Historical Gazetteer of London Before the Great Fire Cheapside; Parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary Le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane. Originally published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London, 1987.
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This tenement lay in Cheapside between Gropecunt Lane to the W., 105/1-3 to the E., and St. Pancras church to the S. It had a frontage of some 25 ft. (7.62 m.) and a length N.-S. of nearly 125 ft. (38.10 m.). A shop, probably occupying part of the frontage, was held separately from the rest of 39 in the later 13th century but had been united with it by the mid 14th. It is possible that there was a connection between this shop and 105/1, 3 shops in front of 105/2, which were in the same ownership as 145/39 from the later 13th century.
Thirteenth to seventeenth century
The main part of 39, with part of 105/1
In 1260 the main part of 39 was held by Simon le Furbur. In that year Alexander de Bemfeld and his wife Maud granted £1 quit-rent and 8s. yearly payment from 105/1 to Walter le Poter, citizen. In 1268 Robert de Assyndon and his wife Christina, daughter of Bartholomew le Brun, granted part of 105/1 to Walter le Poter: this was 2 shops and the solar over the 3rd, easternmost, shop. Walter le Poter may also have held the main part of 145/39 by then, as it was described as late of Simon le Furbur. Walter held 39 by 1276, when Henry de Edelmeton left a quit-rent of £1 from Walter's tenement in Gropecunt Lane to his brother Robert. From this time the 2 shops and solar from 105/1 descended with the main part of 145/39. Walter le Poter died in or before 1280, leaving all his rents to his wife for life, with remainder for sale. His widow Margery died in or before 1285, and in 1285 Nicholas de Wynton, Walter's executor, sold his tenement in the parishes of St. Pancras and St. Mary Colechurch to Robert de Basing, citizen. The property lay between Gropecunt Lane to the W., Bordhaw Lane and 105/2 to the E., Cheapside to the N., and the tenement of the rector of St. Pancras to the S., and was charged with a quit-rent of 6s. 8d. to St. Katharine's Hospital. Robert paid £13. 6s. 8d. By his will proved in 1300, Thomas de Basinges, possibly the son of Robert, left his tenement apud conductum in the parishes of St. Mary Colechurch and St. Pancras to be sold. (fn. 1)
In 1309 the main part of 145/39 was held by Richard de Gloucestre. In 1310 there was an agreement between him and Geoffrey de Brandon, who held 105/3, over the stone party wall between their tenements in the parishes of St. Pancras and St. Mary Colechurch. The wall was in ruins, and needed to be rebuilt. The parties agreed that de Brandon would rebuild and de Gloucestre would pay £1 towards the cost, and that the wall would thereafter be common between them. By his will proved in 1323, Richard de Gloucestre left quit-rents of 13s. 4d. each to his daughters Joan, a nun at Barking, and Idonea, a nun at St. Helen's, charged on 145/39 and 105/1, which he appears to have left to his son Richard. In 1336 Richard de Gloucestre, son and heir of Richard de Gloucestre, late citizen and alderman, quitclaimed to John Knopwed, citizen and mercer, and his wife Rose, all right in the brewhouse (145/39) and the 3 shops and solars (? 105/1) which he had granted them in the parishes of St. Pancras and St. Mary Colechurch. In 1339 Gracianus le Palmere and his wife Juliana quitclaimed to Knopwed and Rose in the same property. (fn. 2)
Quit-rent from 105/1
By her will proved in 1291, Christina la Brune, probably widow of Robert de Assindon, left a quit-rent of 4d. from the tenement sometime of Walter le Potter in the parish of St. Mary Colechurch to her son Gilbert. By his will proved in 1307, Gilbert de Ayssindon, mercer, left the residue of his rents and tenements in London to his sisters Eleanor and Tiffany, saving his wife Margaret's dower. In 1323, Theobald, son and heir of Sibilla Herberd, daughter of Christina Brun, quitclaimed to Reginald de Conduit, junior, citizen and vintner, in half of the 4d. quit-rent, which he inherited after the deaths of Gilbert Brun and Walter Brun, by the will of Christina Brun; Reginald held the other half in right of his (late) wife Tiffany. Reginald granted Theobald Herberd, described as the son of William Herberd of Ryplington, an annuity of £2 for life, in return for the quitclaim in this and other rents. (fn. 3)
The shop, part of 145/39
By his will proved in 1310, Robert de Asshindon, citizen and saddler (clearly not identical with the husband of Christina Brun), left his shop in Cheapside iuxta conductum in St. Pancras parish, which he inherited from his father, to his son William and his heirs. The exact position of the shop is not defined, but it seems probable that it occupied part of the Cheapside frontage of 39. The family name suggests a connection with 105/1, but it is not clear who this Robert's father was. In 1333 Robert le Latoner held 2 shops iuxta conductum, subsequently identified as part of, or held with, 145/39. Subsequently this shop was granted to John Knopwed by Helewisa de Asshyndon, widow of John de Wynton, citizen and tawyer (allutar'). (fn. 4)
145/39 with 105/1A
By his will of 1340, proved in 1341, John de Knopwed left to his wife Rose his tenement with houses and shops in Gropecunt Lane in the parishes of St. Pancras and St. Mary Colechurch which he had by the grant of Richard de Gloucestre and of Helewisa de Asshyndon, to hold for life, with remainder for sale. In 1349, after Rose's death, John's surviving executor sold the property to Thomas Burton, citizen and mercer. By his will dated and proved later that year, de Burton left the property to John Howle, citizen and draper. By his will dated 1349 and proved 1352, John de Holegh, citizen and hosier (caligarius), evidently identical with John Howle, draper, left the reversion of the tenement, shops, and rents in which de Burton was then seised in his name, in St. Pancras parish, late of John de Knopwed, to support 2 chaplains in the church of St. Mary le Bow, for the souls of himself, his late wife Alice, John de Holegh and Gilbert his brother, and John de Godeston, celebrating masses for drapers and others who came. The chaplains were to be presented by the rector and 4 parishioners and the most powerful draper of Cordwainer Street. An inquisition post mortem declared that John, who died in 1351, had no heir because he was a bastard, and the property escheated to the king, who granted it to Robert de Herle. The property in St. Pancras parish was valued at £3. 6s. 8d. (5 marks) p.a. The property seems subsequently to have passed to the church of St. Mary le Bow, as intended, and in 1358 Thomas Devenissch, pewterer, son of Richard Devenissh, late citizen and tailor, quitclaimed to the rector and 4 parishioners of St. Mary le Bow and their successors in the tenement with shops, cellar(s), and solars in the parishes of St. Pancras and St. Mary Colechurch, sometime of Robert de Asshyndon, saddler, or of his son John (? rectius William), and released all actions in the property. In 1388, on payment of £5 to the hanaper, the king confirmed the chaplains' possession of and estate in the property. (fn. 5)
The parish of St. Mary le Bow retained this property until the Reformation. In 1373 it was held of them by William de Essex, draper, and in 1397 by Peter Edriche, citizen and brewer (pandoxator). In 1427 it was described as a brewhouse belonging to the church of St. Mary le Bow, and this brewhouse was occupied by John Sturmyn in 1428 and 1435. In 1501, 1512, and 1514 the brewhouse was called the Swan; in 1530 it was referred to as 'the sign of the Swan against the Great Conduit'. (fn. 6) In 1539 it was leased to Bartholomew Barnes, mercer, for 99 years at £7 rent, to be repaired by him. In 1540 the city viewers inspected a stone wall, belonging to Barnes, on the E. side of his property in St. Pancras parish, adjoining the tenement belonging to the churchwardens of St. Christopher le Stocks (105/1). The properties adjoined for a length N.-S. of 45 ft. (13.72 m.). The width of Barnes' tenement between 105/2 and 'Tupkyrtell' (Gropecunt) Lane was said to be 30 ft. 7 in. (9.32 m.) at the N. end and 36 ft. 4 in. (11.07 m.) at the S. end, but these 2 figures do not agree with a fuller view and description made in 1542. If the latter figure should be read as 26 ft. 4 in. (8.03 m.), then the measurements do seem to correspond to the width of the property and the lane. In 1540 105/2 was viewed, together with the ground-floor shop, formerly part of 105/1. These views may have been taken because of Barnes' rebuilding of 145/39. In 1542 all the ground of the rector and wardens of St. Mary le Bow, in the parishes of St. Pancras and St. Mary Colechurch, held by Barnes on lease, was viewed. The 'great new house' (145/39) measured 27 ft. 8 in. (8.43 m.) wide at the N. end, 116 ft. 10 in. (35.61 m.) long along the W. side by 'Tupkyrtell Lane' to St. Pancras church, and 110 ft. (33.35 m.) long along the E. side. The part of 105/1 held with this property was described as an old house now being taken down, and measured 16 ft. 4 1/2 in. (4.99 m.) E.-W. by 11 ft. 8 in. (3.56 m.) N.-S. at ground level; at first floor level it also included the solar over the shop nearest to Bordhaw Lane, another 8 ft. 4 in. wide. The height of this solar above the ground was 9 ft. or 10 ft. (2.74 m. or 3.05 m.), according to different views. (fn. 7)
Quit-rent from 145/39 and/or 105/1
By his will proved in 1316, Reginald de Herlison left a quit-rent of 4s. from 2 shops between (? or near to) the Conduit, to Joan widow of Hamo Belacre for life, with reversion to his own nearest heirs. In 1333 William Herlysoun, son and heir of Reginald, quitclaimed to Edmund Peverel and his wife Joan de Belacre in the rent, now said to come from Robert le Latoner's 2 shops next to the Conduit. In 1350 Joan de Belacre, now widow of Edmund Peverel, granted quit-rents totalling £7. 1s. to John de Bovyngdone, citizen and apothecary. These included 4s. rent from 2 shops near the Conduit, held by John Howle, draper. Edmund son and heir of Edmund Peverel quitclaimed in the rent. By his will dated and proved in 1361, John de Bovyndon left the £7. 1s. rent to his wife Katharine for life while single, with remainder in tail to his children, and then for sale. By 1368 the children were dead and Katharine and her co-executor sold the rents to Adam Fraunceys, citizen. Fraunceys regranted the rents to Katharine to hold for life. By his will of 1374, proved 1375, he left the reversion of the £7. 1s. rents, still held by Katharine for life, to his son Adam Fraunceys, junior, and his wife Margaret, and their heirs for ever. Adam Fraunceys, junior, died in 1415, seised in fee tail by his father's devise of tenements and rents in various parishes including St. Pancras. His heirs were his daughters Agnes and Elizabeth. This part of the estate, and possibly the whole, descended to Elizabeth, who married Thomas Charleton, kt., and died in 1451, seised of 4s. rent from the church-wardens of St. Mary le Bow in St. Pancras parish. Her son Thomas Charleton, esquire, was her heir. He died in 1465, and was succeeded by his son Richard Charleton, then aged 15. Sir Richard Charleton, kt., forfeited all his land and rents for his support of Richard III at Bosworth. In 1500 Henry VII granted some of his properties, including this 4s. rent, to William Vampage, knight for the royal body, who surrendered them shortly after. In 1501 the king granted the same rents, including 4s. from the Swan at the Great Conduit, to Sir John Shaa, kt., and John Charleton, during pleasure. In 1512 the king granted the rent to Thomas Bell, for life, and in 1513-14 to John Pate, groom of the wardrobe, and George Duckworth, groom of the king's mouth in the cellar, in survivorship. In 1530 the king granted the rent to John Pate, page of the wardrobe, of Bedfordshire. By 1546 the rent was due to Augustine Hynde. (fn. 8)
Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: 145/39 and 105/1A
In 1546 the churchwardens of St. Mary le Bow replied to Henry VIII's enquiry that they held 2 tenements in St. Pancras parish, under the will of John de Holleghe of London, hosier, for chaplains and services. For some time the income had only been sufficient for one chaplain. The tenements were held by Bartholomew Barnes on lease at £7 rent, from which 4s. was due to Augustine Hynde for quit-rent and £6. 16s. to the chaplain for his salary, so that there was no surplus. This statement was repeated in 1548. The property passed to the Crown and was granted in 1548 to William Gunter of London, gentleman, and William Hobson of London, haberdasher, at 18 years' purchase. It was said to lie in St. Pancras and St. Mary Colechurch parishes, and to be held on a 99-year lease by Barnes, who was responsible for repairs. (fn. 9)
Later in 1548 Gunter and Hobson sold the same property to Thomas Baron, citizen and mercer. In 1550 Baron recovered a messuage in St. Pancras parish against Geoffrey Walkeden, who failed to appear. This may have been part of the settlement of 39, which in 1572 belonged to and was occupied by Geoffrey Walkeden, citizen and skinner, and his wife Anne, who held it for the life of Anne with remainder to their sons. Another recovery, against John Nicholson, citizen and mercer, had helped to secure it to them, but it is not clear how. The separate leasehold interest seems by this date to have been extinguished. It is not certain whether 105/1A was still held with 145/39 from this date: it may have become an independent tenement. In 1572 Geoffrey and Anne, with their sons Thomas and Robert, granted 39, now known as the Angel, to Robert Cage, citizen and salter, for £1080. Later in 1572 Lawrence Palmer and Richard Hanberry recovered the messuage against Robert Cage and his wife Joan, who called Geoffrey, Thomas, and Robert Walcaden to warrant. In 1573 Palmer and Hanberry released the property to Cage. (fn. 10)
Robert Cage, citizen and salter, died in 1574, leaving the tenement (Fig. 14) in which he lived in St. Pancras parish, which he had bought from Geoffrey Walkaden, ultimately to his son Robert, then under age, but with complicated short-term arrangements. His wife Joan was to have the upper part of the dwelling house, and 4 cellars under it used for wood, coal, beer, and wine, with easement of the yard and access. The shop, presumably occupying the ground floor, was to be let for the most rent obtainable, but no linen-seller was to occupy it for the space of 5 years. Half of the rent was to go to Joan and half to his children. The warehouse at the further end of the yard, the counting-house at the E. side of the yard, and the two cellars used by the testator for linen cloth, together with free entry from the street, and the commodity and 'stowage' of the gallery on the W. side of the yard were to be let to the testator's servants Robert Heron and Robert Archer, for 5 years, together with a stock of £1000, so that the testator's debts might be more rapidly paid. Heron and Archer were to pay £5 per cent per annum to the children's trustees, and £16. 6s. 8d. to his wife. The residue of the profits was to go to the children. Robert Cage the younger came of age in 1584. (fn. 11)
In 1595 Robert Cage and his wife Anne granted 39 to Edward Baron of Barnes, citizen and mercer, by bargain and sale and by a recovery in which Thomas Wade and John Brown recovered on Baron's behalf. In 1623 Baron granted the property to his sister Julian Stile, widow, by means of a fine. In 1624 Julian Stile leased all or part of 39 to Richard Bull, for 15 3/4 years from 1639, at £60 rent. She died in 1627, leaving the Angel to her grandson Richard Cutler, in tail male. The tenants in 1633, 1638, and 1642 were James Rand (d. 1642) and Richard Bull; in 1638 their houses were valued at £30 and £50 p.a., respectively. In 1645 Richard Bull of Great Rollright, Oxfordshire, left his lease of both houses at the Angel in Cheapside to his wife Grace. (fn. 12)
In 1646 Richard Dannet recovered 39 against Henry Wetherell, who vouched Richard Cutler, but this recovery was probably to hold to the use of Cutler. In 1646 Cutler appears to have leased part of the property to Elizabeth Rand for 99 years at a peppercorn rent, perhaps as part of a mortgage. In 1649 he was involved in a series of transactions with Michael Lee and William Vannam, the purpose of which is not clear. In 1652 Richard Cutler, citizen and grocer, and his wife Elizabeth, and Sarah Cutler of London, widow, his mother, sold 39 to William Vannam, citizen and fishmonger, for £600, with warranty against claims from themselves or in the names of the late Richard Cutler, and the late Julian Stile, grandmother of the grantor. The property was described as a messuage called the Angel, now divided into 2 tenements, in Cheapside near the Great Conduit, in St. Pancras parish, late occupied by Richard Bull and James Rand and now by William Vannam and Elizabeth Rand. The property was unencumbered except for the leases to Richard Bull and Elizabeth Rand. Elizabeth Rand died in 1658. In 1662-3 James Rand occupied a house with 7 hearths and William Vannam one next to it with 8 hearths. In early 1666 they were described as James Rand, apothecary, and William Vannum, draper. William Vannam, esquire, and Daniel Rand were listed as persons whose houses had been burnt in 1666. (fn. 13)
After the Great Fire, in May 1669, the site of 2 foundations in Cheapside opposite to Mercers' Chapel' was surveyed for William Vanham. These measured 30 ft. (9.14 m.) E.-W., including half the passageway (Gropecunt Lane), by 44 ft. (13.41 m.) N.-S. The S. part of the plot, extending to St. Pancras church, was not surveyed until 1671. There was some difference between Vanham and William Allington, tenant of 38A-B, over the sharing of the alley between them, which appears to have been built over to a depth of 54 ft. (16.46 m.) from the street. Further S., Vanham was allowed to build on the wall of St. Pancras Soper Lane, 61 ft. by 3 ft. (18.59 m. by 910 mm.) paying £3. 1s. rent (4d. per sq. ft.). The reference is probably to the wall of the churchyard (17B) running N.-S. along the W. side of Gropecunt Lane, since 39 abutted on the N. wall of the former church for less than 25 ft. (7.62 m.). Vanham was to make lights and an ornamental front to the churchyard. (fn. 14)