen and draper. (fn. 16)
William Geare surrendered the current lease with 16 years to come in 1653, and was granted a new lease for 61 years at the old rent and £430 fine, paid in hand. The tenement was described as measuring 41 ft. by 26 ft. (12.42 m. by 7.89 m.), and had 7 levels (cf. Fig. 1): at the bottom, two vaults and two cellars; above, two shops; first floor, a hall, kitchen, chimney, and two butteries; second floor, two large chambers and two butteries; third floor, 3 chambers, 1 wainscoted with two butteries; fourth floor, 4 garret chambers; top floor, 3 low garrets and the leads, indicating that the house was not the same height throughout. The house seems to have occupied the whole plot with no yard or backdoor. Geare was to repair, pave, etc., and could not divide the house, assign without licence, or harbour inmates. William Geare is recorded as paying the rent up to the Fire, except for 1664-5, when William Green (possibly a slip for Geare) was said to do so. (fn. 17) He had however devised the remainder of his term by will to his brother Michael, who settled it on marriage on his wife Susanna as her jointure. She was the leaseholder at the time of the Fire, when the tenement was called the Talbot. She was probably not the occupant, however: Richard Carpenter, silkman, occupied a house with 10 hearths, probably identifiable as 1, in 1662 and 1666. (fn. 18)
The Fire Court decreed in December 1668 that Susanna Geare's term should be extended by 36 years at the old rent, and that she should rebuild. She had some problems with the neighbour to the N. over building the party wall. (fn. 19)