Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries. Originally published by Longmans, Green, London, 1868.
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Enactment as to marking liquid measures made by the Turners.
21 Edward III. A.D. 1347. Letter-Book F. fol. cxxxiv. (Latin.)
By reason of the manifold falsities and deceits which Geoffrey de Wychingham, the Mayor, found in his time in the wooden measures, (fn. 1) as well for wine as for ale, orders were given to the serjeant of the Chamber, on the Wednesday next before the Feast of St. Peter's Chair [22 February], in the 21st year of King Edward the Third etc., that he should summon before the said Mayor and Aldermen, on the Friday following that Feast, all the makers of such measures, called "turnours," to hear and do what for the common advantage of the people should be enjoined.
Upon which Friday came the makers of the said measures; namely, Robert le Disshere of Wodestrete, John le Turnour upon Lothebury, William Gidyheued of Estchepe, (fn. 2) William de Aylesbery of Estchepe, Thomas le Turnour upon Cornhulle, Thomas le Turnour of Sholane, and John de Selham, servant of Ralph le Disshere, of Wodestrete. And injunctions were given to them by the said Mayor and Aldermen, in future not to make any such kind of measures of any other wood than dried; and that the measure, when so made by them, must agree with the standard of the Alderman in whose Ward such measures shall be used, and by the same standard be examined. And that each of these makers should have a mark (fn. 3) of his own, and should place such mark upon his measures, on the bottom thereof without, when by the standard they should have been examined; that so, when any measure made by one of the makers aforesaid shall in any tavern or brewhouse be found to be false or defective, then as well the person by whom such measure, shall have been made, as he who shall have sold by such measure, shall incur the punishment, at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen, to be ordained for the same. And that no such maker, dwelling without the liberty of the City, should sell any measures to any one dwelling within the liberties of the City, save only to the makers of such measures within the same city dwelling; on pain of forfeiting the same.
And the said makers of the city aforesaid were ordered to bring here samples of their marks on the Thursday next after the Feast of Saints Perpetua and Felicitas [7 March], and deliver the same to Thomas de Maryns, the Chamberlain, there in the Chamber of the Guildhall to remain. Which marks at the end (fn. 3) of this Book are set forth.
Imprisonment for fraudulently enhancing the price of wheat.
21 Edward III. A.D. 1347. Letter-Book F. fol. cxxxix. (Latin.)
On the Friday next after the Feast of the Translation of St. Thomas the Martyr [7 July], in the 21st year of the reign of King Edward the Third, John de Burstalle was attached to make answer to the Commonalty of the City of London, and to John Capron, who prosecutes for the same, in a plea of contempt and trespass; and as to which the same John Capron makes plaint, that the aforesaid John de Burstalle, on the Friday next before the Feast of the Translation of St. Thomas the Martyr, in the 21st year of the reign of King Edward the Third etc., secretly, by a certain man unknown, caused to be brought into the corn-market at Grascherche, in London, two bushels of wheat belonging to him, the same John: and that he, the same John, in order to blind the people, in full market affeered (fn. 4) the said two bushels of wheat belonging to him, by offering for such bushels of his own wheat two pence more than the common price of the bushel then selling in the same market, in deceit of all the people, and to the increase of the dearness of corn: to the damage of the commonalty, to the amount of 1000l. etc. And this he offers to prove, etc.
And the said John comes, and he denies the contempt and damage etc., and says that he is not guilty of the things imputed to him etc. And the jury of the venue of Graschirche, by assent of the parties chosen, appears by Henry atte Beche butcher, and eleven others. Who say upon their oath, that the said John de Burstalle, on the Friday aforesaid, affeered two bushels of his own wheat in the corn-market at Graschirche, in London, and offered for a bushel of his own wheat 1½d. beyond the common selling price of the bushel of wheat in that market on the same day sold. Therefore it was awarded that the said John de Burstalle should be committed to prison, there to remain for forty days.
And on the same Friday it was agreed and enacted by the said Mayor, Sheriffs, and Aldermen, with the assent of the Commonalty, that in future any one should be put upon the pillory, (fn. 5) who should be convicted of such trespass and deceit.
Loss by the Lord Fitz-Walter of his asserted liberties and privileges within the City.
21 Edward III. A.D. 1347. Letter-Book F. fol. cxlii. (Latin.)
At a congregation of Geoffrey de Wychingham, Mayor, the Aldermen, and the Commonalty of the City, in the Guildhall of London, on Friday, the Feast of St. Matthew [21 September], in the 21st year of the reign of King Edward the Third etc., it was shown to the said Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty, by William de Iford, the Common Serjeant, on behalf of the Commonalty, that Sir John (fn. 6) Fitz-Walter claims to have franchises (fn. 7) in the Ward of Castle Baynard, in London, altogether repugnant to the liberties of the City, to the prejudice of the estate of our Lord the King, and of the liberties of the city aforesaid. The said William says also, that the aforesaid Sir John Fitz-Walter has now of late caused stocks to be made in the same Ward, and [has claimed] to make deliverance of men there imprisoned.
And conference being held by the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty, as to the matters aforesaid, it was agreed by the same that the said Sir John Fitz-Walter has no franchise within the liberty of the city aforesaid; nor is he in future to intermeddle with any plea in the Guildhall of London, or with any matters touching the liberties of the City.
Articles of the Heaumers. (fn. 8)
21 Edward III. A D. 1347. Letter-Book F. fol. cxlii. (Norman French.)
The points of the Articles touching the trade of helmetry, accepted by Geoffrey de Wychingham, Mayor, and the Aldermen, at the suit and request of the folks of the said trade.—
"In the first place, that no one of the said trade shall follow, or keep seld of, the trade aforesaid within the franchise of the City of London, until he shall have properly bought his freedom, according to the usages of the said city; on pain of losing his wares.
"Also,—forasmuch as heretofore some persons coming in, who are strangers, have intermeddled, and still do intermeddle, in the making of helmetry, whereas they do not know their trade; by reason whereof, many great men and others of the realm have been slain through their default, to the great scandal of the said trade; it is ordained that no person shall from henceforth intermeddle with, or work at, helmetry, if he be not proved to be a good, proper, and sufficient workman, by the Wardens of the said trade, on pain of forfeiture to the use of the Chamber.
"Also,—that three, or four, if need be, of the best workmen of the said trade shall be chosen and sworn to rule the trade well and properly, as is befitting; for the security and safety of the great men and others of the realm, and for the honour and profit of the said city, and of the workers in the said trade.
"Also,—that no apprentice shall be received by any master of the said trade for a less term than seven years; and that, without collusion or fraud; on pain of paying to the said Chamber 100 shillings.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade, or other person of the franchise, shall set any stranger to work, who is of the said trade, if he be not a proper and lawful person, and one for whom his master will answer as to his good behaviour; on pain of paying to the said Chamber 20 shillings.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall receive or set to work the apprentice or serving-man of another, until the term of his master shall have been fully ended; on pain of paying to the said Chamber 20 shillings.
"Also,—that no apprentice of the said trade, who shall be indebted to his master in any sum of money at the end of his term, shall serve from thenceforth any other person than his own master; nor shall he depart from such service, or be into the service of any other person in any way received, until he shall have fully given satisfaction for his debt to his master. And he who shall receive in any other manner the servant or apprentice of another person, shall pay to the said Chamber 20 shillings.
"Also,—that helmetry, and other arms forged with the hammer, which are brought from the parts without this land beyond sea, or from any other place, unto the said city for sale, shall not from henceforth be in any way offered for sale, privily or openly, until they have been properly assayed by the aforesaid Wardens, and marked with their mark; on pain of forfeiting such helmetry and arms to the said Chamber, as shall be so offered for sale.
"Also,—that each one of the makers aforesaid shall have his own sign and mark, and that no one of them shall counterfeit the sign or mark of another; on pain of losing his freedom, until he shall have bought the same back again, and made satisfaction to him whose sign he shall have so counterfeited; and further, he shall pay to the Chamber 40 shillings."
Wardens of the same trade chosen and sworn.—Robert de Shirwode, Richard Bridde, Thomas Canoun.
Articles of the Hatters.
21 Edward III. A.D. 1347. Letter-Book F. fol. cxlvii. (Norman French.)
The points of the Articles touching the trade of Hat-makers, accepted by Thomas Leggy, Mayor, and the Aldermen of the City of London, at the suit, and at the request, of the folks of the said trade.
"In the first place,—that six men of the most lawful and most befitting of the said trade shall be assigned and sworn to rule and watch the trade, in such manner as other trades of the said city are ruled and watched by their Wardens.
"Also,—that no one shall make or sell any manner of hats within the franchise of the city aforesaid, if he be not free of the same city; on pain of forfeiting to the Chamber the hats which he shall have made and offered for sale.
"Also,—that no one shall be made apprentice in the said trade for a less term than seven years, and that, without fraud or collusion. And he who shall receive any apprentice in any other manner, shall lose his freedom, until he shall have bought it back again.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall take any apprentice, if he be not himself a freeman of the said city.
"Also,—that the Wardens of the said trade shall make their searches for all manner of hats that are for sale within the said franchise, so often as need shall be. And that the aforesaid Wardens shall have power to take all manner of hats that they shall find defective and not befitting, and to bring them before the Mayor and Aldermen of London, that so the defaults which shall be found may be punished by their award.
"Also,—whereas some workmen in the said trade have made hats that are not befitting, in deceit of the common people, from which great scandal, shame, and loss have often arisen to the good folks of the said trade, they pray that no workman in the said trade shall do any work by night touching the same, but only in clear daylight; that so, the aforesaid Wardens may openly inspect their work. And he who shall do otherwise, and shall be convicted thereof before the Mayor and Aldermen, shall pay to the Chamber of the Guildhall, the first time 40d., the second time half a mark, and the third time he shall lose his freedom.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall be admitted to be free of the City, or to work in the said trade, or to sell any manner of hats within the said franchise, if he be not attested by the aforesaid Wardens as being a good and lawful person, and as a proper workman.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall receive the apprentice or serving-man of another, until he has fully completed his term, or his master has given him a proper dismissal; on pain of paying, for every time, to the said Chamber half a mark, down to the fourth time, when he shall lose his freedom, until he shall have bought it back again.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall receive the servingman of another to work, so long as he is in debt to his master; but he is to remain in the service of his master, until he shall have made satisfaction for the debt which he owes him. And he who shall receive such serving-man otherwise, shall pay to the said Chamber for every time 40d.; but only down to the fourth time, when he shall lose his freedom, until he shall have bought it back again.
"Also,—whereas foreign folks of divers Counties do bring to the said city divers manners of hats to sell, and carry them about the streets, as well before the houses of freemen of the said trade, as elsewhere; and thereby bar them of their dealings and of their sale, so that the freemen of the said trade in the City are greatly impoverished thereby; it is agreed that no strange person bringing hats to the said city for sale, shall sell them by retail, but only in gross, and that, to the freemen of the City; on pain of losing the same." (fn. 9)