Historical Gazetteer of London Before the Great Fire Cheapside; Parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary Le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane. Originally published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London, 1987.
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This property occupied the site on the corner of Ironmonger Lane and Cheapside between 17 on the N., and 105/16 on the E. In, and probably before, the mid-13th century 16-18 formed a single property belonging to Merton Priory (see 16), although there were already several distinct interests within 18 alone and the property was probably occupied as a number of separate units. In the later 13th century 17 and 18 formed a single property.
Thirteenth to fifteenth century
In this period two main parts of the property can be distinguished: the shops on the Cheapside frontage (there were four shops there in the mid-13th century, at least three in the later 13th century, and probably two after c. 1360) and the tenements behind.
At some time between about 1205 and 1218 Thomas de Haverille granted to St. Bartholomew's Hospital 12s. rent from one of these shops, described as a shop next to Ironmonger Lane which David the chandler (unctar') held from the donor. The grantees were to pay rents of 1d. to Geoffrey Crassus, tawyer (megucer), and 6s. 8d. to St. Bartholomew's Priory. In the mid and later thirteenth century St. Bartholomew's Hospital had 5s. 4d. rent from the property (see 16 and below). In the mid-13th century Elias de Prato held all four shops on the Cheapside frontage (see 16). By 1259 the shops in front of 18 were described in an abutment from 105/16 as those which Elias de Prato held from the hospital of St. Katharine by the Tower, and it was probably here that the master of the hospital of St. Katharine built the pentice which in 1246 was reported as an encroachment. Elias's family maintained an interest in the property and in 1283 one of the shops was probably that which the chandler (unctarius) Richard de Lamhuthe (possibly an error for de Stepenhethe, cf. below) held of John de Prato. In 1285 Silveus de Gatesden, citizen, and his wife Alice, daughter of the late Robert de Prato, granted to Andrew le Chaundeler two shops which had belonged to Robert, in return for a down payment of £2 and rents of 6s. 8d. to the grantors and their heirs, 13s. 4d. to St. Katharine's Hospital, 13s. 4d. to Adam le Taverner (probably Adam Bras, cf. below) and his heirs, and 5s. 4d. to the hospital of St. Bartholomew. The two shops occupied the E. part of the Cheapside frontage and were bounded by a shop formerly of William de Manhale (part of 105/16) on the E. and a shop of William de Manhale, junior (cf. below), on the W. They extended towards Ironmonger Lane on the N. At about this time the rent to St. Bartholomew's Hospital was due from a shop of Richard de Stepenhethe, chandler (unctarius, smeremongere), who was succeeded by Adam Bras (cf. below). The shop of William de Manhale, junior, may have been that which William de Manhale purchased from Roger le Braeler and Richard the chandler (unctarius) of Lambeth and which by his will, proved in 1278, he left to his apprentice Simon. (fn. 1)
An overall claim to 17 and 18 belonged to Master Henry de Godronelane, the surgeon of King Henry III, who bequeathed his houses in Ironmonger Lane to his sons William and Richard. In 1269 William and Richard, being of age, let these houses and other properties for a term of 6 years to Master Robert Surigioun of Friday Street and his wife Olive, who were to apprentice them to a suitable trade; if the grantors could not meet the expenses of the apprenticeship and of repairing the properties out of their issues, the grantees were to hold them for longer than the term but could not alienate them. By 1271 William granted his interest in these properties to Adam de Donecastr', rector of St. Mary Staining. In this grant 17-18 were described as tenements in Ironmonger Lane next to 105/16 and extending from Cheapside to the S. to 16 on the N., together with three shops in front next to Cheapside and a rent of 13s. 4d. from a shop of Robert le Blund (?part of 18) next to the tenement. William's brother Richard's interest in the properties appears also to have passed to Adam de Donecastr', who then granted both shares to Master Robert de Fridaystrate, surgeon, and his wife Olive, in whose favour by 1278 Master Henry's son Nicholas ratified these grants. Master Robert was in possession by 1277, when, in the course of enfeoffing Michael le Oynter of the house, he broke in and discovered that Simon de Winton, who used to keep a tavern there, had been murdered. Simon's head had been severed and placed in a secret, narrow, and dark place where coal was kept. The tavern may have occupied a cellar below and behind the shops on the main frontage. By 1280 Master Robert's widow, Olive, quitclaimed in 17-18 to Michael of St. Albans, citizen, who was evidently identical with Michael le Oynter, and his wife Gunylde. Richard son of Master Henry the surgeon, however, still maintained a claim to 17-18, and in 1281 sought to recover possession of two messuages from Theynolph le Bukeller (probably 17) and of a messuage from Michael le Oynter, a shop from William de Manhale, and another shop from John de Manhale (probably all parts of 18). The case was not pursued, but in 1288 Richard's brother William attempted to recover possession. William claimed a messuage and two shops (probably 17) from Theynwyn le Bokeler, who vouched Adam le Taverner (i.e. Adam Bras) to warrant. At the same time William claimed possession of two messuages and 9 shops (probably 18) from Adam le Taverner, his wife Typhania, John de Chelse, the master of St. Katharine's Hospital, William de Manhale and Alice Stokfis, the last four of whom were each said to hold a shop. These four shops probably occupied the Cheapside frontage, while the other five perhaps lay in Ironmonger Lane. The outcome of the claims concerning the four shops and the property of Theynwin le Bokeler is not known, but in 1289 a jury decided that Adam le Taverner had a greater claim than William to the messuage and five shops (18). It is probable that Adam le Taverner had succeeded to Michael le Oynter's interest in the property. In 1283 Michael's part of the property had probably included two shops held of him by the chandlers (unctarii) William de Manhale (cf. above) and John de Chelse. These were evidently the two shops which William de Langele (?alias William de Manhale) and John de Chelse had held from Master Robert and in which by 1280 Robert's widow Olive quitclaimed to William and John. By his will, proved in 1323, John divided his shop on the corner of Ironmonger Lane in the parish of St. Martin between his sons Thomas and Robert. Robert's share was to revert on his death to Thomas and his heirs. (fn. 2)
Nicholas son of Master Henry the surgeon acquired a quit-rent of 13s. 4d. from his father's properties in St. Martin Pomary parish in Ironmonger Lane and in the 'vintry of Westcheap'. In 1274-7 Nicholas granted this rent to Master Nicholas de Muselege, clerk, in return for a payment of £6 and a rent of a clove. By 1290 Master Henry's son Richard confirmed this grant. Olive widow of Master Robert de Fridaystrate had a rent of £2 from 17-18 which fell into default and which she recovered in Husting from Master Nicholas de Temple, clerk (probably identical with Nicholas de Muselege). By 1284 she granted this rent to Nicholas de Temple in return for a payment of £2. 13s. 4d. and a rent of a clove. In 1289-90, when Nicholas de Mosele took naam for this £2 rent the tenement was in the possession of Adam le Taverner, also known as Adam Braz, taverner, who denied that Nicholas had seisin of the rent. Nicholas recovered possession of the rent and in 1318 his kinsman and heir, William de Musele, granted it to Robert de Keleseye, citizen and alderman. At this time the tenement was still held by Adam Braz and included houses, solars, cellars, and shops. Nicholas son of Master Henry the surgeon had a further rent of £1. 6s. 8d. from the property. He granted it to Master Robert the surgeon and his wife Olive, who by 1276 granted it to Ralph Blundus, citizen and goldsmith, in return for a rent of a rose. This was probably the rent of £1. 6s. 8d. which in 1274-5 Walter Hervi, citizen, who had acquired the rent from Nicholas son of Master Henry the surgeon, granted to Master Nicholas de Museleye in return for a payment of £12. 13s. 4d. By 1290 Master Henry's son Richard confirmed this grant. The rent then passed to Michael le Oynter, who granted it to Adam of St. Albans, junior, ironmonger. By his will, proved in 1289, Adam left the rent, which was due from the tenement of Adam Braz, to his daughter. In 1289-90 Adam of St. Albans's widow Isabel took naam for arrears. This rent was subsequently in the possession of Richard son of John de Writele, citizen and ironmonger, and after his death descended by inheritance to Adam de Salle, cofferer, who in 1322 quitclaimed in it to Adam de Conductu dictus de Burgoyne, taverner, and his wife Rose. By this time Adam Braz was dead and Adam de Conductu probably held much of the property and the tavern which it appears to have contained. In 1324 Rose, widow of Adam atte Conduyt, granted the £1. 6s. 8d. rent to Richard de Betoigne, citizen and alderman, to whom Adam de Salle, as son and heir of John de Salle, formerly a mercer, quitclaimed. (fn. 3)
Adam Bras appears to have held 18 and had a quit-rent of £1. 10s. from 17 (q.v.). By his will, proved in 1318, he left his tenements in Ironmonger Lane in the parish of St. Martin to his wife Theophania for life with remainder to his son John Bras. Robert de Kent, cordwainer, his wife Maud, and his sons William and John were living in a part of the property in April 1322, when the high solar in which they were sleeping and which Robert was said to hold of Adam Braz caught fire, causing the deaths of Robert and John. By January 1322 Adam's widow Theophania had married Reginald de Conductu, junior, and during 1322-3 with her new husband sought 3 pleas of naam against Ralph de Selves, hosier, who had seized goods in the tenement on account of a rent of 6s. 8d. which he claimed had been in arrears since 1301-2. Ralph was the son of Silveus or Silvester de Gatesden and the rent was evidently the one reserved by his father in 1285 (see above). Ralph claimed the rent from 2 shops in Ironmonger Lane which were then held by Henry de Welton, kinsman and heir of Roger le Chaundeler, who had held them of Ralph's father. In 1325 Ralph again took naam for the 6s. 8d. rent, which he claimed was 19 years in arrears, seizing candles, oil, and shoes belonging to Thomas de Chelse, who presumably now held the shop from which the rent was due. Thomas sought a plea of naam against Ralph who failed to follow up his claim, which seems then to have been extinguished. (fn. 4)
John Braz, son and heir of Adam Braz, was subsequently in possession of the whole tenement representing 18 and in 1330 granted it to the newly-founded Elsing Spital. In 1338 Richard de Betoigne granted his £1. 6s. 8d. rent from 18 to William de Elsyngg, citizen and mercer and founder of the hospital. De Betoigne's widow Margaret was presumably claiming dower in this rent in 1343 when she complained that de Elsyngg had disseised her of 8s. 10 1/2d. rent in the parish of St. Martin Pomary. By his will, proved in 1349, de Elsyngg left his estate in the parish to Elsing Spital. (fn. 5)
In the second half of the 14th century 18 appears to have been in the seisin of two landlords: the priory of St. Bartholomew, which had the shop on the corner, and Elsing Spital, which had the remainder. As we have seen, the priory had an interest in the property at the beginning of the 13th century, but it seems to have had no rent there in 1306. (fn. 6) Before 1367 the priory granted the corner shop to John Haukeshale, citizen and cutler, and his wife Alice for the term of their lives, and in 1367 John and Alice quitclaimed their right there to Thomas Whyte, chaplain. In the same year Whyte granted the shop, from which a rent of £2. 13s. 4d. p.a. was due to the priory, to William Twyford, citizen and cutler, for the remainder of the term of the lease to John and Alice. (fn. 7) In 1403-4 the part of 18 which belonged to Elsing Spital contained four tenements: one held by John Norman, goldsmith, for £1 rent, another held by John Beauchamp, bedell, for £1. 10s. rent, another held by Emmot Hathelstoke for £2. 10s. rent, and the fourth held by William Fyssche, tailor, for £4 rent, a total of £9 rent in all. William Fyssche was still tenant in 1406. Emmot Hathelstoke may have been identical with Emma widow of Thomas Hadstoke, citizen, mercer, and resident of this parish, who died in 1400. Thomas himself may have lived in this tenement. In 1424-5 one of the 4 tenements, later identifiable as 18B, was known as the Peauterpotte and Anneys Grene sold ale there. Elsing Spital still had 4 tenants here at Michaelmas 1448, but they now paid no more than £7. 6s. 8d. rent in all: Robert Hyll and John Cammyswell each paid £1, and John Walet and William Fleccher each paid £2. 13s. 4d. Cammyswell, a citizen and leatherseller who was also known as John Astlyn, appears to have come from Stortford (Essex) and may have acquired his name by having been an apprentice of the John Cammeswelle who held 95/5E between 1413 and 1420. Astlyn resided in the parish, probably in part of 18, in 1449 and had died by 1452. (fn. 8)
Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
In this period there were 4 main parts of the property, identified here as A-D. In the early 16th century C, on the corner, belonged to St. Bartholomew's Priory. A, B, and D belonged to Elsing Spital, and, since A comprised two tenements, probably corresponded exactly to the four tenements let in 1403-4. These tenements were now let for the nominal total of £10. 11s. 8d. rent. The Elsing Spital property was charged with quit-rents of 6s. to St. Bartholomew's Priory (which owed a 6s. rent from C in return) and £3. 16s. to Merton Priory charged on this property and 11/5-7 (£2 of this was probably due from 18 alone: cf. 16). Both these rents were extinguished in 1538. A quit-rent of 10s. to St. Katharine's Hospital was still being paid in 1546 when it was due from the Swan in Cheapside (D), the same property in which the hospital had had an interest in the 13th century. (fn. 9) By 1535 the two tenements in A had been united to form one, and by 1566 B and C formed a single property.
In 1498 this consisted of two tenements with shops, cellars, and solars which the Elsing Spital let to the existing tenant, Thomas Middlemore, citizen and mercer, for a term of 50 years at £2. 6s. 8d. rent. The landlord was to repair the property except for any addition to the structure which the tenant might make. In 1526 Middlemore sold his right in the property to William Wilkinson, who in 1530 sold it to Thomas Sutton, mercer. By 1535 the property was being described as a single tenement, and Sutton was living there in 1544. Elsing Spital was dissolved in 1536 and in 1545 the Crown granted the messuage, still held by Sutton, to Henry Audeley and John Maynard. Sutton purchased the freehold from John Maynard, gentleman, and died in 1556-7 leaving the house where he lived (18A) to his wife Anne for life and then to be sold. (fn. 10) Anne Sutton, Thomas's widow, still held the messuage in 1569-70 and died in 1571. The messuage then passed to her son Henry, who in 1581 as Henry Sutton of London, gentleman, with his wife Jane sold it to John Blounte, clothworker. At this time the messuage, with its solars, cellars, vaults, and yards, was inhabited by William Dennis. A William Dennis, citizen and grocer, occupied the messuage in 1610, and he or a successor of the same name was presumably the resident of this parish who died in 1624. (fn. 11)
The messuage remained in the possession of the Blounte family and William Blounte of Shenfield, Essex, gentleman, let it for a term of years at £16 rent. William was dead by January 1633, when Anthony Wallinger of Upminster, Essex, gentleman, and his wife Elizabeth granted and sold the messuage to William's son and heir William Blounte in return for a payment of £45. In May 1633 William, described as a student at Christ's College, Cambridge, sold the property for £200 to Abraham Wall, citizen and glazier. 18A was now described as three messuages then or lately in the tenure of William Dennys, (presumably the grocer who had died in 1624), Thomas Hall, and Robert Swanne. The property measured 30 ft. (9.14 m.) N./S. and 24 ft. (7.32 m.) E./W., and the lease to Dennys was still in force. Wall died in 1638 and left the property to his brother William, charged with a life rent of £20 to their father and a rent of £1 to the churchwardens of Hepponstall (Yorks.) where Abraham had been born, for charitable purposes. William Wall, citizen and plumber, died in 1656-7 and left the property, described as two messuages then or lately in the tenure of Mr. Box, 'druggister', and Mr. Moreton, mercer, to his wife for the term of her life. The messuages were to revert to Thomas Jewett, son of the testator's brother-in-law Thomas Jewett, who within five years of coming into possession was to pay sums in cash to his brothers and cousins. Box probably inhabited part of 18A in 1638, when his house in this parish was valued at £12 rent; the other part was probably inhabited by Mr. Clapper, whose house was assessed at the same value. (fn. 12)
William Wall's widow, Anne Wall, was still in possession at the time of the Great Fire. At that time 18A was probably represented by 3 dwellings: one of 6 hearths inhabited by Richard Playford, merchant; another, with 7 hearths, formed part of the residence of Ralph Box, who also occupied the adjacent property in St. Mary Colechurch parish (see 105/16); the third, with 1 hearth, was occupied by Elizabeth Bayly, probably an undertenant of Playford. In 1668 the site of 18A was said lately to have been held by Richard Playford. Mrs. Wall in 1672 made an arrangement with the churchwardens of Hepponstall and with those who had a reversionary interest in the property, which would enable her to undertake rebuilding. A strip of ground 4 ft. (1.22 m.) wide was cut off for enlarging Ironmonger Lane. In the event the rebuilding was undertaken at the expense of John Midgly, citizen and clothworker. (fn. 13)
In 1498 this was the tenement formerly called the Pewter Pott held and occupied by Richard Lyster, citizen and girdler. In 1517 Elsing Spital let the tenement with its shops, solars, and cellars to Ambrose Barker, citizen and grocer, for a term of 41 years at £4. 5s. rent, the landlord being responsible for repairs, paving, and cleansing, while the tenant was to be responsible for the glass and lattice windows. Lyster was still living in the property, for out of this lease there was reserved to him and his wife Joan for the term of their lives two chambers, a 'wyddraught' within the chamber called the 'presse chamber', a garret over one of the chambers, and the use of the parlour next to these chambers which they were to share with Barker. Barker was still tenant in 1540, when the Crown granted the tenement to him rent free for life. In 1558 the tenement was purchased from the Crown by Thomas Reve and Nicholas Pynder, who immediately sold it to Ambrose Barker, gentleman. (fn. 14)
In 1570 Leonard Barker, mercer, was said formerly to have inhabited B (see below). He was presumably identical with the Leonard Barker, a resident of the parish in 1541 and 1544 who died in 1551-2 and whose probate inventory was appraised by the 2 immediate neighbours of 18B, John Theyer (18C) and Thomas Ramsey (18D). According to the inventory Leonard held his dwelling house by lease for £3 rent, and he was presumably the undertenant of Ambrose Barker. By his will Leonard left the remaining term of the lease to his wife Elizabeth. The inventory lists the following rooms in the house and an indication of their principal contents is given in brackets: the hall (tables, stools, cushions, a picture of a woman); an entry between the hall and parlour (aumbreys, a quiver, a bread bin); the parlour (tables, stools, hangings, a looking glass, fire-irons); the chamber (probably the chamber also referred to as 'his own chamber'; it contained beds, bedding; chests, a little table); the chamber over the hall (a bed, bedding, chests, a hanging); the 'maydene chamber' (possibly occupied by women servants; it contained a bed, bedding, and chests); the chamber over the kitchen (a bed and bedding); the chamber behind 'his own chamber' (cf. above; beds and bedding, glass bottles, a sword, an axe, cupboards, chests, a counting-house, 'a ryste to wind silk', bowls of brasil; this had perhaps been the room where Barker conducted his business); a kitchen (pots, pans, fire-irons, a lead cistern and trough, distilling and washing apparatus); a warehouse (canvas, 'ware chests', saddles, ropes, sarplers, a lantern). (fn. 15) The arrangement of these rooms cannot easily be determined, but the house probably included a cellar and one or more of its upper rooms was probably over C, as was the case in 1570 (see below). The property extended in length along the Ironmonger Lane frontage and it is possible that the hall, parlour, and warehouse all adjoined the lane at ground floor level and that the kitchen was at the same level to the rear.
In 1559 Ambrose Barker granted the messuage with the shops, cellars, solars, halls, and chambers to William Pawne of Writtle (Essex), esquire, who in 1566 let it to the then occupant, George Diamond, citizen and clothworker, for a term of 18 years from the following year at £8 rent. The tenant was to repair (except for principal timbers), pave, and cleanse. Diamond died intestate, and in 1567 the administrators of his estate sold the lease for £23 to Michael Moseley, gentleman, who in 1568 sold it for £30 to Alice Moseley, widow of his brother Jerome Moseley. William Pawne's interest was inherited by his son, William Pawne of High Ongar (Essex), esquire, who in 1570 sold, granted, and quitclaimed in the property to Humphrey Theyer in return for a payment of £123. 6s. 8d. 18B was now described as a messuage with halls, parlours, chambers, cellars, solars, warehouses, yards, backsides, and wells and was bounded by A on the N. and D on the E. Since Cheapside was said to adjoin the property to the S., it probably included the upper rooms over C, which was now in the same ownership. B had formerly been occupied by Leonard Barker, mercer, deceased, (he died in 1551-2, cf. above), then by George Parkins, vintner, then by George Diamond, and was now occupied by John Wheatley, a citizen and weaver who had married Alice Moseley, or by Wheatley's assigns. By his will drawn up in 1571, Humphrey Theyer left this messuage together with the shop and cellar represented by 18C to his son Humphrey and his male heirs, with remainder to his son Anthony and his male heirs. (fn. 16)
B and C were now in the same ownership, but a series of transactions concerns the lease of B, which was due to terminate in 1585. In 1571 Wheatley and his wife sold their interest in the lease to William Dowgill, citizen and haberdasher, reserving to themselves and their assigns a little room and an entry to a washing house then occupied by Richard Ryder or his assigns. In 1573 Dowgill sold his interest in the messuage to John Blount, citizen and clothworker, who in March 1581 with Anthony Blounte, draper, sold his interest to Roger Easton. The room and entry reserved to Wheatley and his wife passed to Richard Ryder and his son Thomas Ryder, both grocers and owners of D, who in August 1581 sold their interest there to Humphrey Theyer. (fn. 17)
By December 1581 Humphrey Theyer had rebuilt the tenement. (fn. 18) This evidently led to a variance with Richard and Thomas Ryder as owners of D, which was settled by the mediation of an umpire in November 1581. The Ryders had enjoyed a 'box rometh' 2 ft. (610 mm.) deep over part of Theyer's shop (?C); this was now removed, and in exchange the water running out of their kitchen (which was on the first floor, cf. D, below) was now to flow in a lead pipe below Theyer's cellar floor into Ironmonger Lane; Theyer was to be allowed to set upright some laths which were set aslant at the back of his shop next to the Ryder's shop; the Ryders were to have a light at the back of their house out of Theyer's yard, apparently into their kitchen; and an arrangement was made for carrying the water off Theyer's buttery into the pipe which conveyed the water from the Ryder's house into the yard. (fn. 19)
Humphrey Theyer died in 1601 when B and C passed to his son, Humphrey Thayer, citizen and leatherseller, who that same year sold them for £300 to his brother Anthony Thayer, citizen and leatherseller, and his heirs and assigns. In 1606 Anthony granted at farm to Humphrey the moiety of this messuage, which was now known as the 'Crossekeys', for a term of 7 years at a peppercorn rent. The entail on this property made by Humphrey Theyer the elder in his will of 1571 (see above) was extinguished in 1609 by means of a recovery on a writ of right brought into Husting against Anthony Theyer by John and Roger Bourman. Anthony and his wife Anne were subsequently dwelling in the house, and in 1615 paid to have piped water from the New River introduced there. In 1621 Thayer let the Cross Keys to Richard Hull on a repairing lease for a term of 10 years at £76. 13s. 4d. p.a. rent. Nathaniel Deards, citizen and grocer, bound himself in £200 that Hull would pay this rent. The arrangement was perhaps intended to ensure the repayment of a debt to Thayer. (fn. 20).
By his will, dated 1625, Anthony Thayer left the property to his son John, with successive remainders to his sons Humphrey and Edward in tail male, to his female heirs, and to his right heirs. John died in the same year and so Humphrey entered into possession. In 1633 Robert Winch, citizen and draper, occupied the property as tenant and in 1638 was probably dwelling in the house, which was valued at £23 rent. In 1659 Winch took from Humphrey Thayer of Theydon Garnon, Essex, (evidently Anthony Thayer's son) a repairing lease of the messuage for a term of 21 years at £60 rent. A schedule of fixtures drawn up for the lease lists the following rooms in the house: the shop, the warehouse, the hall, the parlour, the kitchen, a chamber with a counting-house, the upper chamber (with a carved chimney piece), the middle chamber, and two leads (one above the other), making nine or ten rooms in all. In 1665 Thayer conveyed the property to Henry Traveis, gentlemen, with the intent, executed in the same year, that Traveis should suffer a common recovery to the use of Thayer, thus cutting off all entails and remainders (presumably those laid down in Anthony Thayer's will). (fn. 21)
Robert Winch still inhabited the property in 1666, when he was described as a silkman and occupied a house of 5 hearths. At this time another part of 18B-C, probably on the Cheapside frontage, was a house of 3 hearths occupied by Samuel Pilkington, silkman, who may have been Winch's undertenant. Soon after the Fire Winch quitclaimed to Thayer. In 1688 Thayer and his wife Margaret sold the site of the Cross Keys for £200 to Thomas Steane, citizen and wax chandler, who undertook the rebuilding at his own expense. The conveyance was completed by means of a fine, as a result of which Steane paid Thayer and his wife £60. A strip of ground 52 ft. 2 in. (15.9 m.) long, 4 ft. (1.22 m.) wide at the S. end and 3 ft. 4 in. (1.02 m.) wide at the N. end was cut off to enlarge Ironmonger Lane. (fn. 22)
In 1533 this was a corner shop and cellar formerly held by Thomas Daws, grocer, which St. Bartholomew's Priory let to John Theyer, leatherseller, for a term of 21 years at £3 rent. The tenant was to repair the windows, stalls, and floor and to pave outside at his own cost. The shop measured 11 ft. 10 in. (3.61 m.) by 11 ft. 5 in. (3.48 m.) and was 7 ft. 11 in. (2.41 m.) high. The cellar measured 9 ft. 8 in. (2.95 m.) by 10 ft. (3.05 m.) and was 7 ft. 3 in. (2.21 m.) high. The upper storeys over the shop were probably part of B. The priory was dissolved in 1539, and in 1544 the shop, still occupied by John Theyer, was sold by the Crown to George Bacon, gentleman, and George Baron, alderman, who immediately, and by prior agreement, granted it to Thayer in return for a payment of £40. (fn. 23) This property passed to Thayer's son Humphrey Thayer and from 1570 was in the same ownership and occupation as B (q.v.).
In 1531 this was a messuage with shops, cellars, and solars in Cheapside in which Thomas Man, citizen and grocer, had formerly dwelled (he had been a resident of the parish c. 1522-4) and which Elsing Spital now granted at farm to Gregory Langford, citizen and grocer, for a term of 23 years at £4 rent. The landlord was to repair and cleanse, except for any new building which the tenant might make. Langford was still tenant in 1544, when the Crown sold the messuage to George Bacon and George Baron. Thomas Ramsey, citizen and grocer, and his wife Alice then purchased the property and in 1554 sold it for £242 to Richard Ryther, citizen and grocer, and his heirs and assigns. (fn. 24) For a period up to 1581 Ryther or Ryder with his son Thomas also had the use of a small part of B (q.v.).
In October 1581 Richard Ryther and his wife Elizabeth sold this messuage, now known as the 'Swanne' and occupied by their son Thomas Ryther, citizen and grocer, to Thomas and to Elizabeth Martyn daughter of Robert Martyn of Islington, innholder, for a sum of £100 paid by Elizabeth. Evidently a marriage was contemplated and the messuage was to be held to the use of Thomas and Elizabeth and the lawful heirs of their bodies. In 1583 Thomas Ryther and his wife Elizabeth let the Swanne with its shops, cellars, solars, chambers, and yards to Thomas White and Henry Dunche, grocers. Elizabeth then died and in 1587, when it was said to be worth £20 a year clear, this messuage was to serve as a jointure to Elianor Slywright, daughter of William Slywright, deceased, should she marry Thomas Ryther. In 1595 18D consisted of a dwelling house held by Humphrey Crosse, citizen and painter-stainer, and a shop held from Crosse by John Harte, haberdasher, who at a point 25 ft. (7.62 m) N. of Cheapside had broken into the brick wall of the Mercers' Company on the E. side of 18. In 1596 Thomas Ryther, clerk and parson of Mistley with Manningtree, Essex (he was identical with Thomas Ryther, citizen and grocer), and his wife Elianor leased this messuage, now known as the Rose and Crown and formerly occupied by Humphrey Crosse, to Hen Dod, citizen and grocer, for a term of 21 years from 1604 at £20 rent. Dod or his assigns already held the property and the grantors did not warrant the window at the N. end of the chamber of the kitchen opening into the yard of Humphrey Thayer's dwelling house (cf. B). (fn. 25)
At about this time Thomas Ryther, clerk, appears to have borrowed £200 from John Treherne the elder of Southwark, gentleman, who in December 1597 agreed that if Ryther paid him £220 by December 1598 and if Ryther and his wife conveyed to him 18D and properties in Southwark, those properties would be held to the use of Ryther only. Ryther had entered into a bond of £400 to perform this agreement. Treherne's interest was probably acquired by John Brewton of Southwark, joiner, to whom in December 1598 Ryther sold the properties for £200, on the condition that the sale would be void if he paid Brewton £220 in December 1599. The money was not repaid, and in December 1599 Brewton freed Ryther of the bond in £400. Early in 1600 Brewton sold the properties for £223. 14s. to John Pigeon, citizen and grocer, who had married one of the sisters and co-heirs of Richard Ryther. Thomas Ryther's widow Eleanor married William Robinson of Little Bentley (Essex), with whom in 1602 she quitclaimed to Pigeon. Richard Ryther's other sister and co-heir married Richard Pigeon of Croydon (Surrey), husbandman, whose son and heir, William Pigeon of Croydon in 1612 gave up his interest in 18D and the Southwark property to John Pigeon in return for a payment of £21. 10s. In 1625, on the expiry of Henry Dod's lease, John Pigeon, now described as a gentleman of Deptford, granted the messuage called the Rose and Crown at farm to Thomas Drayton, citizen and girdler, who already occupied the property, for a term of 21 years at £20 rent and for a fine of £80. The house now consisted of a cellar divided into two parts, a shop and back room on the ground floor, a wainscoted hall and a kitchen on the next floor, two chambers on the next floor, and two garrets over the chambers (Fig. 5). In 1634 Robert Pigeon of Deptford, gentleman and son and heir of John Pigeon, granted a 31-year lease of the messuage to Richard Hull, citizen and draper, at the same rent. The interest in this lease passed to Randall Pickering, citizen and haberdasher, who later in 1634 renewed the lease for another term of 31 years. At about this time Robert Pigeon bound himself in £400 to Pickering, who in 1637 agreed that if Pigeon paid him £208 in May 1638 the bond would be void. By 1634 the messuage had ceased to be known as the Rose and Crown and in that year was occupied by James Lovinge. In 1638 it was probably occupied by Mr. Rosier, whose house was valued at £20 a year. Pigeon failed to repay his debt and in 1641 Pickering's widow Anne made over the bond in £400 to William Pitchford, citizen and haberdasher. In 1642 Pigeon leased the messuage to Peter Deakin, citizen and haberdasher, for a term of 60 years in return for a payment of £50 and a peppercorn rent. Immediately after this lease Pitchford agreed that if Pigeon paid him £250 in October 1653 and if he received a rent of £20 out of the messuage for the year following Michaelmas 1652, then he would release Pigeon from the bond. In 1645 Pigeon sold his title in the messuage to William Pitchford, citizen and haberdasher, for £325. The property was now known as the Dripping Pan and was subject to the leases granted to Pickering and Deakin (Deakin was presumably to receive the rent due from Pickering for the term of his lease) and to Pigeon's bond in £400. Pigeon bound himself in £600 to keep the covenants in this sale and in the same year Elizabeth Pigeon, widow of John Pigeon and sister of Richard Ryther, and now aged 83 years quitclaimed all her right in the property to Pitchford. (fn. 26)
In 1666 18D was probably a house of 5 hearths occupied by Peter Browne, apothecary, who had probably also lived there in 1662-3. After the Great Fire Thomas Steane acquired possession, and the new house which he caused to be erected on the site of 18B, 18C, and 18D measured 16 ft. 11 in. (5.16 m.) along the Cheapside frontage after a strip of ground had been cut off to enlarge Ironmonger Lane. (fn. 27)