Historical Gazetteer of London Before the Great Fire Cheapside; Parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary Le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane. Originally published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London, 1987.
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This property lay in Cheapside, between 36 or Popkirtle Lane to the W., 38 to the E., and originally 18 to the S. It had a frontage of some 22 ft. (6.71 m.) and probably originally extended some 75 ft. (22.86 m.) N.-S., though by the 17th century it was only 45 ft. (13.72 m.) long.
Thirteenth to sixteenth century
William de Eyssecefford appears to have held 37, probably in the early 13th century. (fn. 1)By her will, enrolled in 1259, Felicia la Coluere left £3. 6s. 8d. from the tenement held of her by Bartholomew le Furbur to Merton Priory. The tenement lay between Puppekurtelane to the W. and Gropecuntelane to the E. Though this grant appears to include 37 as well as 38, all other references suggest that only 38 was involved. (fn. 2) In 1286 37 was described as the land and houses sometime of Richard son of Walter. Richard may have been Richard le Poter or Porter, later referred to as a former owner of 37. By 1299 William de Betoyn and his wife Isabel occupied the property: in that year Ralph de Alegate, clerk, granted to John of Gloucester £3. 6s. 8d. quit-rent from the tenements and houses sometime of William de Eyssecefford in Puppekerleslane near Cheapside, now paid by William and Isabel. By his will proved in 1305, William de Bettone, citizen, left all his tenements etc. sometime of Richard le Porter in London to his elder son Richard. In 1330 Elicia, daughter of John of Gloucester called Crepyn, in pura virginitate et plena potestate quitclaimed to Richard in the £3. 6s. 8d. rent her father used to received from the tenements in St. Pancras parish, sometime of William de Essheteford, which Richard now held. (fn. 3)
Richard de Betoyne also acquired 36, and it was probably in a solar belonging to one of these, described as within the rent of Richard de Betoyne, in St. Pancras parish within Cheap ward, that John de Saxtone, furbisher (fourbour), died in 1325. He had been attacked and wounded in Shoe Lane, and it is not clear why he was carried to this property. By his will dated and proved in 1341, Richard de Betoigne left 37 and other properties (not including 36) to his wife Margaret for life, paying £13. 6s. 8d. yearly to his son Thomas and his wife Isabel, with remainder on her death to Thomas and Isabel and their male issue, with reversion to the male heirs of the testator's brothers Thomas and John. Thomas son of Richard was alive in 1344, but it is not clear how much longer. Either he or possibly his mother Margaret leased 37 to Stephen Straunge, citizen and pewterer. In 1345 Thomas Betoigne son of Thomas de Betoigne quitclaimed to Straunge in the wine-tavern (taberna vini) called la Lyoun, with all the shops in front, solars, and cellars, sometime of Richard de Betoigne, between 36 to the W., 18 to the S., and 38 to the E. In 1350 the wardship of Stephen le Peautrer's sons Nicholas and William, and of their money, which included £5 for Stephen's term in the tavern late of Richard de Betoygne in Cheap, next to 38, was granted to the boys' maternal uncle John de Essex, pheliparius. This suggests that the term had been surrendered or assigned for that sum. (fn. 4)
Thomas de Betoigne, son of Richard, and his wife Isabel died without male heirs but leaving a daughter, Juliana, who married William son of Robert de Thame, and took possession of the properties held by her father. In 1366 John, son of Thomas de Betoigne, and John and Richard, sons of John de Betoigne (the 3 nephews and heirs male of Richard de Betoigne), brought a plea of execution of testament concerning Richard's will against William and Juliana, to recover 4 messuages and 15 shops in London. The plea was postponed until Juliana was of age. In 1368 she answered and claimed that these properties, which included one or more in St. Pancras parish, had been held by Richard de Betoigne in fee tail only, by the grant in 1310 of Alan le Potter, and that Richard therefore had no power to devise them to his heirs male in disherison of his own female descendants. The plaintiffs denied that Alan le Potter was ever seised, and this was probably true of 145/37 at least; however, Juliana was able in 1368 to produce an unenrolled charter from Alan le Potter to Richard, in the terms described, and a jury awarded the tenements to her and William, against Richard son of John de Betoigne, who by then was the only plaintiff appearing. (fn. 5)
In 1369 William de Thame, citizen and fishmonger, and his wife Juliana granted and leased to Robert de Thame, citizen and merchant, William's father, their messuages and rents in St. Pancras parish, and also 105/9B, for 24 years for 'a great sum of money'. Robert was to maintain and repair the tenements. Robert de Thame died in 1373 or 1374, and his widow Rose then held the properties. In 1376 William de Thame and Juliana granted properties in several parishes, and the reversions of tenements held by Rose for a term of years in St. Pancras and St. Mary Colechurch parishes, to Thomas de Clifton, William Norwyche, William Blakewell, Geoffrey de Osmeston, and Edmund Walsyngham, to hold for the grantees' lives with remainder to the grantors. In 1377 John son of John de Betoigne quitclaimed to William and Juliana and their grantees in all the lands and tenements late of Richard son of William de Betoigne. Later that year, however, Joan daughter of John son of Thomas de Betoigne, and Richard and John, sons of John de Betoigne, brought another plea of execution of testament against William de Thame and Juliana, on the same grounds as before. Richard was debarred from pleading on account of the earlier judgment against him, and John on account of his quitclaim, but Joan continued to plead. One third of the premises claimed were taken into the City's hands during the suit. It was delayed until 1378 by defaults and essoins; on one occasion Juliana essoined because she was in royal service as laundress (lotrix). During these postponements, William and Juliana granted the properties to de Clyfton and his co-feoffees in perpetuity. The final judgment, if given, is not recorded, but the property remained with William and Juliana. (fn. 6)
At the end of 1378 William and Juliana quitclaimed to de Clyfton, etc., in the properties they had already granted them, and de Clyfton and his co-feoffees thereupon regranted them to them and the heirs of William. It is not clear if Rose de Thame was still alive and holding 37; she was probably dead by 1389, when William and Juliana leased their shop called le lyon, with one cellar adjacent and solar over, in Cheapside in St. Pancras parish, formerly demised by William to John Hockele, chandler, to Henry Bamme, citizen and goldsmith, for 40 years at £8 rent. This was evidently only part of 37. Bamme was to repair, and to pave the pavement belonging to the shop, but William and Juliana were to have the latrine cleaned at the beginning and end of the term. They could also have free access for (? rooms up to or above) the height of one solar, made at their own cost in the property, between the mansion now held by Margaret Barre in Popkirtle Lane (? another part of 37) to William de Thame's shops on the W. side of le lyon to the N. They could enter Bamme's shop to view repairs, and he was not permitted to cut or remove any of its timbers. Bamme was bound in £26. 13s. 4d. (40 marks) to observe these covenants. (fn. 7)
By his will of 1396, proved in 1398, William Thame left all his rents and tenements in London to his wife Juliana for life, with remainder to his son Thomas in tail, and then to his kinsman Robert Louthe, junior, and his heirs for ever. Juliana was dead by July 1398, when Robert Louthe granted his reversionary interest in all the properties to Hugh Herlond, John Cornwaleys, and Thomas Colred. 37 was described as one tenement with a cellar, called le lyon on the hoop, with 3 shops and solar(s) over, and another tenement with solars and appurtenances in Popkirtle Lane, in which Henry Newman, tailor, then lived; they lay between 36 to the W., 38 to the E. and the street to the N. Later in 1398 Thomas de Thame, son of William, leased a tenement and shop in Cheapside, St. Pancras parish, formerly held by Richard Bedeford, citizen and tailor, to John Lagenach, citizen and goldsmith, already in occupation by earlier grants from Thomas and from William. John was to hold for 20 years at £2. 13s. 4d. rent, to maintain and repair, not to damage or remove the main timbers, not to remove any fixtures to mend or make stalls, (nor to remove) windows, doors, stairs, locks (cerurae), keys (claves), partitions (interclaus'), lattices (latises), or benches. He was bound in £6. 13s. 4d. to observe these covenants. (fn. 8)
Between c. 1400 and 1410 37 was recovered or acquired by Robert Betoigne, citizen and goldsmith, son of Richard son of John de Betoigne. He also held 36, and it is not always clear, when property in St. Pancras parish is referred to in general terms, whether 36 or 37 or both are meant. In 1401 John Cornwaleys and Thomas Colred complained of intrusion by Robert Betoygne, goldsmith, Margaret widow of Thomas Thame, Nicholas Wodelond, mercer, and his wife Katharine, in their free tenement in St. Pancras parish. This probably means 37, but the plea was not continued. Several successive groups of feoffees held Robert Betoigne's property in this parish in this period (see under 36). By his will dated and proved in 1410, he directed them to convey all his properties in St. Pancras parish to his wife Agnes for life, with remainder to his son Richard in tail, then to his daughters Margaret and Agnes equally in tail, with cross remainders. Of these children, only Margaret seems to have survived; she married Robert fitzRobert, son of Robert fitzRobert, and they were in possession of 36, and probably therefore also 37, by 1415. (fn. 9)
In 1428 Robert fitzRobert, citizen, and his wife Margaret granted le lyon with 3 shops, solar, cellar, etc., in St. Pancras parish, and property in other parishes, to Thomas Melton alias Beteigne and his wife Cecilia. 36 was specifically excluded from this grant. It is not clear how Thomas Melton or Beteigne was related to Margaret fitzRobert and the Betoignes, but he seems to have been her nearest heir. Later in 1428 he and Cecilia granted the same properties to Richard Aleyn, chaplain, Richard Davy, chaplain, and John Grace, citizen and pewterer, who in 1429 granted them a quit-rent of £5. 6s. 8d. out of the same. Later in 1429 Aleyn, Davy, and Grace regranted le lyon and the other properties to Robert fitzRobert and Margaret to hold to them and their heirs in tail, with remainder to the heirs in tail of Thomas Milton or Beteigne, and then to the heirs and assigns of Robert fitzRobert. In 1434 Robert fitzRobert granted his properties to a group of feoffees, being John Neel, master of the hospital of St. Thomas of Acre, Henry Frowyk, citizen and mercer, John Grace, pewterer, citizens, William Kirkeby, clerk, and Richard Davy, chaplain. By his will dated 1434 but not proved till 1446 he directed his feoffees to convey his lands in the parishes of St. Pancras (except for 36, q.v.), St. Mary Colechurch, St. Martin Pomary, and St. Lawrence Jewry to his wife Margaret for life, with remainder to Thomas Melton or Beteigne and his heirs; in default of such heirs the properties in St. Pancras and St. Lawrence Jewry parishes were to revert to Margaret's heirs and assigns. (fn. 10)
In 1454, John Beteigne, gentleman, son and heir of Thomas Melton or Beteigne, granted the reversion of le lyon and the other properties on the death of Margaret (now aged about 60) to William Hole, citizen and skinner, for a sum of money. In 1455 John Beteigne, clerk, (younger) brother of John Beteigne, gentleman, ratified this grant. Hole may still have been holding to Beteigne's use, however. In 1463 John Neel, clerk, last surviving feoffee of Robert fitzRobert, quitclaimed to Margaret fitzRobert all right in the property she held by grant of him and his co-feoffees. In 1470, Thomas Frowyk, esquire, son and heir of the late Henry Frowyk, who had been the last surviving feoffee of Robert fitzRobert except for Neel, a clerk, and who had therefore been seised in fee of the reversions, quitclaimed to Margaret in all the properties his father had held as feoffee. Also in 1470, William Hole quitclaimed all right in the property to her, at the request of William Brocas the younger and his wife Margaret, daughter and heir of John Beteigne. (fn. 11)
At this point Margaret fitzRobert held all the properties, including 36 and 37, freely. In 1471 she granted the properties to feoffees, who regranted them to her to hold for life, with remainder to Willam Brocas, gentleman, and his wife Margaret and their heirs in tail. By 1480 the properties were held by William Langford, esquire, and his wife Margaret, daughter of John Beteigne, identical with Margaret Brocas. They broke up the property, so that 36A and 37 descended together, with 29, and 36B descended separately. For the descent of 37 until c. 1514 see under 36A. At some date between the late 15th and late 17th century, the S. portion of 37, some 31 ft. (9.45 m.) in length (according to the post-Fire survey), seems to have been separated from it and added to 36B, with which it was occupied at the time of the Great Fire. It is not clear when this occurred, though it was probably after the mid-16th century. (fn. 12)
Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
29, 36A, and 37 came into the possession of the hospital of St. Thomas of Acre, under the will of Nicholas Alwyn, citizen, alderman and mercer, dated 1505 and proved 1506. In 1514 William Langford of London, gentleman, son and heir of William Langford, esquire, and of his wife Margaret, quitclaimed to the hospital in several properties, including 4 messuages in St. Pancras parish, in which John Worsopp, Nicholas Sheldon, citizen and alderman, John Baxter, grocer, and Morgan Wyllyams now lived. These represent 37A, 37B, 36A1 and 36A2 with 29 respectively. (fn. 13)
In 1517-19 this tenement, probably smaller than 37B, which it adjoined, was held of St. Thomas of Acre by John Worship at £3. 6s. 8d. rent. He paid this rent until 1526, and Leonard Thorneton paid the same rent until 1538, though he was at times one or two terms in arrears. The property passed to the Crown on the surrender of the hospital in 1538. In a rental of 1538-9 37A was described as a messuage with 2 shops, and cellars, solars, etc., leased to John Worsoppe, his executors and assigns for 40 years from 1538, at £3. 6s. 8d. rent, the landlord to repair. Worsop had been succeeded as leaseholder by Thomas Person (Pierson) by 1541. In 1540 the Crown sold 37A and 37B to Charles Howard, esquire, for the service of 1/20th of a knight's fee. (fn. 14) Howard was immediately licensed to alienate the properties to Robert Fermer of London, leatherseller, and in 1542 Fermer sold them to Edward Bowland of London. Bowland died in 1546, and in 1547 the king granted £8 rent from messuages in St. Pancras parish to Sir John Mason, kt., and the wardship and marriage of Richard, son and heir of the late Edward Bowland, who had died in the king's service. By 1559 Richard Bowland was of age, and confirmed the term of Thomas Pyerson, scrivener, in the messuage with shops formerly held by John Worsopp, now dead. In 1563 Bowland promised Pierson he would 'sue forth' in the court of Wards and Liveries for the manors and lands formerly belonging to his father, and save Pierson harmless against the Crown for any sums charged to pay on the tenement in which Pierson now lived in Cheapside (37A), and the great warehouse and shops called the Red Lion which Pierson held of Bowland by lease (37B), and also 38A (q.v.). In 1568 Richard Bowland granted 37A and B to James Hawishe, citizen and grocer, for £50, the sale to be cancelled if as he intended he repaid the money by April 1569; otherwise, conveyance by deed etc. was to take place within 7 years. Bowland covenanted not to sell the property, once redeemed, to any but Hawishe or Thomas Pierson. In this grant 37A was described as a messuage with shops, cellars, solars, chambers, rooms, etc., late held by John Worsop, citizen and scrivener and now by Thomas Pierson, who also had part of 37B. This grant was probably redeemed, and in April 1569 Richard Bowland, gentleman, son and heir of Edward Bowlande, late of Margaretting, Essex, sold 37A and B to Pierson and his wife Joan for £200. Pierson already held a 70-year lease, probably of both properties, for £8. 6s. 8d. rent. James Hewisshe then quitclaimed to Pierson. Thomas Pierson died later in 1369: the heir to 37A and B was probably his elder son John. (fn. 15)
In 1517-19 this was described as the warehouse or mansion called the Lion, let at £3. 6s. 8d. to Nicholas Shelton. It had formerly been let at £5 rent to Thomas Bowes, but could not now be let for so much. Shelton was said to pay the rent until 1525, when he was succeeded by John Gage, who paid from 1525 to 1531. Shelton's will was proved in 1515, and so these references to him are probably anachronistic. The warehouse called the Lion was held by Thomas Abraham from 1531: he paid £4. 13s. 4d. in 1531-2, probably for half a year at £3. 6s. 8d. and half at £5, and at £5 p.a. thereafter till 1537. The Red Lion was leased to him in 1537 for 31 years at £5 rent, the landlord to repair. (fn. 16) 37A and B were sold to Charles Howard in 1540, and the freehold of both descended as described under 37A. In 1568 37B was described as 3 shops with cellars, solars, warehouses, etc., late occupied by Abraham and now in the several tenures of Thomas Pierson, who also held 37A, and Charles Hoskins, merchant tailor, or their assigns. (fn. 17)
The descent of these properties after the death of Thomas Pierson is uncertain. His younger son Edward is known to have held 38B, and may perhaps also have held 37. (fn. 18) 37A-B was known in the 17th century as the Red Lion and Golden Ball, but it is not certain if it was the same as the Gilden Ball in Cheapside referred to in 1597, when a Mr. Browne was staying or living there. The occupant of 37A-B in 1638 and 1642 was probably John Piggott; his house was valued at £30 p.a. in 1638. (fn. 19) The fee farm rent to the Crown of 16s. 8d. from the whole property continued to be paid up till the Interregnum, when it was sold in 1652, with other rents, to William Doughty, gentleman. It was recovered by the Crown at the Restoration, and in 1664 was said to be due from Mary Edge for 2 tenements in Cheapside known as the Red Lion, in St. Pancras parish. 'Edge' is probably an error for 'Lodge'. (fn. 20) The property was held some time before 1664 by Benjamin Lodge, who appears to have granted it to Edward Osborne, Stephen Mosdell, Matthew Waddington, and Sir Thomas Foote, kt., as trustees probably either of his marriage settlement or his will. He had died by 1664, when Osborne, Mosdell, and Waddington, trustees of the property for Mary, widow of Benjamin Lodge and now wife of John Ferris, for her life, with reversion to Benjamin, infant son of Benjamin Lodge, together with John Ferris leased a messuage in Cheapside called the Red Lyon and Golden Ball, and a shop and cellar adjoining called the Flower de Luce, to Peter Diccenson, dyer, then in occupation, for 31 years at £50 fine and £50 rent. Peter Dickenson occupied a house with 6 hearths in 1662-3 and in early 1666, according to the Hearth Tax returns; in the latter list he was described as a draper. (fn. 21)
After the Great Fire, Dickinson sought terms for rebuilding, which were agreed in the Fire Court probably because of the complex of interests rather than any dissension between landlord and tenant. John Ferris claimed to have an interest by reason of purchase from Richard Huntley, but it is not clear what this was. Mary Ferris had died by the time of the decree. The Court decreed in 1668 that Diccenson should pay arrears up to the Fire to Ferris, and should have an increased term of 61 years from 1667, at £22 rent, payable from 1668. Diccenson was to be responsible for the quit-rent of 17s. to the Crown (probably 16s. 8d. plus 4d. for acquittance). The foundation was surveyed for Peter Dickenson in June 1668. At the end of July 1668 rebuilding had reached first floor level: the carpenter had to alter the arrangement of timbers at that level when it was found that 2 of the 3 summers to be laid into Billers's wall (36B) would project into his chimneys. Instead two summers were laid, with 3 girders across them to run N.-S., and the joists to run E.-W. above that. This suggests that Popkirtle Lane, as it was formerly known, between 36 and 37, was being bridged or possibly built over. No such lane is shown on Ogilby and Morgan's map of 1676. (fn. 22)