Historical Gazetteer of London Before the Great Fire Cheapside; Parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary Le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane. Originally published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London, 1987.
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This property, which sometimes seems to have been regarded as two properties held together, lay in the N.W. corner of St. Mary le Bow parish, on the S. side of Cheapside, bounded by 15 to the E., 13 to the S., and tenements in St. Mary Magdalen Milk Street parish to the W.
In 1858 the property was nos. 52-3 Cheapside.
Thirteenth to sixteenth century
This property, or part of it, may be identical with the seld held by William le Lutre in fee of Cecilia Blunda, afterwards the seld of Robert Lutre, which lay to the E. of a tenement (in the parish of St. Mary Magdalen Milk Street) granted in 1246-7 by Dionisia widow of Arnold Ruffus and daughter of William le Vyes to Stephen Bukerel. A list of purprestures made in the Drapery in Cheap ward (sic) in 1246 noted that Robert Lutre and the master of St. Bartholomew's Hospital had erected pentices, apparently just to the W. of those of Edward son of Roger Blund (15) and John Helyland (14). In 1294 Stephen de Cornhull son of William de Cornhull, citizen, granted to John le Blound, citizen and draper, his seld with 2 solars and a shop beneath one of the solars, with appurtenances before and behind. The property lay between John le Blound's seld to the E. (15), 13 to the S., and the seld sometime of William Bokerel to the W. John gave 100 marks (£66. 13s. 4d.) as a gersum, and was to render 1/2 lb. cummin or 1/2d. yearly to the heirs of Thomas son of Thomas, sometime citizen and draper, 2 marks (£1. 6s. 8d.) to the priory of St. Bartholomew Smithfield, 5s. to Kilburn Priory, and 5s. to the heirs of Thomas Tholesane. The grant was witnessed by the alderman of Cordwainer ward, among others, suggesting that the property was thought to be in that ward and not in Cheap. The seld sold by Stephen de Cornhill to John le Blount was said c. 1294 to be worth 10 marks 12s. (£7. 5s. 4d.) p.a. In 1301 William de Wyncestr', draper, and his wife Maysenda granted to John le Blund a shop in Westcheap which they held by grant of William de Enefeld, goldsmith. It lay between Cheapside to the N. and the seld and shops of John le Blund, which he had by grant of Stephen de Cornhulle, to the S., E., and W. (fn. 1)
The cellarer of St. Bartholomew's Priory had a rent of £1. 6s. 8d. from the seld of John le Blunt in the parish of St. Mary le Bow c. 1306. By his will proved in 1313, John le Blund, kt. and citizen, left his seld with solar(s), shop(s), stall(s) and appurtenances in Westcheap in the parish of St. Mary le Bow, which Stephen de Cornehull had granted him, to his sons Bartholomew and Roger. He had divided the seld into two parts, and willed that it should be divided anew, into 2 equal portions, to be held one by each, with cross remainders and then to the testator's nearest heirs. By 1325 the property was held by Edward le Blount, eldest son of John le Blount, who in that year let the eastern part of the property to Maurice Turgis, citizen and draper, describing it as a seude in Westcheap, between 15 to the E., 13 to the S., and the grantor's seld to the W., saving to the grantor les sollers et estalles de meme la seude. Turgis and his assigns were to hold for his life plus one year, at £4 p.a., maintaining against wind and rain. (fn. 2)
Before 1357 16 and the tenement to the W. of it in St. Mary Magdalen Milk Street parish, formerly of the Bukerel family, were held by Stephen de Asshewy, son and heir of Sir Stephen de Asshewy, kt., who granted a seld with solar(s) and stall(s) situated in front in foro, together with the advowson of a chantry in St. Paul's founded by Isabel Bokerell, to Richard de Essex, citizen and draper. The seld lay between 15 to the E., Cheapside to the N., and the tavern called Brokeneseld to the W. and S. Stephen de Asshewy quitclaimed in the seld and advowson in 1357, and Richard de Essex granted back to Stephen a £10 rent Stephen had granted him from lands in Kent, so long as he enjoyed quiet possession of the seld, solars, and stalls in Westcheap, and the advowson. By his will, dated and proved in 1361, Richard de Essex left the seld he acquired from Stephen Asswy in Westchepe, and the advowson of a chantry in St. Paul's, for sale by his executors. In 1362 Maud, widow of Richard de Essex, and John de Somersham, executors of Richard, granted the seld and advowson to Roger de Wynscombe, parson of St. Mary Bothawe, and William de Brunne, chaplain, for a certain sum, and Maud quitclaimed all right. De Wynscombe and de Brunne then granted the tenements to John de Bures, citizen and draper, and his wife Agnes. These grants and quitclaims were 'witnessed' by the alderman of Bread Street ward. (fn. 3)
In 1369 John de Bures granted the property, described as tenements with 3 selds and 3 shops, houses and solars over, and 3 stalls, in the parishes of St. Mary le Bow and St. Mary Madgalen in Westcheap, between 15 to the E. and le Brokenselde to the W., to John Aleyn of Northampton, John Hotot of Melleforde, clerks, and John Walter of Cavendish (Suffolk), citizen and draper, who in 1370 granted the property back to him and his wife Agnes and their heirs. These grants were 'witnessed' by the alderman of Cheap ward. John de Bures granted this property, and also 14, to John Longele and Richard Brendewode, drapers, and Henry Kyng, all citizens, probably between 1391 and 1397. These grantees granted 16 but probably not the property in St. Mary Magdalen parish, to Robert Eyr, John Neweman of Bricett (Brecete Magna, Suff.), Michael Shyres, chaplains, Robert Trees of London, and William de Kymberle. In 1403 Eyr and his co-feoffees, de Kymberle having died, granted to Salamon Salman, citizen and mercer, their tenements with 2 selds, 2 shops, houses and solar(s) over, and 2 stalls, in the parish of St. Mary le Bow, between 15 to the E. and the tenement late of John de Bures, clerk, now occupied by John Longeleye to the W. (fn. 4)
By his will, dated 1404 and proved 1405, Salman left his tenements with 2 selds, etc., as above, in the parish of St. Mary le Bow, to his wife Alice for life, charged with a rent of £5 to his son John. On Alice's death the property was to remain to John in tail, with remainder for sale by the rector of St. Mary Magdalen Milk Street and 4 worthy parishioners. John died without issue and Alice died in 1409, and later that year John Crouch, rector of St. Mary Magdalen, with John Twyford, cutler, William Marcheford, mercer, John Bokell, hatter, and John Knottyngle, mercer, citizens and parishioners of St. Mary Magdalen, sold the property to John Middilton, citizen and mercer, Sir Robert Wombewell, vicar of St. Lawrence Jewry, John Lane, Thomas Aleyn, John Aleyn, John Cosham, mercers, and John Reve, tailor, all citizens. At an inquisition held in 1410 the property was said to be worth £14 p.a. John Lane and Thomas Aleyn released their right to John Cosham. The other feoffees had died by 1420, when Cosham left the property, described as 2 selds, etc., as above, with abutments as before, to Master Richard Collyng, vicar of St. Lawrence Jewry, and the churchwardens and parishioners, to maintain 2 chaplains in the church, to be chosen by the vicar, to celebrate for the souls of the testator, his late wife Joan, Roger Glendon and his wife Alice, William Pountfreit and his wife Alice, and others. (fn. 5)
In 1535 the churchwardens of St. Lawrence Jewry owed 7s. quit-rent p.a. from their tenement in the parish of St. Mary le Bow, held by William Hansone or Harisone. Hanson still occupied it in 1541. This quit-rent then went to the Crown, and was paid until 1548. A rent of £1. 6s. 8d. was owed by the same to St. Bartholomew's Priory in 1538 and subsequently to the Crown. (fn. 6) In 1548 the church of St. Lawrence Jewry had a tenement in the parish of St. Mary le Bow, worth £13. 6s. 8d. p.a., given by John Gossenham or Gosseham for his soul, charged with £13. 6s. 8d. for the support of 2 chantry priests and £1. 13s. 8d. quit-rents to the king. In 1549 William Breton of London, gentleman, and Humphrey Luce of London, leatherseller, were granted 16, described as a tenement with shops, cellar(s), solar(s), and chambers, demised to William Hansone for a term of years at £13. 6s. 8d., formerly charged with quit-rents to St. Bartholomew's Priory and Kilburn Priory as above, and valued at £185. 13s. 4d. for 14 years' purchase. (fn. 7)
Later sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
In 1557 William Breton, gentleman, sold for £350 to Richard Mallorie, citizen and alderman, and his wife Anne the messuage or tenement called the sign of St. Paul and the Falcon (le signa Sancti Pauli et le Faucon), with all shops, solars, cellars, chambers, entries, yards, etc., in the parish of St. Mary le Bow, now in the tenure of William Hanson and his assigns, as granted to Breton and Humphrey Luce by Edward VI. Breton and his wife Elizabeth quitclaimed in the same. William Hanson, citizen and mercer of the parish of St. Mary le Bow, died in 1558, leaving to his son Arthur all the things in his counting house and the lease of his garden. William's wife Joan was to have the use of the garden in her widowhood, but Arthur was to pay the rent. This garden was perhaps part of 16, or adjacent to it. Sir Richard Malory, kt., died in 1567, and in 1570 his son Andrew Malory leased a part of the property to Edward Nalson. This part (16A) comprised the messuage called the Falcon, the foreshop of the messuage next to the street, and an inner warehouse, late occupied by George Collyngson but now by Nalson, known by the sign of the Paul. Andrew Malory in 1583 leased a shop and other premises (16B), also part of the same, to Nicholas Elcocke. In 1588 Andrew Malorye of Tottenham High Cross (Middx.), esquire, sold the moiety of the manor of Wickham Hall, and other lands in Hertfordshire and Essex, and the messuage called the signs of 'Saynte Pawle and the Fawlcon' in Cheapside in the parish of St. Mary le Bow, formerly in the tenure of William Hanson, to Arden Waferer of London, esquire, for £280. This grant may have been as security for a bond, as in 1590 Andrew Malory and his wife Elizabeth, together with Arden Waferer and his wife Elizabeth, sold the premises to George Smythe of Exeter, esquire, for £500. The property was described as the messuages and tenements now or lately called the 'signs of Sainte Paul and the Faulcon or the signs of the Peter and Paule', in Cheapside in the parish of St. Mary le Bow, now or late in the tenure or occupation of Edward Nalson or heretofore of William Hanson or their assigns (16A), and all that shop in Cheapside in the said parish, heretofore in the tenure or occupation of Simon Hudstone or his assigns and now or late of Nicholas Elcocke, citizen and clothworker. Malorie warranted the grant against all people, and Waferer warranted against himself and his heirs; Waferer covenanted that the property was free from encumbrances, including a recognizance of £200 by Andrew Malorie to Susan, Katharine, and Jane Waferer, daughters of Arden. The grantors covenanted to save the grantee harmless except against the leases granted by Malory to Nalson and Elcocke. (fn. 8)
From the early 17th century at least the property was occupied in 3 parts, of which 16B was probably the same as it had been in 1583, and 16C was formerly part of 16A (see below). Sir George Smyth died in 1619, and his son Sir Nicholas Smyth, with his wife Dame Dorothy, levied a fine, the other parties to which were John Syms of Pounsford (Somerset), James Walker of Exeter, gentleman, Thomas Amy of Exeter, merchant, on the second part, and Christopher Brooke of Lincoln's Inn and Ralph Horsey of Clifton (Dorset), on the third part, to assure 16 to Smyth's own use for life, then to the use of his wife, then to the use of his second son George Smyth and his heirs and assigns for ever. In 1622 Nicholas Smyth revoked the uses of the fine declared above, and appointed them to be to himself and his assigns only, apart from his wife's interest. Later that year Smyth sold the whole property to Christopher Woodward of Lambeth Marsh (Surrey), esquire, for £1100, describing A, B, and C as below, with the long entry out of Cheapside into the said shop (? 16B), and all rooms, lights and easements belonging to the same shop. The conveyance was confirmed by a fine, and the overseers of Sir George Smyth's testament, to whom he had left an interest in 2/3 of his property to pay his debts and funeral expenses, quitclaimed to Woodward in the same in 1622. Thomas Woodward, possibly the son of Christopher, seems to have held the property by 1630. He was dead by 1655, when his widow Grace made a lease of 16A, as guardian for her son Edward. Edward Woodward of Lambeth, gentleman, made a lease of 16A in 1661. (fn. 9)
In 1614 Sir George Smyth leased a messuage, shop, and inner shop or warehouse, formerly in the tenure of John Wynch, later of Avery Ridge, to Francis Capell and William Cole, for 18 years from 1616 at £40 rent. Francis Caple, citizen and mercer of this parish, died between 1618 and 1621. 16A was described in 1619 as a messuage called the Falcon, a shop called the Golden Lyon, and the warehouse or inner shop next adjoining, now or late in the tenure of Capell and Cole or their assigns, and in 1622 as a messuage and tenement in Cheapside in the parish of St. Mary le Bow in Cheap ward (sic), late in the tenure of Capell and Cole and now of William Leman, linendraper, sometime called by the names of the 'Pawll and the Faulcon', with the shop late called the 'Pawll and now the Golden Lyon', and the warehouse or inner shop, now in the tenure of Leman, with all cellars, solars, chambers, etc. In 1633 Thomas Woodward leased 16A to Thomas Waterhouse, citizen and fishmonger, as the dwellinghouse called the Falcon, the foreshop lately called the Paul but now the Golden Lion, and the warehouse or inner shop behind the foreshop, for 21 years from 1634 at £150 fine and £40 rent. The lessee was to repair, pave, and cleanse. In 1638 Mr. Waterhouse was tithe-payer for a tenement worth £30 p.a.; Mr. Hiller, next in the list and tithepayer for a shop worth £16 p.a., may also have occupied part of 16A. Waterhouse's lease was renewed by Grace Woodward, guardian for her son Edward, in 1655, for 4 years at the old rent and a fine of £50. In 1661 Edward Woodward of Lambeth, gentleman, leased 16A to John Pigeon, citizen and draper, then in occupation, for 20 years at £70 rent and in consideration of £150 to be spent by him in substantial repairs. Henry Pygeon appears to have been the occupant in 1661. In 1664 John Pigeon assigned his lease to John Spering the younger, citizen and fishmonger, who 3 days later assigned it to John Trowbridge, citizen and fishmonger. Early in 1666 John Trobridge occupied this house with 6 hearths. (fn. 10)
In 1612 Sir George Smyth leased 16B, a shop late in the tenure of Nicholas Elcocke, to Humphrey Hawker for 20 years at £12 rent. In 1619 it was described as a shop in Cheapside in the parish of St. Mary le Bow, then or late in the tenure of Hawker or his assigns, and in 1622 as the shop called the Fawcon, late in the tenure of Elcocke and now of Humphrey Hawker, mercer. Thomas Woodward leased a shop, presumably 16B, to Thomas Russell, citizen and vintner, in 1633, for 21 years at a fine of £100 and rent of £12. Russell was to pay for repairs except to principals. In 1638 Thomas Russell was tithe-payer for a shop worth £12 p.a. William Sheldon and Joshua Gearing occupied it in 1661. In that year Edward Woodward leased 16B, a shop lately used by Shelton and Geering, citizens and drapers, to Henry Pigeon, citizen and draper, for 4 3/4 years from Michaelmas 1665 at £12 rent, and for an unspecified fine. The shop does not appear to be recorded in the Hearth Tax list of 1666. (fn. 11)
In 1619 this was described as a shop in Cheapside called the Crane, then or late in the tenure of Henry Holland in the right of his wife Susanna, or their assigns. In 1621 Nicholas Smyth leased it to Holland for 7 years at £25 rent. In 1622 it was described as the shop now called the Crane, in the tenure of Henry Holland, in Cheapside, adjoining to the W. side of the foreshop called the Golden Lyon (part of 16A). In 1630 Thomas Woodward of Lambeth, esquire, leased 16C to Henry Holland, citizen and stationer, for 21 years at £25 rent and a fine of £40. It was described as the shop called the Crane opening off Cheapside in the parish of St. Mary le Bow, sometime in the tenure of Mary Spencer, widow, and now held by Holland or his assigns, with free entry and exit through the entry at the W. side or end of the shop, and with liberty to maintain and enjoy the penthouse and signpost over the forepart of the shop, fixed to the dwelling house over the shop. The lessee was to repair and maintain all doors, locks, partitions, etc., and also the penthouse, and to pave the street. Holland is not named in the tithe assessment of 1638, and the most probable inhabitant at that date is Mr. Earles, who held a tenement valued at £40 p.a. This valuation suggests that 16C was at this time a substantial property with living accommodation, not merely a small shop. A later resident may have been Humphrey Hawker (cf. 16B), who died in or before 1647 and was an inhabitant of Bow parish in Cheapside and Cordwainer Ward. In 1649 Osbert Pecke, now tenant of 16C, described as formerly the Crane and now the Golden Falcon, surrendered the lease granted to Holland in 1630 and Thomas Woodward granted him a new one of the same for 22 years, for a fine of £38 and rent of £25, with access and conditions as in Holland's lease. Osbert Pecke occupied the property in 1661, and was said in 1663 to have a stocking-shop in Cheapside. He was probably dead by 1666. The tenement is probably identifiable in the Hearth Tax list of 1666 as the house with 7 hearths in Cheapside, adjacent to John Trobridge (16A) and then occupied by Simon Cowly, victualler. Mary Peck, widow, and Symon Coates (? Cowly) were noted as holding houses burnt in the Great Fire. (fn. 12)
After the great fire
The property was burnt in the Great Fire. Mary Peck (leaseholder of 16C) was unable to rebuild, and in January 1668 assigned all her interest to her landlord Edward Woodward. Probably the other tenants did the same. A foundation was surveyed for Edward Woodward in Cheapside in June 1668 (?), bounded to the S. and E. by Hiller (13 and 15) and to the W. by Turner (in St. Mary Magdalen Milk Street parish). It was enlarged by the addition of a strip in Cheapside measuring 5 ft. (1.52 m.) wide at the E. end and 4 ft. 4 in. (1.32 m.) at the W. end. In February 1669 Woodward contracted with Anthony Smith of Stoke near Guildford (Surrey), carpenter, for the building of 2 messuages on his plot, now 33 ft. 5 in. (10.19 m.) wide at the N. end, 32 ft. 6 in. (9.91 m.) at the S. end, 50 ft. 9 in. (15.47 m.) on the E. side, and 52 ft. 2 in. (15.9 m.) on the W. side. The messuages were each to have a cellar and shop the full extent of the plot, and the buildings above were to extend 40 ft. (12.19 m.) back from the street. The cellars were to be of brick, and each to have a vault 6 ft. (1.83 m.) square for the privy, and all summers, floors, and roof were to be made of oak. The roof over the shops at the back was to be glazed and leaded. The whole was to be finished by 25 December 1669 and to cost £950. Woodward leased the western messuage to Richard Royley, citizen and draper, in December 1669, for 21 years, for £150 fine, £75 rent, and further finishing, including leading, internal paving, and the laying of hearths. He leased the eastern half to Christopher Dodsworth in 1670, for 21 years, for a fine of £205. 17s. 6d. and rent of £70. (fn. 13)