Historical Gazetteer of London Before the Great Fire Cheapside; Parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary Le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane. Originally published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London, 1987.
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This represents 4 shops in Cheapside in front of Broad Seld (145/10), 2 on either side of the entry to the seld, and a solar or solars above the shops. The shops are identified from E. to W. as 9A-D. During the 14th century the solar above the shops was in separate ownership and is identified as 9E. Individual shops and groups of them were charged with a number of quit-rents, the records concerning which name many of the holders of the shops during the 14th century (see below, ii). The descents of the quit-rents themselves are considered separately (see below, iii). By the mid 16th century the whole of the property was in the same ownership as 10. Any structural identity which the shops may still have had durng the early 16th century was presumably lost during the rebuilding of 9-10 undertaken by Richard Colyer at some time between 1520 and 1533. Before that time the shops extended about 10 ft. (3.05 m.) S. from Cheapside (cf. 9D) and adjoined the stone wall of 10 to the rear. The subsequent history of the site of 9 is dealt with under 10.
Groups of shops during the thirteenth century
The shops may originally have been part of the same property as 10, but by the mid 13th century were in separate ownership. It is possible that in the early 13th century the property was in the possession of John son of William the chamberlain, who granted £3. 2s. rent from houses and buildings in this parish to St. Mary Spital (see below, iii). In 1255-6 Richard de Essex, shopkeeper (soparius), held the 2 shops represented by 9A-B, together with a solar above them to which access was obtained by the outer door of 10, perhaps by a ladder or stair rising out of the entry to the seld. A later holder of the same property, for which 6s. rent was due to Holy Trinity Priory, was Richard Chivaler (see below, iii). A successor in the same property before 1295 may have been Simon de Depeden, who certainly held 9B and may also have held 9A. Simon's interest was divided between his 2 daughters, and in 1298 the daughter of one of them complained of intrusion concerning 9A, 9B, and the solar above them (see below, iii).
At the end of the 13th century all 4 of the shops came into the possession of Walter de Norwyco, citizen and girdler, who probably acquired them piecemeal. At his death, in or shortly before 1312, he was still in possesssion of 9B and 9C, but had disposed of 9A in return for a quit-rent and had a quit-rent, probably created by the same means, from 9D. He had likewise disposed of the solars (9E) above the shops, which he may have acquired from Richard Hauteyn (see below, ii and iii).
The individual parts of the property
In 1255-6 this was one of the shops of Richard de Essex. A later holder was Richard Chivaler. In 1295-6 it was the tenement of Peter de Dunstapel, who was probably identical with the Peter de Bruges, also known as Peter de Ponte, who held the property in 1298. By 1304 Peter de Ponte had been succeeded in the shop here by Walter de Norwyco and his wife Cecilia. Before 1307-8 Walter granted the shop to John Marchaund, glover and son of Christian le Bokeler, who in 1324 granted it to Thomas de Leyre son of William le Leyre. This was presumably a temporary arrangement since in 1327 and 1340 the property was in the possession of John (le) Marchaunt. (fn. 1)
By 1350 the shop was in the possession of Nicholas Marchaunt, citizen and mercer, as son and heir of Christian called (dictus) Marchaunt, formerly citizen and glover. This Christian may have been the son of or successor to John le Marchaunt. In 1363 Nicholas Marchaunt granted this shop, bounded on its S. side by the stone wall of 10, to Robert Godeshelde, citizen and purser (pursarius), and his wife Avicia. Godeshelde, whose name is once written as Leueseld, seems still to have been in possession of the shop in 1382. Later, probably in the 15th century, it was in the possession of John Crombehorn, from whom in the 16th century 1s. 6d. rent to Holy Trinity Priory was said once to have been due. (fn. 2)
In 1255-6 this was one of the shops of Richard de Essex. Later it belonged to Richard Chivaler, and by 1294-5 it was in the possession of Walter de Norwyco and his wife Cecilia. By his will, enrolled in 1312, Walter left the shop, which was on the E. side of the entry to 10, to his wife Felicia. Subsequently, William de Tanrigge, girdler, held the shop from Felicia for a term of years, and in 1315 Felicia and her husband Roger Swetyng, fruiterer (fruter), quitclaimed in the shop to de Tanrigge. An undertenant of the shop in the early 14th century was probably the Roger de Caundyche from whom the 3s. rent to Holy Trinity Priory was due in 1307-8 and 1327-8. The tenant in 1327 may have been William de Bradeleye, who held one of the shops below 9E. In 1331-2 the rent to Holy Trinity Priory was due from Roger Donkele, who was one of de Tanrigge's executors and may have been his tenant. De Tanrigge died in 1349 and left the shop to be sold by his executors. (fn. 3)
In 1350 one of the executors sold the shop to William de Causton, citizen and mercer. De Causton himself died in 1354 and his executors sold the shop to John de Cauntebrigg, citizen and fishmonger, and his wife Elizabeth. Elizabeth died, and in 1361 John granted the shop, together with the solar of John de Garton over it, to Imania Godelamb of Cambridge, silk-woman (selkwoman). In 1363 this was said to be the shop which John de Enefeld acquired from John de Cauntebrigg. De Enefeld paid the 3s. rent due to Holy Trinity Priory in 1363-4. De Enefeld may simply have been tenant of the shop, but he may have been Imania's husband. By 1373 Imania had married Richard Northbury, citizen and mercer, with whom in 1375 she granted the shop to Robert de Louthe, joiner, and Geoffrey Adam, grocer. The purpose of this grant was probably that the grantees should reconvey the property to the grantors, thus giving Northbury and his heirs and assigns a title to the shop, which in 1382 was again in the possession of Richard and Imania. The shop was later in the possession of Adam Norbury, citizen and mercer, whose widow Margery granted it to William Melreth, Henry Frowyk, Ralph Holand, Richard Aylemer, John Boston, and John Brocour. Aylemer, Boston, and Brocour died, and Frowyk and Holand quitclaimed to Melreth. By his will, dated and enrolled in 1446, Melreth left this shop and 7s. rent from a part of 10 to his daughter Margaret, her husband Bartholomew Stratton, mercer, and Margaret's legitimate heirs, with remainder to Margaret's sister and her husband and heirs, and then to be sold by Melreth's executors. These executors later granted the shop and the rent to Geoffrey Boleyn, Thomas Boleyn, clerk, William Millyngton, clerk, Richard Quatermayns, esquire, and Thomas Burgoyn. Geoffrey Boleyn, to whose use these grantees appear to have held, died in 1463. (fn. 4)
By his will drawn up in 1461 Geoffrey Boleyn, a mercer and alderman, left the revenue from his London properties to his wife Anne, until his son William was aged 22. The London estate, which included a shop in St. Pancras parish (9B), was later in the possession of William Boleyn, knight, against whom Robert Rede and Thomas Kevill, sergeants-at-law, recovered possession in 1495. Later that year William Boleyn, both by himself and with his wife Margaret, quitclaimed to Rede and Kevill. Having thus established an impregnable title Rede and Kevill immediately granted the properties to Richard Laken, John Hawe, Christopher Hawe, William Heton, Alfred Rawson, and William Botery, all citizens and mercers, who were to hold to the use of Laken and his heirs. Between 1516 and 1519 St. Mary Spital was receiving a quit-rent of 16s. from 9B, a tenement which then or lately had belonged to Laken. The later history of Laken's interest in this shop is dealt with under 10. (fn. 5)
Walter de Norwyco leased this shop, which was on the W. side of the entry to 10, to Geoffrey del Barnat, girdler, for a term of 6 years from 1311 at £1. 10s. rent, and by his will, enrolled in 1312, directed that his executors, who included Geoffrey, were to sell the shop. The executors sold the shop to William Knyght, citizen and girdler, who in 1312 granted it to Geoffrey and his wife Maud, who were to pay rents of a clove to the grantor and £1. 10s. to St. Mary Spital. In 1317 Geoffrey and his wife granted the shop to Henry Borel of Fuldon (Foulden, Norfolk), who was to pay the rent to St. Mary Spital. By his will, enrolled in 1325, Henry Burel, mercer, left the shop to be sold by his executors. By 1340 the shop was in the possession of William de Brampton, who seems to have had a single shop extending across the sites of 9C and 9D. At his death in 1347 de Brampton had 3 apprentices, his kinsman Geoffrey Coleman, Robert de London, and John Bartelot, who probably worked in the shop, and whose terms he passed on to his son Sewal. In addition Sewal was to have a substantial part of the contents of the shop and the plot of land which formed part of it and represented 9B. Sewal de Brampton, citizen and girdler, himself died in 1349, leaving to his son John 10s. rent, which he said that his father had acquired from the executors of Henry Burel and which was due from a shop on the W. side of 10. Sewal's servant Simon was to have the term of years yet to come in half the shop (probably 9D) and the custody of Sewal's children. This Simon and Sewal's son John were to have the goods in the shop. (fn. 6)
The shop (9C) between the entry to 10 on the E. and 9D on the W. was later in the possession of John Clyvele, citizen and vintner, who granted it to John Bartelot, citizen and girdler and probably the former apprentice of William de Brampton. In 1366 Bartelot granted and quitclaimed in the shop, which had one door opening off Cheapside and another opening off the entry to 10, to Peter Schepsmyth (there is a gap between the 2 parts of the name and he may have been a smith), citizen, his wife Margaret, and Peter's heirs and assigns. By 1382 Peter Shepsmyth had granted the shop to John Abraham, citizen and girdler, who in 1384 with his wife Agnes granted it and quitclaimed to Alice Provendre, silkwoman. Alice married Robert Whityngham, citizen and tailor, and they jointly granted the shop to Thomas Bridlyngton and John Colbroke, citizens and tailors. In 1407, when Alice was dead, Bridlyngton and Colbroke granted the shop to William de Bergh, clerk, and William Weston, citizen and draper. These grantees may have been acting on Whityngham's behalf. A claim to the same property descended by inheritance from Alice Provendre to her sister Joan, who in 1408 with her husband John Impey of Buckinghamshire granted the shop to Robert Whityngham. In 1420 Whityngham granted his property in this parish to John Wodehous, esquire, John Gedeneye, citizen, John Fray, Richard Barnard of Essex, and Thomas Islam, Robert Tatershall, John Brokle, John Bederenden, and Thomas Whitingham, citizens. (fn. 7)
About 1300 this shop may have belonged to Walter de Norwyco, whose widow had a life interest in a rent from it (see below, iii). In 1312, 1316, and 1317 the shop belonged to William Spot and in 1340 it belonged to Isabel Spot, who was presumably a descendant of William. Isabel Spot leased the site of the shop for a term of years to William de Brampton, who seems to have incorporated it into a single shop extending over 9C and 9D. At his death in 1347 de Brampton left his interest in the plot representing 9D to his kinsman and apprentice Geoffrey Coleman, saving to de Brampton's wife Joan an easement in the plot so that she could continue to sell her wares there. This plot was charged with a rent of £1 to St. Mary Spital. The plot seems then to have come into the hands of de Brampton's son Sewal, who at his death in 1349 left his term of years in the moiety (9D) of his shop (9C-D) in Cheapside to his servant Simon. (fn. 8)
The shop was probably next in the possession of Andrew de Kylbourne, carpenter, and his wife Isabel, who was identical with Isabel Spot. In 1364 Andrew and Isabel complained of intrusion by Thomas de Braghingg, girdler, concerning a tenement in St. Pancras parish. Thomas may have been identical with the fell-monger of the same name, who later acquired a shop lying a few yards to the E. along Cheapside (7L). De Kylbourne was certainly in possession of this shop by 1366 and in his will stated that he had had it by the gift of Thomas Fant, carpenter, who had probably acted as an intermediary in transferring the title from Isabel to her husband. At his death in 1371-2 de Kylbourne left the shop to Isabel for life with freedom to sell if she wished. In 1372 Isabel and her husband's co-executor, John Lytlington, girdler, sold the shop to Cecilia Fynamour. In the enrolled text of this deed the shop was said to include a window or a right to light: cum suo lumine hactenus habito et usitato; in copies of a later deed, however, lumine is written limite, and the phrase may simply refer to the bounds of the property. The shop measured 3 1/4 ells (9 ft. 9 in.; 2.97 m.) in length, by 1 1/2 ells 8 in. (5 ft. 2 in.; 1.57 m.) in width and 2 3/4 ells (8 ft. 3 in.; 2.51 m.) in height. Cecilia Fynamour married John Ellestowe, citizen and horse-trader (mercator equorum), and in 1374 with her husband granted the shop to John Coupeland, herald of arms, his wife Rose, a silkwoman, and their heirs and assigns. By 1381 Coupeland had died and Rose had married Walter Aylewyn, citizen and fishmonger. In 1394 Aylewyn and Rose granted the shop to William Brydbroke, rector of St. Nicholas Cole Abbey, Lawrence Kelshull, chaplain, and Nicholas Wolbergh, citizen and fishmonger, who were presumably to hold the property to the use of Walter. Kelshull died and in 1406, when Rose had probably also died, Brydbroke and Wolbergh granted the shop to Aylewyn and his assigns. By his will, drawn up later in 1406 and enrolled in 1408, Aylewyn left the shop to be sold by his executors, who included his wife Joan. A case in 1407 may concern this property: the master of St. Katharine's Hospital complained of Thomas Whitby, chaplain, and Walter Aylewyn in a plea of fresh force concerning his tenement in St. Pancras parish; but neither St. Katharine's Hospital nor Whitby are otherwise known to be associated with 9D. (fn. 9)
In 1298 Richard Hauteyn had an interest in 9 which probably concerned the solars over the shops and the entry to 10. The solars then came into the possession of Walter de Norwyco, who granted them to Richard's son John Hauteyn, reserving a rent of £1. 6s. 8d. to himself and his heirs and assigns. In 1318 John paid the arrears of this rent due since the death of Walter de Norwyco to Walter's widow Felicia and her husband Roger Swetyng, fruiterer. Hauteyn's interest in the property seems subsequently to have passed to Hugh de Garton, who at his death in 1327 left to his son John and his heirs the solar which he had by the grant of John Pycot over the entry to 10, together with 13s. 4d. from 2 shops below the solar (probably 9A and 9B). At this time the solar included chests, cupboards and other appurtenances. (fn. 10)
John de Garton, son of Hugh, died in 1362, when he was in possession of the 13s. 4d. rent, 3 shops in the parish of St. Pancras worth £4 a year clear, and 2 shops in the same parish worth £1 a year clear. One of these shops was 32 and at least one of the others was within Broad Seld (10). It is possible that de Garton may have occupied the 2 shops below the solar (9A, 9B) and that in 1362 the solar (9E) was counted as part of the shops. At some time during the second half of the 14th century John de Garton, or his son and heir of the same name, was paying to Holy Trinity Priory the whole of the 6s. rent due from 9A, 9B and the solar over them. In 1377-8 and 1390-1 John Garton owed 3s. out of this 6s. rent for the solar alone and in 1384-5 John Prentys, who may have been Garton's tenant, paid it. (fn. 11)
In 1397 and 1398 John de Garton, son of John de Garton and grandson of Hugh, granted and quitclaimed in the property to William Norton, citizen and draper, his wife Alice, and William's heirs and assigns. The property conveyed was described as the solars and tenement(s) lying between 145/7 and 8 on the E., 104/34 on the W., Cheapside on the N., and 145/10 on the S. Norton acquired the Broad Seld (145/10) in 1402, and from then on his interests in both 9 and the Broad Seld descended together (see 10). (fn. 12)
In 1255-6 Richard de Essex, shopkeeper (soparius), in return for a payment of £2. 13s. 4d., granted to Holy Trinity Priory 6s. quit-rent from his two shops (9A-B) with the solar built above (part of 9E). The priory continued to receive this rent into the 15th century. Up to the 1370s it was charged as 3s. on each of the 2 shops and apparently not on the solar above. Then 3s. was charged on the solar and 1s. 6d. on each of the shops. A 16th-century memorandum notes that the rents were not leviable without a plea, but had formerly been due as follows: 18d. from Margaret (rectius Margery?) Norbury (for 9B), 18d. from John Crombehorn (for 9A?); and 3s. from John (rectius William) Whetenall (for the solar, 9E). Whetenall owned 10, and so it seems that at some time during the 15th century the rooms (9E) over the shops were occupied as part of the large house behind (10). (fn. 13)
By 1312 St. Mary Spital had £1. 10s. quit-rent from 9C and by 1347 owned £1 quit-rent from 9D (see above, ii). In 1381-2 the hospital successfully claimed that the 5 holders of 9 and their wives had disseised it of £4 quit- rent from the shops which comprised the property. In the early 16th century the hospital's interest in 9 consisted of no more than a 16s. quit-rent from 9B and another quit- rent of the same value from 9E. During the 1520s and 1530s the hospital disposed of these rents to the owners of 9-10 (see 10). The origin of the hospital's interest is uncertain, but may have been associated with a grant, confirmed by the king in 1318, by which John son of William the chamberlain gave to the hospital, probably in the early 13th century, £3. 2s. quit-rent from houses and buildings in the parish of St. Pancras. This grant cannot be associated with any of the other properties in the parish from which St. Mary Spital is known to have received quit-rents. (fn. 14)
In the late 13th century Simon de Depedene possessed 9B and may also have had an interest in 9A and the solar above (9E). Simon's interest was divided between his daughters Sabina and Marsilia. In 1298 Sabina's daughter Lettice, who was under age, complained of intrusion against the holders of 9A-B and 9E and against William le Graunte, who had been her late mother's husband. In 1294-5 Marsilia and her husband Richard Mille, citizen, granted and quitclaimed to Walter de Norwyco and his wife Cecilia in 9B, described as a shop with solars belonging to it (cum solariis eidem shope adherentibus), which had come to Marsilia as her portion, and reserved to themselves a rent of 2s. In 1295-6 Richard and Marsilia granted this rent to Richer de Refham, citizen and mercer, reserving to themselves a rent of a clove. In 1304 Marsilia, now Richard's widow, quitclaimed to de Norwyco and Cecilia all the right which she had in 9B by virtue of the deaths of her father and sister. The 2s. rent descended through the same succession of owners as 105/12 (q.v.) and came into the possession of Adam Fraunceys and his wife Margaret, who in 1373 complained of intrusion concerning their tenement in St. Pancras parish against 5 tenants and one wife who probably held the separate parts of 9. Of these tenants, John de Garton is known to have held 9E and Richard de Norbury and his wife Imania are known to have held 9B; the others, John Buttele, William Erneton (or Ermeton), and John Elsynham presumably held the other 3 shops (9A, 9C-D). A jury found that William Erneton had disseised the plaintiffs of the rent. As a result of this incorrect finding, the rent came to be charged on some other part of 9; it descended from Fraunceys to the Carleton family, whose estate came into the hands of the Crown in 1485. Over this period the rent was reduced in value to 1s., and in 1501, when the king granted it during pleasure to Sir John Shaa and John Charleton, was due from the tenement of William Whetnall (i.e. 9-10, excluding 9B). In 1512 the rent was granted to Thomas Bell for life, and in 1514 to John Pate, groom of the wardrobe, and George Dukeworthe, groom of the king's mouth in the cellar, in survivorship. (fn. 15)
Apparently as a result of alienating both 9A and 9D in fee, Walter de Norwyco acquired a quit-rent of 6s. 8d. from these 2 shops. After Walter's death his widow Felicia had a life interest in these rents, which in 1316 with her husband Roger Swetyng, fruiterer, she granted to William de Tanrigge, girdler, in return for a sum of money. (fn. 16)
John de Cestrehonte, son and heir of William de Odynton, formerly citizen, had £1. 2s. 8d. rent for a certain term from 9B and 9C. By his will, enrolled in 1315, he left the rent to Adam Braz, who by his will, enrolled in 1318, left the rent, now described as a quit-rent due from the 2 shops with solars above, to his son Stephen and his heirs for ever. (fn. 17)
At his death in 1327 Hugh de Garton left to his son John a rent of 13s. 4d. due from 2 shops, of which one was certainly 9A and the other was probably 9B. The rent may earlier have belonged to John Hauteyn (cf. 9E). John de Garton was still in possession of the rent at his death in 1362. (fn. 18)