Historical Gazetteer of London Before the Great Fire Cheapside; Parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary Le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane. Originally published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London, 1987.
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This was a block of property on the corner of Old Jewry and Poultry, made up of properties formerly belonging to Chicksands Priory (22E-J) and to Shouldham Priory (23A-B), granted by the Crown to Robert Austen, grocer, in 1543. These properties consisted of: 24A, a tenement in Old Jewry, held at will by Fulk Garretson (in 1538) at £1 p.a. (formerly 22E); 24B, 2 messuages in Old Jewry held by Robert Austen on lease for 21 years from 1533 at £2 rent (formerly 22F-G); 24C, another messuage in Old Jewry, held by William Smalewode on lease for 50 years from an uncertain date at £1 rent (formerly 22H); 24D, a tenement on the corner of Old Jewry and Poultry, held by John Hardy on lease at £2. 13s. 4d. rent (formerly 23A); 24E,a tenement in Poultry, held by Robert Austen on lease at £3. 13s. 4d. rent (formerly 23B); and 24F, a tenement in Poultry, held by John Wendon on lease for 30 years from 1533 at £4. 6s. 8d. rent (formerly 22J). Fee farm rents of 2s., 4s., 2s., 5s. 4d., 7s. 4d. and 8s. 8d. were reserved to the Crown. (fn. 1) At the time of the Fire the block measured approximately 70 ft. (21.34 m.) N.-S. along Old Jewry and 42 ft. (12.8 m.) E.-W. along Poultry. It is clear from post-Fire arrangements (see Fig. 13) that Austen's property also included, below ground, the whole of a long cellar some 9 ft. (2.74 m.) wide, extending under 132/25 to Coneyhope Lane. (fn. 2) John Wenden, grocer, tenant of 24F, died in 1543, leaving the lease of his house in St. Mary Colechurch parish to be sold. He was succeeded, by 1557 and probably by 1548, by Thomas Marston, citizen and haberdasher alias Merchant Adventurer, who lived in St. Mary Colechurch parish in 1548. (fn. 3)
In 1549 the Crown granted the fee-farm rents from Austen's property (totalling £1. 9s. 4d. p.a.) to Robert Carr, gentleman, and John Almonde, who in the same year granted these rents to Austen. (fn. 4) In 1557 Austen paid £2 to the Crown for licence to grant the tenement late held by John Wendon (24F), and other lands in St. Mary Colechurch parish, to Thomas Marston, citizen and haberdasher, and his wife Sibyl. Later in 1557 Austen and his wife Margaret granted and quitclaimed to Marston in 24F, described as a tenement with all messuages, houses, buildings, shops, cellars, and solars. The subsequent history of 24F is given in a separate subsection below. (fn. 5) The occupants of the parts of 24 in 1558, according to a tithe list of that year, starting with 24A in Old Jewry, were Richard Gybbones, holding by year, at £1 p.a.; Master Baker, with a house (24B) at £1. 6s. 8d. p.a.; Edward Fawlkes, cobbler, with a house (24C) at £1 p.a.; Godfrey Isbot, with 24D, at £2. 13s. 4d. p.a.; Walter Garwaye, with 24E, at £3. 10s. p.a.; and Thomas Maston, with 24F, at £4 p.a. (fn. 6) Austen died in 1559, leaving 24A-C and 24E to his son Robert in tail, and 24D, the corner tenement, for sale. (fn. 7)
The occupants of these 4 houses in 1559, when Robert Austen senior made his will, appear to have been William Gybbons, Roger Baker, Fulk Garretson, and Walter Garrawey. In 1562 Robert Austen the younger, gentleman, and his wife Alice conveyed them to Thomas Bill, citizen and haberdasher, and Edmund Page of London, gentleman, to hold to the use of Robert Austen's brother Richard Austen and his issue, with remainder to himself and his own issue, and then to his sisters Elizabeth and Dorcas and their issue. Later that year Bill and Page recovered the 4 messuages against Robert Austen the younger and Alice. In 1567 Richard Austen, grocer, granted the same 4 messuages, said to be now or late occupied by Gybbons, Baker, Garretson and Garraweye, to John Withers, gentleman, and his wife Elizabeth. Fulk Garretson, living in Old Jewry, died in 1571, but it is not clear whether he was holding by lease and, if so, to whom his interest then passed. The legatees of all his goods were the children of Gerrot and Anna Flores of Harlem. The tenants of 24A-C in 1571-4 were William Barne, holding by year at £1, Michael Cowy or Cowper at £1. 6s. 8d., and Edward Haies at £1. Mr. Garway held 24E, described as 2 houses, by year at £3 rent. In 1574 William Borne (sic), his wife and maidservant were communicants, as were Michael Cowy, his wife, and 2 maidservants, and Edward Hayes, his wife, one maid, and one manservant. Mr. Garraway's household held 8 communicants beside himself. (fn. 8)
In 1575 John Withers and his wife Elizabeth had licence to alienate their tenements in St. Mary Colechurch parish, held by William Browne, Michael Cowper, Edward Hayes, and George Hopton (the last presumably holding 24E) to Henry Anderson. The subsequent descent of the freehold is not certain. In 1602 24A was occupied by Mr. Boro (at about £1 rent), 24B by Mr. Ridd (at about £2. 18s. rent), 24C by Mr. Fayrebrother (at about £2. 5s. rent), and 24E by Mr. Dardes (at about £3. 10s. rent). In 1612 the occupants were probably Michael Mountstephens (24A), Ridteh Jones (24B), Thomas Forster (24C), and Nathaniel Deardes (24E). In 1619 they were William Standish, Francis Bridger, Thomas Foster, and Nathaniel Deardes. (fn. 9) By 1635 24F was in the same ownership as 24E and presumably also 24A-C.
In 1635 Robert Anderson of Lincolns Inn, gentleman, second son of Sir Richard Anderson, late of Pendley (Kent), agreed to levy a fine with his wife Katharine in favour of Richard Spencer and Nicholas Wolfe, gentleman, concerning 2 tenements in Poultry in St. Mary Colechurch (24E, F), to be held by Spencer and Wolfe to the uses of himself for life, then of Katharine, and then of his heirs. The tenements were one messuage called the Green Dragon, now or late held by Nathaniel Deards or Richard Utber or their assigns (24E), and one messuage called the Red Cross, lately known as the White Horse, and before that as the Golden Hind, now or late held by Edward Chapman or his assigns (24F). The tenements 24A-C were not included in this transaction but appear also be have descended in the Anderson family. In 1638 the tenants of A-C were Mrs. Ridg, Mr. Bincks, and Mr. Taylor, each with a house valued at £8 p.a. Mr. Utbar had a house valued at £24 p.a. (24E) and Mr. Chapman a house valued at the same (24F). Part of Utber's tenement may have extended into St. Mildred Poultry parish, where William Utber held a house or property worth £10 p.a., listed immediately before 132/24. In 1650 Richard Utber's house in Poultry encroached on the street, by reason of new building. The City charged him 4s. p.a. from 1650-1 for 2 enclosed 'bulkes', measuring 11 ft. 6 in. (3.51 m.) E.-W. by 1 ft. 10 in. (560 mm.) N.-S., which he paid most years up to the Fire. In 1662 Robert Anderson leased the messuage or tenement in Poultry called the Green Dragon (24E) to Richard Utber, then in occupation, for 21 years from 1661 at £55 rent. (fn. 10)
It is not certain who occupied the parts of 24A-C, E-F in 1662-3. At the time of the Fire Anderson's property appears to have consisted of 4 tenements in Old Jewry and 2 in Poultry. In 1662-3 one of the occupants in Old Jewry was probably Elizabeth Foster, with a house with 4 hearths. Richard Utber held 24E, with an uncertain number of hearths, and Edward Chapman 24F, with 4 hearths. In early 1666 the tenants of 24A-C were probably Mrs. Foster (5 hearths), and two empty properties, with 6 and 5 hearths, listed between Thomas Walker (see 22) and Mrs. Foster. Utber held 24E, now said to have 8 hearths, and Chapman 24F, with 4. Walker, Hallowes, Mr. Foster, and Richard Wood were probably tenants in Old Jewry at the time of the Fire, and Utber, Chapman, and possibly Corbett Bushell, tenants in Poultry. After the Fire 4 tenements surveyed in Old Jewry and 2 in Poultry probably represented 24A-C, E-F. The occupants of these were, in order from the N., John Renaldes, David James, citizen and haberdasher, Richard Utber, and John Holmes, and from the W., Richard Utber and John Holmes. Holmes held the largest part of the property, extending N. and W. to abut on 105/22 and 132/25, and there was an entrance to his tenement from Old Jewry between Renaldes's and James's tenements. (fn. 11)
Renaldes's foundation was surveyed in 1670. It consisted of a ground floor frontage of 13 ft. 8 in. (4.17 m.) with rooms above that and the 3 ft.-wide (910 mm.) entry to Holmes's tenement. A strip 16 ft. 8 in. (5.08 m.) long by 1 ft. (300 mm.) wide was cut off to widen Old Jewry. Renaldes had had lights at first floor level in his back wall, next to Holmes's yard, but in rebuilding Holmes intended to rebuild the wall as a solid party wall, so that Renaldes would lose his lights. (fn. 12) David James's foundation was not surveyed, but he was compensated for a strip of land 17 ft. 9 in. (5.41 m.) long by 2 ft. 2 in. wide (660 mm.) cut off in Old Jewry, containing 38 1/3 sq. ft., (3.59 sq. m.) at 5s. per sq. ft. This strip appears partly to overlap with the strip for which Renaldes was compensated. (fn. 13) Richard Utber's foundation in Old Jewry was surveyed in 1668. A strip 12 ft. 6 in. (3.81 m.) long by 3 ft. (910 mm.) wide (37 1/2 sq. ft.; 3.48 sq. m.) was cut off to widen Old Jewry, for which he was paid at the rate of 5s. per sq. ft. The surveyors settled a difference between Utber and Holmes over the back wall. (fn. 14) John Holmes's foundation in Old Jewry was surveyed in 1668. A strip 11 ft. (3.35 m.) long by 3 ft. to 3 ft. 6 in. (910 mm. to 1.07 m.) wide (39 ft. 10 in. superficial or 3.7 sq. m.) was cut off to widen the street, for which he was paid at the rate of 5s. per sq. ft. This plot was subsequently acquired by the lessee of 24D (q.v.) to enlarge her plot which was reduced on both its Old Jewry and Poultry frontages. (fn. 15)
Richard Utber, lessee of the Green Dragon (24E), refused to rebuild, because land was to be cut off the Poultry frontage. The Fire Court decreed in February 1668 that he should pay all arrears and £50 towards the cost of rebuilding, and surrender his lease to Robert Anderson. 24F may have been held at the time of the Fire by Edward Chapman, also tenant of the westernmost part of 132/24, but the rebuilder was John Holmes, who also took over 24E. In September 1668 a major exchange of land was agreed between Robert Anderson and Elias Maurois, Basil Nicholls, and Elizabeth Nicholls, who held the adjoining freehold of 132/24-5. Anderson granted them a large piece of land back from the street, on the E. side of his property, measuring 46 ft. (14.02 m.) N.-S. and between 12 ft. 6 in. (3.81 m.) and 18 ft. 6 in. (5.64 m.) E.-W. He also granted them as much of the cellar which he presently owned, stretching from Old Jewry to Grocers' Alley, as lay under ground already belonging, or now being granted, to them. In exchange for this they granted him some two- thirds of their westernmost tenement in Poultry, late occupied by Edward Chapman, a plot measuring 8 ft. E.-W. by 12 ft. N.-S. (2.44 m. by 3.66 m.), bounded on the N. by the S. wall of the cellar. The result of this exchange was to give a boundary running straight from Poultry to the S. part of 105/22, without intermixtures or complicated returns and angles. At about this time a shop was certified to be cut off from John Holmes's tenement in Poultry, measuring 36 ft. 6 in. (11.13 m.) E.-W. (representing the combined frontages of 24E and F and the 8 ft. (2.44 m.) added from 132/24) by 4 ft. 6 in. (1.37 m.) at the W. end and 6 ft. 9 in. (2.06 m.) at the E. end. Holmes was later paid £41. 16s. for this, at the rate of 5s. per sq. ft. (approximately 167 sq. ft.; 15.51 sq. m.). The front part of Holmes's property was not surveyed, but the part to the rear, with the entry to Old Jewry between Renaldes and James was surveyed in 1670. This property was 36 ft. 6 in. (11.13 m.) E.-W. from the back of James's tenement to the new boundary with 132/24-5, and was bounded to the N. by the part of 105/22 held by Goss. There was a dispute between Holmes and Goss concerning lights at the time of rebuilding (see 105/22). (fn. 16)
This property, the corner tenement occupied by Godfrey Hisborde, was left by Robert Austen senior for sale in 1559. Hisborde or Isborde may have been in occupation as early as 1544, when Godfrey Yseborne was assessed in this parish on goods worth £20. 24D was acquired, probably from Austen 's executors, by Godfrey Isburd or Isbote, who occupied it in 1571-4, when it was valued at £2. 13s. 4d. p.a. He may be identical with 'Mr. Godfray', who with his wife and 5 other communicants occupied a house in the parish in 1574. By his will of 1585, proved in 1586, Godfrey Isburde, citizen and haberdasher, left the messuage in which he lived in St. Mary Colechurch parish to his son William Isburd and his heirs, with all the cupboards, wainscot and cupboard in the hall, the joined bedstead and trundle bedstead in the hall, all the settles, tables, and stools in the hall, and the chests and shelves in the shop. He left household goods including a chest under the window in the chamber to his daughter Jane Reve. William Isborde, citizen and haberdasher, appears to have granted the messuage to John Orme and Henry Wellington, who in 1596 regranted it to him and his wife Alice to hold to themselves and their heirs until the marriage of William Wellington, gentleman, of Staples Inn, with Agnes, William Isborde's only daughter. After the marriage Isborde and Alice were to hold to themselves and their heirs male, with remainder to Wellington and Agnes in tail. William Wellington died before 1600, leaving a daughter Alice; Agnes then married Jerome Heydon. William Isborde died in 1600, survived by his wife Alice; his daughter Agnes Heydon was his heir. The occupant of 24D in 1602 was probably Mrs. Hampton, at about £2. 10s. rent. Alice Isberd died in 1610. In 1612 24D was occupied by Nicholas Wheeler and in 1619 by Edward Besse. (fn. 17)
Jerome Heydon, citizen and ironmonger, died between 1616 and 1628, leaving most of his goods to his wife Agnes and bequests to his 'son and daughter' Robert Cambell and his wife Alice. The latter appears to have been Alice Wellington. The freehold of 24D descended in the Cambell family. Mr. Washborn was their tenant in 1638, when the house was valued at £24 p.a. Robert Cambell, alderman, husband of Alice Wellington, died in 1638, survived by Alice, who in 1639 conveyed this and other properties to their second son Thomas, later Sir Thomas Cambell, Bt. In 1659 Thomas leased 24D to Robert Hill, citizen and merchant tailor, for 21 years at £33 rent. Hill died intestate before 1662, and his wife Mary then held the lease. Thomas Cambell mortgaged 24D to her in 1662 for £400 for 500 years, and in 1665 granted his interest in the property to John Heydon and Thomas Coningsby, to hold in trust for himself and his heirs. Sir Thomas Cambell died in 1665, succeeded by his son Thomas, a minor. In 1662-3 24D, a house with 4 hearths, was occupied by Benjamin Hill, perhaps the son of Robert and Mary. Early in 1666 and at the time of the Great Fire, however, it was occupied by Mrs. (Mary) Hill, who also held both lease and mortgage. (fn. 18)
After the Great Fire, the foundation of 24D was surveyed for Mrs. Mary Hill in August 1668. A strip 3 ft. (910 mm.) wide was cut off along the Old Jewry frontage, and one 4 ft. (1.22 m.) wide at the W. end and 4 ft. 6 in. (1.37 m.) wide at the E. end along the Poultry frontage. She lost 113 ft. 7 in. superficial (10.55 sq. m.) in all, and was compensated at the rate of 5s. per sq. ft., or £28. 7s. 6d. The plot remaining measured only 14 ft. 5 in. (4.39 m.) E.-W. by 11 ft. 9 in. (3.58 m.) N.-S., so she bought the plot to the N., which John Holmes had held of Robert Anderson. In 1673 she sought a settlement in the Fire Court against those with an interest in the freehold. By this date these were Robert Sheffield, esquire, and his wife Mary, widow of Sir Thomas Cambell, John Jenene and his wife Rachel, daughter of Sir Thomas Cambell, and Sir Harry Cambell, bt., an infant, son and heir of Sir Thomas Cambell, who had succeeded his brother Thomas who died young in 1668. The reduction in the size of the plot, the mortgagors' failure to repay principal and interest since 1664, Mrs. Hill's purchase of the adjoining property and the cost of her rebuilding were taken into consideration, and the Fire Court decreed that she should have the plot, discharged from all Equity of Redemption and from the rent due under the lease to her husband, for 500 years, and that the mortgagors should be discharged of the principal and interest of the £400 mortgage. (fn. 19)
In 1557 Robert Austen granted 24F, in Poultry, to Thomas Marston, citizen and haberdasher, and his wife Sibyl. The occupant in 1571-4 was Marston, and the property was valued at £4 rent. 'Mr. Mason', probably Marston, was head of a household consisting of himself, his wife, and 6 other communicants in 1574. Marston died in 1581, leaving his tenement known as the Lady in Poultry, in which he lived, to his wife Sibyl and her heirs for ever. It was valued by inquisition at £6 p.a. The tenement appears to have been omitted from the tithe account of 1602. The tenant in 1612 may have been Thomas Gibbon, and in 1619 and subsequently it was Edward Chapman. (fn. 20) It is not clear who held the freehold after Sibyl Marston, but by 1635 it had been aquired by Robert Anderson, who also held 24E and probably 24A-C, and is described above, under the sub-heading 24A-C, E-F.