Chronicles of the Mayors and Sheriffs of London 1188-1274. Originally published by Trübner, London, 1863.
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In this year, his lordship the King, returning from Salopesbery, after peace had been made between him and Lewelin, Prince of Wales, arrived in London on the Vigil of Saint Edward, King and Confessor [5 January].
In this year, about the Feast of Saint Michael, it was provided by the Council of his lordship the King, that inquisition should be made throughout all the realm of England, as to the points which are set forth below in French, in this Book.
(fn. 1) "Whereas the King of England hath given the lands of many persons, who had lands in divers Counties and in divers Hundreds, he doth therefore will, that inquisition be made who have been enfeoffed by him, and in what hundred, of lands of such persons; [and] that it be stated, who were against him in these commotions in his realm, and of what lands they are enfeoffed, and to whom such lands belonged, and who holds them now, and who have taken the revenues of such lands since that time, and what has become of the same. On the other hand, he doth wish to know, by inquisition made, who have taken the lands of others by force by reason of the aforesaid commotions in the realm, and still withhold the same, and have not restored them unto the King; and who they are that hold the same, and by what warranty.
"He doth will that inquisition be made, who have been against him in this contest, either in deed or in word, and whether the lands or the goods of such have yet been given, or not, by the King or by any of his people.
"They shall make inquisition, as well of Archbishops, Bishops, [and] of all persons of (fn. 2) religion, of whatsoever order they may be, as of parsons, and of priests, and of clerks, and of all other manner of persons, whosoever they may be, who have openly promoted the advantage of the Earl of Leicester, and were among those who held with him in misleading the people by lies and by falsehoods, [and] by taking the Earl's part, and slandering the party of the King and his son.
"They shall make inquisition who have given aid by their money unto the Earl of Leicester, or unto those of his party, or have sent them any of their people to aid them, of their own free will, without being distressed therefor.
"They shall make inquisition which of such feoffees have made peace with their adversaries, and have taken of their monies; and who have restored unto them their lands without the counsel of the King.
"He doth will that they make inquisition who have been the principal robbers, and who have been with them, and who have been robbed, and by what people, and of how much, and where, and for what reason, and where the robbers have been harboured.
"They shall make inquisition whether any one of those has been robbed, who held with neither one party nor the other, but kept themselves in the country; and who it is that has robbed them, and of what.
"They shall make inquisition whether any person has begged of the King the lands of any one, who in the time aforesaid has not been against the King, and still holds the same; and who it is that does so.
(fn. 3) Everwyk—Northumberland—Cumberland—Westmeriland —Lancastre—Notingham—Derby.
(fn. 4) Nicole—Northamtune—Leicestre—Warewyk—Roteland—Oxneford—Barkschere—Bukingham—Bedeford.
Be it known that this provision, etc. (fn. 7)
Be it remembered, that in time previous precept had been often given in the Guildhall, before all the people, in behalf of his lordship the King, under pain of life and limb, and proclamation had been made throughout all the City to a like effect, that no persons should hold any parley, conventicles by themselves, or covins, whereby the peace of his lordship the King and of the City might in any way be disturbed; but that all persons of the City, rich as well as poor, should be, as it were, one body and one man, faithfully and in fealty to maintain the peace of the King and of the City; that so, through such conventicles and covins the City might not again be put to confusion; as had happened in the times of Thomas FitzThomas, the then Mayor of London, and of Thomas de Piwelesdone, his confederate; under whose rule the common people, by means of such covins and confederacies made among them, had arisen against the principal men of the City, and had held all power in the City, so that the superiors could neither appease them nor bring them to justice; and such was the beginning of confusion to the City. Besides which, command was given and proclamation made, in like form, that no persons should take revenge for battery or other injury inflicted upon him; but he was to make complaint thereof unto the Bailiffs of the City, who were to do such persons full justice thereupon.
Against this, it happened, about the Feast of Saint Katherine [25 November] in this year, that a dispute arose between certain of the craft of the goldsmiths and certain of the craft of the tailors; to whom adhered, on the one side and the other, some of the trade of the (fn. 8) parmenters and some of the (fn. 9) tawyers; which persons held great assemblages, and for three nights together went armed throughout the streets of the City, creating most severe conflicts among themselves. Hence, without doubt, as was said, more than five hundred of these mischievous persons were collected together at night, and in the affray many of them were wounded; but still, no one would (fn. 10) act a part that belongs only to the Bailiffs. For every one was waiting by force of arms to take vengeance on his adversary, against the peace and his own fealty to his lordship the King: the Bailiffs and discreet men of the City understanding which, had more than thirty of them seized and imprisoned in Neugate; and these, on the Friday next after the Feast of Saint Katherine [25 November], appeared before Laurence de Broc, the Justiciar assigned for gaol delivery, who took proceedings against them in the King's behalf, saying that they, against the peace and their fealty to his lordship the King, had gone armed in the City, and had at night wickedly and feloniously wounded some persons, and had slain others, whose bodies, it was said, had been thrown into the Thames.
They however denied violence and injury etc., and as to the same put themselves upon the verdict of the (fn. 11) venue. But on the morrow, those who by the said venue were found to have been in the conflict aforesaid, were, by judgment of the said Justiciar, immediately hanged, although not one among them had been convicted of homicide, (fn. 12) mayhem, or robbery. Hence, one Geoffrey, surnamed "de Beverley," a parmenter by trade, because certain of those misdoers had armed themselves in his house, and he himself had been present with them in arms in the said affray, was hanged, together with twelve others who had been indicted, as well goldsmiths as parmenters and tawyers. All this however was done, that others, put in awe thereby, might take warning, that so the peace of his lordship the King by all within the City might be the more rigidly maintained.
Be it remembered, that in the same year it was ordained by his lordship the King and his Council, that Justiciars Itinerant should be sent throughout all the kingdom of England, beginning the (fn. 13) Iter immediately after the Feast of Saint Hilary [13 January].
Richard de Middeltun; Adam de Greinvile; Roger de Messenden; John de Strode.—Sumersete—Dorsete—Hereford—Gloucestre—Worcestre—Salopesbery—Stafford—Oxneford—Barkschire—Bukingham— Bedeford—Norhamptune—Cantebrigge—Huntingdune.
In this year, on the third day before the Annunciation of Our Lady [25 March], which then fell on a Friday, his lordship the King summoned before himself and his Council the citizens of London, and granted them certain liberties, as set forth below in this book; at the same time withdrawing many articles of the City's franchises, until such time as they should have more fully obtained his favour.
In the week before Palm Sunday in this year, the citizens of London, by command of his lordship the King, chose six men, who were presented before him at Westminster on the morrow of Palm Sunday, on the second day of April, that is to say. And, at the same time, his lordship the King, of his own free will, appointed two of them to be Sheriffs of London and Middlesex, and to collect all issues of such Sheriffwick to the use of his lordship the King; namely, William de Dureham and Walter Hervy, John Addrien and Luke de Batencurt being removed. At this time also, Sir Thomas de Eppegrave was made Warden of the City and Constable of the Tower.
After this, about the Feast of Saint Mark the Evangelist, Ottoboni, Cardinal Deacon of Saint Adrian, Legate of the Apostolic See, held his General Council in the Church of Saint Paul; at which were present, either in person or by their proctors, all the Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots and Priors, Deans, Provosts, and Archdeacons, of all England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.
"Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Acquitaine, to the Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Priors, Earls, Barons, Justiciars, Sheriffs, Provosts, Ministers, and to all his bailiffs and faithful subjects, greeting. Know ye that we have granted, for us and our heirs, unto our citizens of London, whom of late we have received unto our favour and peace, after divers trespasses and forfeitures of them and their community unto us made; for the which, both as to life and limb, and all other things unto the said City pertaining, they have submitted themselves unto our will; that no one of them shall be forced to plead without the walls of the aforesaid City as to anything, except tenures without the City, our moneyers and officers excepted, and except as to those things which shall happen to be done against our peace, and which, according to the common law of our realm, are wont to be determined in the parts where such trespasses have been committed; and also, except pleas concerning merchandize which are wont to be determined according to (fn. 14) Law-merchant, in boroughs and fairs; but still, upon the understanding that such plaints shall be determined by four or five of the citizens of London aforesaid, who shall be present in the said boroughs or fairs: saving unto us the amercements from thence in anywise arising, as to which unto us and our heirs, under pain of grievous forfeiture, they shall faithfully make answer. We have also granted unto the same our citizens acquittal of (fn. 15) murder in the City aforesaid and in the (fn. 16) Portsoken; and that no one of the said citizens shall .wage (fn. 17) battle; and that as to pleas pertaining unto the crown, those more especially which within the City aforesaid and the suburbs thereof may chance to arise, they may (fn. 18) deraign themselves according to the ancient customs of the said City;—this however excepted, that upon the graves of the dead it shall not be lawful to make (fn. 19) oath in the precise words as to what the dead persons themselves would have said if they had been living; but in place of such dead persons as before their death shall have been chosen to discharge by oath those who may have been (fn. 20) appealed or charged as to matters pertaining unto the crown, other free and lawful men shall be chosen, who shall do the same without delay which by the deceased persons aforesaid should have been done, in case they had survived. And also, that within the walls of the City, or even within the Portsoken thereof, no one shall take lodging by force or by livery of the (fn. 21) Marshal. We have also granted unto the same citizens, that throughout all our territories and dominions, wheresoever they shall come with their wares and merchandize, as also throughout all sea-ports, as well on this side of the sea as beyond, they shall be quit of toll and (fn. 22) lastage, and of all other custom, except everywhere our due and ancient (fn. 23) prisage of wine, that is to say, one tun before the mast, and another tun behind the mast, at the rate of twenty shillings each tun, to be paid in such form as we and our predecessors have been accustomed to have such prises. And if any person in any one of our territories, on this side the sea or beyond, or in the sea-ports on this side the sea, or beyond, shall take of the men of London, in contravention of this our grant, toll or any other custom, except the prisage aforesaid, after such person shall have (fn. 24) failed of right, the Sheriffs of London shall take (fn. 25)naam at London therefor. We have also granted unto them, that in each week the Hustings shall be held once in the week, and that only for one day, but so that the matters which cannot be determined on that day shall be continued on the morrow, and no longer: and that, as to their lands and tenures within the City, right shall be done unto them according to the custom of the same City; so nevertheless, that as well foreigners as others may make attorneys, as well in prosecuting as in defending, the same as elsewhere in our Court. And that they shall not be molested for (fn. 26) Miskenning in their pleas; that is to say, if they shall not have altogether made their declaration aright. And that, as to all their debts which shall have been contracted in London, and as to securities unto them there made, pleas shall, according to the just and usual custom, there be held. And further, for the amendment of the City aforesaid, we do grant that all shall be quit of (fn. 27) Childwite, and of (fn. 28) Yeresgive, and of (fn. 29) Scotale; so that our Sheriffs of London, or any other bailiff, shall make no Scotale. And that the said citizens may justly have and hold their lands and tenures, or securities, and also their debts, whosoever may owe the same. And that no merchant or other person shall meet merchants when coming by land or by water with their merchandize and victuals towards the City, to buy or to sell again, until they shall have come to the said City, and shall have there exposed their merchandize for sale, under forfeiture of the thing bought and pain of imprisonment, from which without grievous punishment he shall not escape. And that no one shall expose his merchandize for sale, which owes custom, until the due custom shall have been levied, under forfeiture of all the wares as to which it shall happen to have been otherwise done. And that no merchant, stranger or other, shall buy or sell any wares which ought to be weighed or troned, except by our beam or (fn. 30) tron, under forfeiture of the wares aforesaid. Moreover, those debts which of their contracts or loans shall be owed unto them, they may, for their better security, cause to be enrolled in our Exchequer, upon the recognizance of those who shall stand bound to them in the said debts; so nevertheless, that no debt be enrolled upon the recognizance of any person who is not there known; or unless it be made manifest as to his person by the testimony of six or four lawful men, who shall be sufficient to answer as well for the debt as for the damages which any persons may have through such recognizance, if the same shall happen to have been falsely made under their name. And for every pound to be enrolled in the said Exchequer, one penny is to be paid to our use, for the charge of the support of those who to such enrolment must attend. And these liberties and free customs we have granted unto them, to hold to them and their heirs, so long as to us and our heirs they shall well and faithfully behave themselves; together with other their just and reasonable customs which in time of us and our predecessors heretofore they have had, as well as to form and manner of pleading as to their tenures, debts, and securities, as to all other matters whatsoever touching both them and the said City; provided however, that such customs be not contrary to justice and right laws; saving in all things the liberties of- the Church of Westminster, unto the Abbot and monks of the same place by the Charters of us and our predecessors, Kings of England, granted. But as concerning our Jews, and merchantstrangers, and other things out of our aforesaid grants touching us and our City aforesaid, we and our heirs shall provide as to us shall seem most expedient. These being witnesses, Richard King of Almaine, our brother, Edward our eldest son, Edmund our son, Roger de Mortimer, Roger de Clifford, Roger de Leyburne, Robert Walerand, Roger Agulun, Master Godfrey Giffard our Chancellor, Walter de Merton, Master John de Cheshull Archdeacon of London, John de la Lynde, William de Aette, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster, this 26th day of March, in the two-and-fiftieth year of our reign."
In the same year, the Legate departed from London for the sea coast on the fourth of the Nones  of July. In this year also, on the morrow of Saint James the Apostle [25 July], Sir Stephen de Eddeworthe was made Constable of the Tower of London, and Warden of that City. Afterwards, in the same year, on the morrow of Saint Peter's Chains [1 August], the King of Almaine departed from London, to pass over to his kingdom.
In this year, after (fn. 31) Pentecost, Master Godfrey de Saint Dunstan, at this (fn. 32) time Warden of the Bishopric of London, enjoined upon the Parish priests of the City that they should pronounce certain of the chief men of the City aforesaid, excommunicated, because they received probate of testaments as to lands and tenements devised; whereupon, the citizens obtained of his lordship the King a certain writ, the tenor of which is as follows :—
"Henry, by the grace of God etc., to Master Godfrey, Warden of the Bishopric of London, greeting. Whereas our citizens of London, time out of mind, by grant of our predecessors, Kings of England, and of ourselves, and in accordance with the ancient and approved custom, have been wont in their last will, at their own pleasure, to devise their lands and tenements within the liberty of the City aforesaid, and as to the same, to admit before them in their Hustings in London, probate of such testament; you, as we have heard, in contravention of such customs and grants, have pronounced sentence of excommunication against those admitting such probates in the City aforesaid, to the no small detriment of the same citizens and to the manifest prejudice of our crown and royal dignity; at the which we wonder very much, and are moved thereat. We do therefore command you, strictly enjoining, that, without loss of time by delay, you forthwith recall the sentence aforesaid against our said citizens by reason thereof pronounced; and this, as you would avoid our indignation, you are in no-wise to omit, that so it may no further be needed for us to be importuned thereon, and thereby have in another manner to put our hand hereto. And know that unless you shall do this, we shall so grievously take in hand you and yours, that you will feel yourselves in no slight manner visited therein. Witness, etc. Given at Wodestoke, in the month of July, in the two-and-fiftieth year of our reign."
Be it remembered, that many persons of the City of London left the City, along with their goods, that nothing could be found whereby they could be distrained to raise the proportion assessed upon them; wherefore, the citizens obtained royal letters in this form:—
"Henry, by the grace of God, etc., to all bailiffs and his faithful subjects, unto whom these present letters shall come, greeting. Whereas certain persons of our City of London have departed from the same city with their merchandize, and goods and chattels, seeking subterfuges therein, whereby they may clandestinely escape paying the tallage upon them assessed in regard of the fine of twenty thousand marks, which our citizens of the said city have made unto us for having our good will; we have granted unto the same our citizens, that the goods and chattels of the persons who have so left the city aforesaid, wheresoever the same in our realm may happen to be found, may be arrested, until they shall have fully made satisfaction as to the tallage upon them assessed. And we do therefore command you, that you cause to be seized the merchandize, goods, and chattels, of the persons aforesaid who have so left the City, wheresoever the same in our realm may happen to be found, until they shall have fully paid the tallage aforesaid, as already mentioned. In testimony whereof, we have caused these our letters patent to be made. Witness myself at Wodestok, this 14th day of July, in the two-and-fiftieth year of our reign."
In this year Sir Eadward and Sir Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester, and many other nobles of the realm of England, assumed the Cross at Norhamtone, on the Feast of Saint John the Baptist [24 June], to set out in aid of the Holy Land.