Historical Gazetteer of London Before the Great Fire Cheapside; Parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary Le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane. Originally published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London, 1987.
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34 and 35 formed the property on the corner of Soper Lane. By the mid 13th century, though they were in one ownership, they consisted of several distinct units, subsequently divided among heirs, and charged with different quit-rents. Several of these quit-rents indicate that in the early 13th century William son of Benedict had an interest in the property. 34 was a shop fronting Soper Lane, between 33 to the S. and 35A and 35B1 to the the N., and 35B2 to the E. From the early 14th century it was held with 35B, and the solar over the whole of 34-35; 35A was held with 33. Consequently the spatial relationships of these parts are complex, and descriptions of them can be confusing; see Fig. 11.
In 1858 the site of the property lay within that of no. 70 Cheapside.
Thirteenth to sixteenth century
In 1258 William de Totham held both 34 and 35. 34 was charged with a quit-rent of 14s. 8d. to Lawrence of St. Michael, son of William (son of Benedict), which Lawrence then granted to the priory of Holy Trinity Aldgate, to hold of him at 8s. rent (so that the priory received 6s. 8d.). The priory paid him £3. 6s. 8d. The 8s. rent seems subsequently to have been due from 34 and the 6s. 8d. from 35B1, perhaps owing to confusion when they were in the same ownership. Although William de Totham had one daughter, Christina, who was of age at that date, 34 and 35 seem subsequently to have been divided between Katharine de Totham and her sister Helewisa, who may also have been William's daughters. Helewisa had 34 and 35B (which consisted of 2 shops), while Katharine had 35A, the corner shop. All 4 shops were under one solar, which may have gone with 35B. By his will proved in 1280, Adam de Bervelee left 34, described as the shop next to the corner next to Soper Lane, and the 2 shops in Cheapside comprising 35B, to his wife Helewisa, whose inheritance they probably were. 34 was charged with 8s. rent to Philip le Tayllur. Olive, daughter of Adam and Helewisa, agreed that her mother should hold the shops for life. Helewisa is listed as paying the 6s. 8d. quit-rent to Holy Trinity Priory in succession to William de Totham. In 1286 Helewisa quitclaimed to Olive in the shop (34) between her sister Katharine's shop (35A) on the corner of Soper Lane, and 33, the shop of Geoffrey le Botiner. (fn. 1) In 1295 34 was held by Adam de Forsham. It came to Peter atte Satte of Hallingbury, who seems to have been a relation or heir of Helewisa; he granted it to Ralph Pecok, clerk, who in 1304 granted it to Richer de Refham, citizen and mercer. At this time de Refham also acquired 35B: the following account gives the descent of both together. 35A had come into the same ownership as 33, and is described under that heading. (fn. 2)
34 and 35B
This property now occupied the corner of Soper Lane and Cheapside, fronting both; only the extreme corner shop (35A), occupying no more than the ground floor, remained separate. In 1314 Richer de Refham brought a plea of nuisance against John le Botoner, who held 35A, complaining that it was ruinous and dangerous; after viewing and measuring, le Botoner was obliged to rebuild, though Richer provided the main posts, frame, etc. By his will, dated and proved in 1328, Sir Richer de Refham, kt., left most of his properties to his wife Joan for life, with reversion to his son John. These included the shop (34) he had by the grant of Ralph Pecok in St. Pancras parish, charged with 8s. for a chaplain for Philip le Taillour and his wife Sabina in St. Michael Paternoster, and 2 shops with solars over (35B1-2) which he had acquired from Adam de Hallingebury and Walter de Brettevill at the corner of Soper Lane in Cheapside. 35B1, the shop nearer to Soper Lane, was charged with £1 quit-rent to the heirs of Adam Bidyk, and 35B2, the shop by the stair of entry to the solar, with rents of 6s. 8d. to St. Mary Spital and 6s. 8d. to Holy Trinity Priory. (fn. 3)
In 1343 Joan, widow of Richer de Refham, granted her properties in Soper Lane in this parish to John de Refham (son of John de Refham, citizen and alderman), and his wife Maud, daughter of Henry de Seccheford. In the same year Roger and Edward, sons of John de Refham the elder, quitclaimed in the same to their brother John and his wife Maud, who in 1346 granted 34 and 35B to Richard Scarlet and his wife Margaret, to hold for their lives and one quarter (or for 9 years if that was longer), at £5. 13s. 4d. rent. John and Maud were to do the services to the chief lords and maintain the properties, but Richard and Margaret could not pull them down or alter any building without the grantors' consent. The properties were described as one shop with dwelling (mansio) and solars and easements in Cheapside (held at the time of the grant by Richard and Margaret), and another shop in Soper Lane under part of the same solar, next to the corner shop. (fn. 4) As with other properties once held by Richer de Refham, 34 and 35B passed to Roger brother of John de Refham, then to his daughter Margaret, wife of Thomas Tudenham, then to Margaret, first wife of Adam Fraunceys (II). Thomas son of William de Tudenham, and his wife Margaret, probably held them in 1363-4, when they were involved in pleas of intrusion concerning tenements in St. Pancras parish and elsewhere against Maud, widow of Thomas Frembaud, and Thomas Whitchurch, cordwainer; in one plea Thomas and Margaret, as defendants, were associated with William de Tudenham, John de Haukeshale, cutler, William de Wylesdon, mercer, Richard Wayte, girdler, John Essex, girdler, and John de Wendovre. The purpose of these pleas, and the interests represented, are not clear. By 1377 Adam Fraunceys held 34 and 35B. (fn. 5)
At the time of his death in 1415 Adam Fraunceys held property in St. Pancras parish and elsewhere by the law of England after the death of his wife Margaret. The property was of the inheritance of his daughters, Agnes, wife of William Porter, kt., and Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Charleton. This part of the inheritance came to Elizabeth, who died in 1451; she held at her death one messuage with cellar and solar in St. Pancras parish. Her heir was her son (Sir) Thomas Charleton. He died in 1465, similarly seised, and was succeeded by his son (Sir) Richard Charleton. Richard fought against Henry VII at Bosworth, was attainted, and forfeited his lands. He had a tenement in Cheapside, occupied by John Adamson, tiler, which probably represented 34 and 35B. This was granted in 1511 to Thomas Belle, yeoman for the king's mouth in the cellar, for life. In 1514 the same was granted to John Pate, groom of the wardrobe, and George Duckworthe, groom for the king's mouth in the cellar, in survivorship. In 1518 John Adamson was said to be the former tenant. In 1532 it was granted in fee to John Pate. (fn. 6)
Quit-rents from 34 and 35B
The first quit-rent known from 34 is the 14s. 8d. due to Lawrence of St. Michael, son of William son of Benedict, of which Lawrence gave 6s. 8d. to Holy Trinity Priory in 1258. This rent was paid by William de Totham and then by Helewisa, and in the 14th century by Richer de Refham and then John de Refham. In 1390, 1397, and 1399, the prior brought pleas of intrusion against Adam Fraunceys, concerning his free tenement in St. Pancras parish, and probably relating to disseisin of this rent. The rent does not seem to have been paid at the time of the Dissolution, and had probably lapsed many years since. (fn. 7) Lawrence of St. Michael retained 8s. quit-rent, which he granted to Philip le Taillour in 1258-9. In 1292 Philip left it to the church of St. Michael Paternoster. It was recorded as a charge on 34 in 1328, but it is not known how much longer it continued to be paid. (fn. 8)
A quit-rent of 2s. to Anketinus le Draper, charged on 35B2, was noted in 1280, but no more is known of it. The same shop was charged with a quit-rent of £1. By his will proved in 1275, Thomas de Basing left a quit-rent of £1 charged on the tavern apud Popcurtleslane to his wife Margery for life, with remainder to his brother Richard. This is the only reference to 35B2 as either a tavern or being in Popkirtle Lane; there may be some confusion with 36, which was both, but the £1 quit-rent was certainly charged on 35B2. The rent was referred to in 1280, as due from 35B2 to the heirs of Thomas son of Adam de Basinges. In 1306 Roger le Sauvage granted a number of quit-rents to Sir John Drokenisford, including £1 from the tenement of Richer le Botoner in Colcherche parish. A note on the enrolment stated that the £1 rent was due from Richer's tenement in St. Pancras parish, not Colechurch. It is not clear if Richer le Botoner was the same as Richer de Refham, or was a tenant. John de Drokenisford regranted the rents to Roger and Joan the same year. At the request of Alexander Bedyk, son and heir of Thomas Bedik, kt., a copy of this deed was attested. In 1328 the £1 rent was due to the heirs of Adam Bidyk. The rent was held by John Mareys, who died in debt to the Crown in 1361, but Alexander, son and heir of Thomas Bedyk, claimed in 1369 that John had been granted the rent by Thomas, who was not entitled to do so as he held in fee tail with remainder to Adam. This claim was upheld, and the rent restored to Alexander. (fn. 9) In 1386 John Flete, citizen and goldsmith, and his wife Margaret, daughter of Thomas Bedik, kt., and sister of Alexander Bedik, and heir of both, granted the rent, among others, to John Shadeworth, citizen and mercer, John Hatfeld, rector of Hanslope (Bucks.), Richard Roose, tailor, and William Fratyng, hurer, citizens. John Shadworth survived his co-feoffees, and in 1425 granted the £1 rent, from the tenement now held by Thomas and Elizabeth Charleton, to Henry Frowyk, citizen and mercer. In 1430 Frowyk granted it to John Fray, baron of the Exchequer, Robert Warner, and John Carpenter junior, citizens. They regranted it to Frowyk in 1452, and by his will of 1459, proved 1480, relating only to this rent, he left it to the master and brothers of the hospital of St. Thomas of Acre, for ever, for an obit. The hospital received the rent until its dissolution in 1538, when the rent passed to the Crown. (fn. 10)
Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: 34 and 35B
In 1541 William Alen of Richmond, Surrey, groom of the chamber to Henry VIII, and his wife Anne, and William Pate of Richmond, son and heir of John Pate late groom of the wardrobe, sold 34 and 35B to Augustine Hynde, citizen and clothworker. The property was described as a messuage or tenement with cellar(s), solar(s), and a shop belonging to it, in St. Pancras parish, between Soper Lane to the W., Cheapside to the N., and 36A to the E. It is not clear whether the divisions between 33, 34, 35A and 35B were exactly as they had been in the 15th century; the whole property 33-35 may have been regarded as one house of which parts were separate freeholds, though one tenant occupied the whole. Mr. Hick is known to have been tenant of this part c. 1547 and of the other (33, 35A) c. 1553. In 1554 Augustine Hynde left this property, held by Alexander Calfeilde, merchant, to his son Edward Hynde and his heirs for ever. In 1607 the property belonged to William Archbold, gentleman, and his wife Anne Hynd, daughter of Edward Hynd, and was occupied on lease by Thomas Smith (tenant also of 33 and 35A). William and Anne offered to sell their share to the parish of St. Lawrence Jewry, landlord of 33 and 35A, and this was taken up. The price was £160, £100 of which came from a legacy by Allyne Elwin, leatherseller, to the parish, and the profits of the property were thereafter to be spent according to Elwin's will. The rest of the purchase money was raised by an assessment. (fn. 11) The £1 quit-rent to the Crown, formerly to St. Thomas of Acre, continued to be paid. (fn. 12) The later history of the whole house is given under 33.